HOME                                                                                                                                         1400's                        1500's                       1600's

1500                        SECOND ITALIAN WAR (WAR OVER NAPLES) ...   (1499-1504)

                                TURKISH-VENETIAN WAR ...   (1499-1503)

                                Charles V HRE is born (2/24)

Cabral's fleet leaves Lisbon (3/9)

                                Cabral's fleet sights land (Monte Pascoal) – European discovery of Brazil (4/22)

                                Cabral lands on Brazil coast (4/23)

                                Cabral's fleet enters Porte Seguro harbor (4/25)

                                Cabral resumes his voyage - sailing back east (5/3)

                                Cabral fleet loses four vessels off Cape of Good Hope - including Bartolomeo Diaz' (5)

                                Cabral fleet reaches Sofala (7/16)

                                Cabral fleet reaches Mozambique (7/20) 

                                Cabral fleet reaches Kilwa (7/26)

                                Cabral fleet reaches Melinde (8/2)

                                Diogo Diaz of Cabral fleet discovers Madagascar - first Europeans to set foot on the island (8/10)

                                Cabral fleet reaches Calicut (9/13)

                                Treaty of Granada - Louis XII and Ferdinand V agree to divide Naples (11/11)


                                Louis XII conquers Milan

                                Leonardo Da Vinci in Vienna

                                Discovery of Brazil by Pedro Cabral on his way to India - claims for Portugal

                                Sengoku Period in Japan ("Country at War") (-1600)

                                Gaspar Corte Real's first voyage to find a northwest passage - sponsored by Manuel I of Portugal

                                Cellini, Benvenuto                                                               1500-1571

                                Charles V                                               2/24                         1500-1558

                                de Milan, Luys                                                                     1500-1561               Musician

                                Rudolf, Christoff                                                                  1500-1545

                                Tartaglia, Nicolo                                                                   1500-1557

1501                        SECOND ITALIAN WAR (WAR OVER NAPLES) ...   (1499-1504)

                                TURKISH-VENETIAN WAR ...   (1499-1503)

                                Cabral fleet begins return journey to Portugal from India (1/16)

                                Cabral fleet reaches Portugal with 4 of 13 ships remaining (6/23)


                                France and Spain occupy Naples

                                Amerigo Vespucci explores coast of Brazil (-1502)

                                Russia and Poland at war - Russia gains Lithuania and border territories (-1503)

                                Battle of Sharur - Isma'il I defeats the Aq-Qoyunlu

                                Isma'il I captures Tabriz from the Aq-Qoyunlu - makes it his capital

                                Gaspar Corte Real's second voyage reaches Labrador or Newfoundland - expedition lost

                                Hans (John) II -                    (Sweden)                                                House of Folkung  (from Denmark)

                                Sten Sture +                         (Sweden)                                                House of Folkung  (regent)

                                John Albert -                        (Poland)                                                 Jagiellon Dynasty

                                Alexander I +                        (Poland)                                                 (-1506)   Jagiellon Dynasty

                                Shah Ismail I +                     (Safavid Persia)                                   (-1524)   1st

                                Odhecaton (first book of masses & frottole)   Josquin (Ottavinio dei Petrucci pub.)

                                Cardano, Geronimo                                                              1501-1576

1502                        Visitation (Marx Reichlich)

                                St. Jerome and the Lion in the Monastery Garden (Vittore Carpaccio)

                                Crucifixion (Lucas Cranach the Elder)

                                Donato Bramante's Tempietto in Rome

                                SECOND ITALIAN WAR (WAR OVER NAPLES) ...   (1499-1504)

                                TURKISH-VENETIAN WAR ...   (1499-1503)

                                Nicolas de Ovando sails to Hispaniola with 2,500 settlers  & 30 ships - largest fleet yet to New World (2/13)

                                Christopher Columbus leaves Spain on his Fourth and last Voyage (5/11)

                                Portuguese discover island of St Helena (5/21)


                                Margaret, daughter of Henry VII marries James IV of Scotland

                                War breaks out between France and Spain

                                Toledo Summit - Philip the Fair of Burgundy meets Ferdinand and Isabella - Philip sworn in as heir

                                Spanish conquer Naples

                                Shah Ismail (dies 1524) founds the Savafid dynasty in Persia

                                Columbus discovers Nicaragua

                                Auitzotl -                               (Aztec Empire)                                      (1486-)    Emperor

                                Moctezuma +                        (Aztec Empire)                                      (-1520)

                                Nicolas de Ovando +           (Hispaniola)                                          (-1509) Governor (Sp.)

                                Ave Maria ….virgo serena                                                Josquin des Prez

1503                        Mona Lisa (Leonardo da Vinci) begun

                                Aeneas Piccolomini setting out for Council of Basilea (Pintoricchio) (-1508)

                                Westminster chapel of Henry VII construction

                                SECOND ITALIAN WAR (WAR OVER NAPLES) ...   (1499-1504)    Fr; Vn;  v. Ml; Np;  Sp.

                                TURKISH-VENETIAN WAR -   (1499-1503)

                                Battle of Cerignola - Spanish defeat French  (4/21)

                                Battle of Garigliano - Spanish defeat French  (12/29)


                                Casa de la Contratacion authorized to control trade of Spanish Empire

                                Afonso de Albuquerque's first voyage east to India

                                Spanish commander Gonzalvo de Córdoba captures Naples

                                Sten Sture -                           (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung  (regent)

                                Svante Nilsson Sture +       (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung  (regent)

                                Alexander VI -                                                                                       Roderigo Borgia

                                Pius III +-

                                Julius II +                             (Patriarchate of Rome)                        (1503-1513)

                                Bronzino, Agnolo                                                                1503-1572

                                Ferdinand I                                                                            1503-1564               HR Emperor

                                Nostradamus, Michel                                                          1503-1566

                                Parmigianino                                                                         1503-1540

                                Duke Ercole I of Ferrara hires Josquin des Prez for his chapel choir

                                Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariae                         Josquin des Prez

                                Masses                                                                   Obrecht (Ottavinio dei Petrucci pub.)

1504                        Doubting Thomas (Cima da Conegliano)

                                David (Michelangelo)

                                SECOND ITALIAN WAR (WAR OVER NAPLES) -   (1499-1504)

                                Albuquerque returns pack to Portugal from India (7)

                                Queen Isabella dies (11/26)

                                Plague outbreak in Ferrara

                                Isabella and Ferdinand V - (Spain)

                                Philip I and Juana +            (Spain)

                                Stephen the Great -             (Moldavia)                                             Prince

                                Angad +                                 (Sikh)                                                      (-1552)    3rd Guru

                                Josquin des Prez flees plague-ridden Ferrara and returns to his homeland region of Conde south of Lille, France

                                Lippi, Filippino                                                                     1457-1504

1505                        Garden of earthly delights (Bosch)

                                Departure to Hunt of Markgraf Leopold III and agnes (Freuauf the Younger)

                                Fete Champetre (Giorgione)

                                La Tempesta (Giorgione)

                                Madonna of the meadows (Raphael)

                                Original Sin (Lucas van Leyden) (-1508)

                                The Miracle of the New-born Child (Antonio Lombardo)

                                Assumption - Tryptych (Tilman Riemenschneider) (1505-1510)

                                Madonna and Child with St. John (Michaelangelo) (1505-1506)

                                Annotations on the New Testament (Valla) (Erasmus pub.)

                                Martin Luther is almost struck by lightning while returning to the University of Erfurt - cries, "Help, Saint Anne, I will become a monk!" (7/2)

                                2nd Treaty of Blois - France keeps Milan but cedes Naples to Spain - Spain controls southern Italy (10/12)

                                Martin Luther joins the Augustinian Order (7/17)


                                Portuguese establish trading posts on the Malabar coast

                                Portuguese colonize Mozambique - occupy Mocambique

                                Portuguese under Francisco de Almeida bomb Kilwa off the coast of Tanzania

                                Molasses Reef shipwreck off Grand Turk Island

                                Ivan III the Great -               (Russia)                                                 (1461-)   Grand Duke of Moscow

                                Basil III +                              (Russia)                                                 Grand Duke of Moscow

                                Vicente Yáñez Pinzón +     (Puerto Rico)                                        (-1508)   Governor

                                Jacob Obrecht fills Josquin des Prez' position at Ferrara chapel - dies of the plague

                                Arcadelt, Jacob                                                                    1505-1568               Musician

                                Goudimel, Claude                                                                 1505-1572               Musician

                                Knox, John                                                                            1505-1572               Theologian (Presbyterian founder)

                                Obrecht, Jacob                                                                     1450-1505               Composer

1506                        Bramante's St. Peter's Church construction begins

                                Da Vinci leaves Florence

                                Christopher Columbus dies in poverty (5/20)

                                Alexander I of Poland dies at Vilna (8/8-19)

                                Philip I and Juana -              (Spain)

                                Ferdinand V +                       (Spain)

                                Philip the Handsome -         (Netherlands)                                        Count (Son of Maximilian)

                                Charles V +                            (Netherlands)                                        Count

                                Alexander I -                         (Poland)                                                 (1501-) Jagiellon Dynasty

                                Sigismund the Old +            (Poland)                                                 Jagiellon Dynasty

                                Xiaozong -                             (China)                                                   (-1488)    10th Ming Dynasty (Hongzhi Era)

                                Wuzong +                             (China)                                                   (-1522)    11th Ming Dynasty (Zhengde Era)

                                Antoine Brumel fills position at Ferrara chapel (1506-1510)

                                Columbus, Christopher                                                       1451-1506

                                Mantegna, Andrea                                                              1431-1506

1507                        The Virgin of the Rocks (Da Vinci)

                                Christ as Gardener (Cornelisz van Oostsanen)

                                Adam and Eve (Albrecht Durer)

                                La Belle Jardiniere (Raffaello Sanzio <or> Raphael)

                                The Paschal Candlestick (Riccio) (-1516)

                                Waldseemuller Map

                                Alfonso de Albuquerque lands at the island of Ormuz at the mouth of the Red Sea (10/10)


                                Martin Waldseemuller produces a world map - name “America” first used  - South America separate from Asia

                                Hispaniola census taken - 60,000 indigenous people counted - down from estimated 600,000 in 1492

                                Ottavinio dei Petrucci issues first printed lute tablature

                                Bakfark, Baliny Valentin                                                      1507-1576               Musician

1508                        The Crowning with Thorns (Bosch) (-1509)

                                Martyrdom of the ten thousand (Albrecht Durur)

                                Creation of Adam - Sistine Chapel (Michaelangelo)

                                Shrine of St. Sebaldus (Peter Vischer the Elder) (-1519)

                                WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI +   (1508-1516)                 PS; HRE; FR; SP//VN

                                Maximilian I invades Venice (2)

                                Martin Luther receives a bachelors degree in Biblical Studies (3/9)

                                League of Cambrai - Pope Julius II, HRE Maximilian, Louis XII and Ferdinand I ally against Venice (12/10)


                                War of the League of Cambrai (War of the Holy League) begins - phase of the Italian Wars(-1516)

                                Portuguese seize Oman (-1569)

                                Ponce de Leon founds first settlement on Puerto Rico called Caparra

                                Radu the Great -                  (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Palladio, Andrea                                                                   1508-1580

                                Telesio, Bernardino                                                             1508-1588

                                Abravanel, Don Isaac                                                         1437-1508

1509                        Virgin enthroned with female saints (Gerard David)

                                St. Anne Altarpiece (Quentin Metsys)

                                School of athens (Raffaello Sanzio <or> Raphael)

                                Eight Views in the Region of the Hsiao-Hsiang Rivers (Soami) (Japan)

                                Moriae encomium (Erasmus)

                                WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI ...   (1508-1516)                               HRE; FR; SP//VN

                                OTTOMAN CIVIL WAR +   (1509-1513)

                                Battle of Diu - defeat of Egyptian, Arab and Indian fleet - establishes Portuguese control of the Indian seas (2/3)

                                French army under Louis XII leaves Milan and invades Venetian territory (4/15)

                                Henry VIII accedes to the throne of England (4/22)

                                French army under Louis XII crosses Adda River at Cassano d'Adda (5/9)

                                Battle of Agnadello - French defeat Venetians (5/14)

                                Henry VIII marries Catherine of Aragon (6/3)                 -(3/30/1533)                           (6/11?)

                                Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon are crowned at Westmister Abbey (6/24)

                                Henry VII -                            (England)

                                Henry VIII +                         (England)                                               (-1547)

                                Nicolas de Ovando -             (Hispaniola)                                          (1502-) Governor (Sp.)

                                Diego Colon +                      (Hispaniola)                                          "Governor of the Indies"     (1508?)

                                Ponce de Leon +                   (Puerto Rico)                                        (-1512)   Governor                              

                                Calvin, John                                                                          1509-1564

                                Servet                                                                                     1509-1553

1510                        Punishment of the Gamblers (andrea del sarto)

                                St. John on Patmos (Hieronymus Jerome van Aeken Bosch)

                                Portrait of a Man (Tiziano Vecelli <or> Titian)

                                Meleager (antico)

                                The Holy Jacob (Tilman Riemenschneider)

                                The Life of John Picus, Earl of Mirandula (Thomas More)

                                Las Sergas de Esplandián (Garci Rodriguez de Montalvo)

                                WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI ...   (1508-1516)

                                OTTOMAN CIVIL WAR ...   (1509-1513)

                                Alfonso de Albuquerque loses to the Kingdom of Cochin (1)

                                Alfonso de Albuquerque destroys Calicut (1/4)

                                Portugese under Alfonso de Albuquerque capture Goa (3)

                                Portugese under Alfonso de Albuquerque capture Goa a second time (11/25)                        (-1961)


                                League of Cambai collapses

                                Pope Julius and Venice form Holy League to drive Louis XII out of Italy

                                Nombre de Dios founded on Isthmus of Panama

                                Darien founded by Balboa

                                Ferrara chapel choir closes

                                Agricola, Mikael                                                                   1510-1557

                                Bourgeois, Louis                                                                  1510-1561

                                Cabezon, Antonio de                                                          1510-1566               Musician

                                de Henestrosa, Luis Venegas                                            1510-1570               Musician

                                Guami, Giuseppe                                                                  1510-1586               Musician

                                Manchicourt, Pierre de                                                        1510-1564               Musician

                                Recorde, Robert                                                                   1510-1603

                                Serton, Pierre (sp?)                                                              1510-1572               Musician

                                Tallis, Thomas                                                                      1510-1585               Composer (1505)

                                Botticelli, Sandro                                                                  1445-1510

                                Giorgione                                                                               1478-1510

1511                        The Lybyan Sibyl - Sistine Chapel Ceiling (Michelangelo) (-1512)

                                Sarmingstein on the Danube (Altdorfer)

                                The Liberation of St. Peter (Raffaello Sanzio <or> Raphael)(-1514)

                                Peter Martyr's Map of 1511

                                The Praise of Folly (Erasmus)

                                WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI ...   (1508-1516)

                                OTTOMAN CIVIL WAR ...   (1509-1513)

                                Diego Colon, son of Christopher Columbus is named Viceroy of the Indies (5)

                                Portuguese under Alfonso de Albuquerque conquer Sultanate of  Malacca (8/24)

                                Portuguese diplomatic mission arrives at Ayutthaya Kingdom - first Europeans to do so?

                                Musica getutscht                                                                 Virdung

                                Vasari, Giorgio                                                                      1511-1571

                                Commines, Philippe de                                                        1447-1511

                                Tinctoris, Johannes                                                             1435-1511               Music Theorist

1512                        Death of Adonis (Sebastiano del Piombo)

                                Tomb of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York (Pietro Torrigiano) (-1518)

                                Commentarius in Lib. IV Sententiarum Petri Lombardi (Adrian VI)

                                WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI ...   (1508-1516)

                                OTTOMAN CIVIL WAR ...   (1509-1513)

                                Amerigo Vespucci dies (2/22)


                                Castile and Aragon acquire Spanish Navarre

                                Battle of Ravenna

                                Russia and Poland at war (-1522)

                                Laws of Burgos forbid Spanish enslavement of Native Americans

                                Martin Luther appointed professor of Holy Scriptures at the University of Wittenberg

                                Catalina -                              (Navarre)                                               and Don John of Aragon

                                Svante Nilsson Sture -       (Sweden)                                                House of Folkung  (regent)

                                Sten Sture the Younger +  (Sweden)                                                House of Folkung  (regent)

                                Neagoe Basarab +               (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Bayezid II -                            (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Selim I +                                (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Srey Sukonthor -                (Cambodia)                                            (1486-)

                                Kan +                                     (Cambodia)                                            (-1515)

                                Liederbuch                                                           Oeglin

                                Abbati, Niccolo dell’                                                           1512-1571

                                Mercator, Gerardus                                                              1512-1594               Cartographer

                                Vespucci, Amerigo                                                              1452-1512

1513                        Sistine Madonna (Raffaello Sanzio <or> Raphael)

                                Isenheim Altarpiece (Grunewald)

                                Piri Reis Map

                                Il Principe (Machiavelli) (1514)

                                WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI ...   (1508-1516)

                                OTTOMAN CIVIL WAR -   (1509-1513)

                                Pope Julius II dies Rome (2/21)

                                Alfonso de Albuquerque attempts to capture Aden but fails

                                Machiavelli is released from jail in Florence (3/6)

                                Leo X elected new pope (3/11)

                                Ponce de Leon sights island off coast of Florida - does not land (3/27)                     (Easter Sunday)

                                Peace of Orthez - Ferdinand I makes a secret year's truce with Louis XII (4/1)

                                Ponce de Leon lands in northeast Florida (4/2)

                                Treaty of Blois - between Louis XII and Republic of Venice (5/14)

                                Battle of Novara - Louis XII and the French driven out of Milan and Italy (6/6)

                                Henry VIII's army begins blockade (siege) of Thournehem Fortress at Artois (6/17)

                                Christian II accedes to the throne of Denmark and Norway (7/22)

                                Battle of the Spurs - (Guinegate, France)  Henry VIII defeats French force under Marshal La Palice (8/17)

                                Scottish force of 60000 invades England under James IV (8/22)

                                Henry VIII captures Therouanne (8/22)

                                Balboa sails from Santa Maria with 190 Spaniards, some native guides and dogs to locate the Pacific (9/1)

                                Balboa allies with cacique of Careta and reinforces with 1000 of his men, proceed inland (9/6)

                                Battle of Flodden Field (Branxton) - James IV of Scotland (ally of France) killed in Northumbria (9/9)

                                Balboa, after defeating Pona, enters the dense jungle (9/20)

                                Battle of Cuarecua - Balboas army defeats and kills cacique Tarecha (9/24)

                                Balboa sights South Sea (South Pacific) from peak of mountains by the Chucunaque River (9/25)

                                Balboa arrives at Sam Miguel Bay and knee deep in water claims sea and lands for Spain (9/29)

                                Battle of La Motta - Spanish under Ramon de Cardena defeat Venetians (10/7)

                                Henry VIII sails back to England from Calais - accompanied by the Mary Rose (10/21)


                                Portuguese capture city of Azemmour in Morocco

                                Henry VIII takes Tournai - makes Cardinal Wolsey bishop of Tournai

                                Ponce de Leon discovers and claims Florida for Spain

                                First sighting of the Pacific by Vasco Nunez de Balboa; crosses Panama isthmus

                                Portuguese under Jorge Alvares reach Canton, China and Hong Kong

                                Hans -                                    (Denmark)(Norway)                             John

                                Christian II +                         (Denmark)(Norway)                             (-1523)

                                James IV -                              (Scotland)                                              King

                                James V +                              (Scotland)                                              King

                                Chamaraja Wodeyar II -      (Mysore)                                               Hiriya

                                Chamaraja Wodeyar III +    (Mysore)                                               Hiriya Bettada

                                Julius II -                                (Patriarchate of Rome)                       (1503-1513)                                                                                    

                                Leo X +                                    (Patriarchate of Rome)                       (1513-1521)             Giovanni de Medici

                                Ferrabosco, Domenica Maria                                             1513-1574               Composer (Bologna, Italy)

1514                        Feast of the Gods (Giovanni Bellini)               

                                Landscape with St. Jerome (Joachim Patenier)

                                Nativity of the Virgin (Andrea del Sarto)

                                St. Jerome in His Study (Albrecht Durer)

                                Crucifixion (Piero Francesco Sacchi)

                                Banker and his Wife (Quentin Metsys)

                                Sacred and Profane love (Titian)

                                De Asse et Partibus  (Guillaume Bude)

                                WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI ...   (1508-1516)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR +   (1514-1516)

                                Balboa returns to Santa Maria on the eastern coast of Panama (1/19)

                                Pedro Arias de Avila's Hidalgo immigrants prepare to sail to Panama - largest fleet yet to the New world (4/11)

                                Battle of Caldiran - Sunni Ottomans (under Selim I) defeat Shia Safavids under Shah Isma'il I  (8/23)


                                Treaty between England and France - England holds the balance of power between France and the Hapsburgs

                                Wolsey made Bishop of Lincoln and then Archbishop of York

                                Mary, sister of Henry VIII marries Louis XII

                                War between Turkey and Persia

                                Coming of the Westerners to China

                                Barolome de las Casas petitions Spanish crown on behalf of Native Americans

                                Ponce de Leon returns to Spain

                                Rhaticus                                                                                                1514-1576

                                Vesalius, Andreas                                                                1514-1564

                                Anne of Brittany                                                                  1477-1514               Queen of France

                                Bramante                                                                               1444-1514

                                Pacioli, Luca                                                                          1445-1514

1515                        Villa Farnesina Frescoes, Rome (Baldassare Peruzzi)

                                The Miraculous Draught of Fishes (Raphael) (-1516)

                                Beheading of St. John the Baptist (Deutsch) (-1520)

                                Isenheim Altarpiece (Mathis Gothardt-Neithardt)

                                Death of the Virgin (Joos Van Cleeve)

                                WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI ...   (1508-1516)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1514-1516)

                                Louis XII King of France dies (1/1)

                                Battle of Marignano - French defeat the Swiss and regain Milan (9/13-14)

                                Alfonso de Albuquerque dies as his ship Flor de Rosa  reaches Goa (12/16)

                                Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, becomes Lord Chancellor of England and Cardinal

                                Treaty between Emperor Maximilian I and Uladislaus II (Hungary/Bohemia)

                                Ponce de Leon expedition to conquer the Caribs of Guadalupe

                                Thomas Wolsey +               (England)                                               (-1529)    Lord Chancellor

                                Louis XII -                             (France)                                                 (1498-)

                                Francis I +                             (France)                                                 (-1547)    King

                                Kan +                                     (Cambodia)                                            (1512-)

                                Afonso de Albuquerque                                                    1453-1515               Explorer (Portugal)

1516                        Portrait of the painter michael wolgemut(Albrecht Durer)

                                Madonna with the Carnation (Albrecht Durer)

                                Neptune and Amphitrite (Jan Gossaert)

                                Agony in the Garden (Hans Leonhard Schaufelein)

                                Sistine Madonna (Raffaello Sanzio <or> Raphael)

                                Orlando Furioso (Ariosto)

                                Utopia (More) (1st Eng. trans. 1551)

                                On the Immortality of the Soul (Pietro Pomponazzi)

                                First edition of New Testament in Greek

                                WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI -   (1508-1516)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR -   (1514-1516)

                                OTTOMAN-MAMLUK WAR +   (1516-1517)

                                Mary I of England is born (2/18)

                                Ferdinand II of Aragon (V of Castile and Leon) dies at Madrigalejo at 63 - Charles I succeeds (2/23)

                                Treaty of Noyon - between France and Spain - French gains Milan; Spain gains Naples (8)

                                Battle of Marjdabik - Selim defeats Egyptians north of Aleppo (8/24)

                                Ottomans under Selim enter Damascus (9/26)


                                Establishment of ghetto in Venice

                                Concordat of Bologna - Between Francis I and Pope Leo X

                                War between Ottoman Empire and Egypt (-1517)

                                Andreas Corsalis travels to India and China

                                Cordoba's expedition to Nicaragua and Honduras (accompanied by a young Hernan de Soto)

                                Ferdinand II -                        (Aragon)                                                same as Spain?

                                Ferdinand V -                       (Spain)                                                   regent

                                Cardinal Cisneros +           (Spain)                                                   regent

                                Charles I +                            (Spain)                                                   King (Charles V HRE)

                                Ladislas II -                           (Bohemia)(Hungary)                           (1471-)   Luxemburg Dynasty (Vladislav)

                                Louis II +                               (Bohemia)(Hungary)                           (-1526)   Luxemburg Dynasty

                                Rore, Cipriano de                                                                 1516-1565               Musician

                                Bellini, Giovanni                                                                   1430-1516

                                Bosch, Heironymus (Jerome)                                             1450-1516

1517                        Madonna of the Harpies (andrea del sarto)

                                Apparition of the Virgin to St. Bernard (Fra Bartolommeo)

                                Transfiguration (Raffaello Sanzio <or> Raphael) (-1520)

                                Madonna and Child Enthroned w/ John and Francis (Andrea del Sarto)

                                Assumption of the Virgin (Pedro Machuca)

                                Antwerp Mannerists active (-1525)

                                WAR OF URBINO +- (1517)              Rival Factions della Rovere vs. Medici

                                OTTOMAN-MAMLUK WAR -   (1516-1517)

                                Cordoba's fleet of 3 ships and 110 men depart from Santiago toward Yucatan (2/8)

                                Bernal Diaz in Mexico - Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba leader (3/4)

                                Luther’s nails his 95 Theses to church door at Wittenberg against the sale of indulgences (10/31)


                                Ottomans capture Cairo, Egypt - end of Mameluke Empire

                                Mecca falls to Ottomans

                                Ottoman Empire destroys the Mamluks and conquer Syria and Egypt

                                Battle of Catoche (Mexico)

                                Battle of Champoton (Mexicio)

                                Cardinal Cisneros -            (Spain)                                                   regent

                                Stefenita +                            (Moldavia)                                             Prince

                                Sikandar Lodi -                    (Lodi Dynasty)

                                Ibrahim Lodi +                     (Lodi Dynasty)

                                Zarlino, Gioseffo                                                                  1517-1590               Musician

                                Bartolommeo, Fra                                                 1472-1517

                                Isaac, Heinrich                                                                      1450-1517

1518                        St. John on Patmos (Hans Burgkmair the Elder)

                                Stigmatization of St. Catherine (Beccafumi)

                                Girl in Her Finery (Urs Graf)

                                Joseph in Egypt (Pontormo)

                                Christ in the House of Simon (Master of 1518) (Antwerp Mannerist)

                                Annunciation (Veit Stoss)

                                Bernal Diaz's 2nd expedition to Yucatan embarks (Juan de Grijalva leader) (4/8)

                                Juan de Grijalva expedition reaches Tabasco (5/1)

                                Lorenzo II Medici marries Madeleine de la Tour d’Auvergne in the Chateau d’Amboise (5/2)


                                Treaty of London - Wolsey administers treaty of universal peace embracing all the principal European states – 20 nations

                                Thomas More enters the service of Henry VIII

                                Zwingli called to be minister at Zurich

                                Battle of Champoton II (Mexicio)

                                Mahmud Shah -                    (Bahmani Dynasty)

                                Ahmad Shah IV +                 (Bahmani Dynasty)

                                Palladio, Andrea (di Pietro)                                                1518-1590               Architect (Italy)

                                Tintoretto, Jacopo Robusti                                                1518-1594               Painter

                                Matarazzo, Francesco                                                         1443-1518               Historian/Humanist

                                La Rue, Pierre de                                                                  1460-1518               Musician

1519                        Fountain of Life (Hans Holbein the Elder)

                                Flagellation (Jorg Ratgeb)

                                SPANISH CONQUEST OF AZTEC EMPIRE +   (1519-1521)

                                Ulrich Zwingli leads Reformation in Switzerland – delivers his first sermon in Zurich – reads Matthew (1/1)

Maximilian I HRE dies (1/12)

                                Cortés' fleet lands at Vera Cruz (San Juan de Ulua) –3rd Spanish expedition to the mainland – (3/4)Holy Thursday 4/21?

                                Leonardo da Vinci dies at the age of 67 (5/2)

                                Charles I of Spain is elected Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V (6/28)

                                Ferdinand Magellan begins global voyage from Seville - completed by Sebastian del Cano (-1522)    (8/10)

                                Cortes begins to move inland from the coast at Vera Cruz (8/16)

                                Cortes' army battles the Tlaxcalans (9/2)

                                Cortes' army arrives at Tenochtitlan (11/8)

                                Cortes is shown the high interior sacrificial altar - Moctezuma II angered by his offending the gods (11/10)

                                Cortes' generals advise capturing Moctezuma II to for fear of being trapped and killed in Tenochtitlan (11/14)

                                Moctezuma is made prisoner of Cortés (11/15)

                                Aztec captains who had attacked the Spanish on the coast at Almería are burned to death by Cortés (11/30)


                                Charles V in Flanders? (cited in Bernal Diaz)

                                Pedrarias Dávila founds Panama City, abandoning Darien

                                Maximilian -                           (Holy Roman Empire)(Austria)          (1493-1519)    Archduke House of Leopold (Hapsburg)

                                Charles V +                            (Austria)                                                Archduke House of Leopold

                                Ferdinand +                            (Austria)                                                Archduke House of Leopold

                                Arbeau, Thoinot                                                                  1519-1595               Musician (3/17)

                                Da Vinci, Leonardo                              (5/2)                        1452-1519

                                Maximilian I                                                                           1459-1519               Emperor (Germany)

1520                        Portrait of a Young Man (Jan Mostaert)

                                Medici Tombs (Michelangelo)

                                Medici Chapel - San Lorenzo, Florence (Michelangelo) (-1534)

                                Open Letter to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (Martin Luther)

                                The Babylonian Captivity of the Church (Martin Luther)

                                On Christian Liberty (Martin Luther)

                                SPANISH CONQUEST OF AZTEC EMPIRE ...   (1519-1521)

                                CASTILIAN WAR OF THE COMMUNITIES +   (1520-1522)

                                Raphael the painter dies at 37 (4/6)                   (Good Friday)

                                Narvaez fleet arrives at Vera Cruz to arrest Cortés (4/23)

                                Hernan Cortes receives word that Spanish fleet under Narvaez has arrived on Mexican coast to arrest him (6)

                                Field of Cloth of Gold - Francis I meets Henry VIII but fails to gain his support against Charles V(6/7)

                                Moctezuma gives a speech to his people but is stoned and jeered (6/25)

                                Moctezuma dies from wounds sustained while giving a speech at the behest of Cortes (6/30)

                                La Noche Triste - Cortes' army wiped out trying to escape Tenochtitlan (7/1)

                                Charles V crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Palatine Chapel, Aachen  (10/28)

                                Stockholm Bloodbath begins (11/4) 

                                Stockholm Bloodbath culminates with the execution of 100 anti-unionists (Sture Party) (11/8)

                                Stockholm Bloodbath ends (11/10)


                                Secret treaty between Henry VIII and Charles V

                                Battle of Stockholm - Christian II of Denmark/Norway takes Sweden by force - massacre of Swedish nobles

                                Turkish power at its height under Suleiman I

                                Portugese settle on Timor

                                Portuguese mission to Ethiopia (-1526)

                                Charles V +                          (Holy Roman Empire) (Spain)           House of Austria (Hpsbrg)

                                Sten Sture the Younger -   (Sweden)                                                House of Folkung  (regent)

                                Selim I -                                 (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Suleiman I +                         (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan (the Magnificent (Kanuni) (1520-1566)

                                Moctezuma -                         (Aztec Empire)                                     (1502-1520)

                                Rennaissance madrigal begins in Italy

                                Gabrieli, Andrea                                                                   1520-1585               Composer (b. 1510;1533) (d. 1611?)

                                Raphael                                                                                  1483-1520

1521                        Descent from the Cross (Fiorentino)

                                St. Jerome in Meditation (Durer)

                                The Ruin of the Children of Job (Bernard van Orley)

                                Lamentation (Wolfgang Huber)

                                Quaestiones quodlibeticae (Adrian VI)

                                Assertion of the Seven Sacraments (Henry VIII)

                                SPANISH CONQUEST OF AZTEC EMPIRE -   (1519-1521)

                                CASTILIAN WAR OF THE COMMUNITIES ...   (1520-1522)

                                ITALIAN WAR OF 1521 (FOUR YEAR'S WAR) +   (1521-1525)

                                SWEDISH WAR OF LIBERATION +   (1521-1523)

                                OTTOMAN-HUNGARIAN WAR +   (1521-1526)

                                Martin Luther officially excommunicated by Pope Leo X by the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem (1/3)

Diet of Worms convenes - Charles V convenes (1/28)

Luther arrives at the Diet at Worms (4/16)  

                                Battle of Mactan - Lapu Lapu - Muslim chieftan Lapu Lapu et al kill Ferdinand Magellan (4/27)

                                Edict of Worms - Martin Luther is condemned as a heretic and is excommunicated (5/25)

                                Ponce de Leon dies in Cuba (7)

                                Battle of Tenochtitlan (8/8)

                                Cortés enters Tenochtitlan once again and officially conquers it (8/13)

                                Ottomans under Sulieman capture Belgrade (8/29)


                                Thomas More knighted

                                Charles V gives his brother Ferdinand I the Austrian duchies of the Hapsburgs

                                Ferdinand I marries Anna, sister of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia, in fulfillment of 1515 treaty

                                Henry VIII receives title "Defender of the Faith" from Pope Leo X for his opposition to Luther

                                Henry VIII executes Duke of Buckingham (descendant of Edward III) on charge of high treason

                                Charles V captures Tournai - becomes part of Spanish Netherlands

                                France and Spain at war over rival claims to Italy (-1529)

                                Siege of Pamplona - St. Ignatius of Loyola wounded - gives up being a soldier after convalescence

                                Gustav Vasa leads successful revolution in Stockholm against Christian II - Kalmar Union ends (Sw-Dn)

                                Spanish clergy book burnings - Mayan codices

                                Hernan Cortes conquers Tenochtitlan

                                Ponce de Leon's last expedition to southwest Florida - attacked by Calusa - wounded by poison arrow

                                Gustavus Eriksson +          (Sweden)                                                House of Vasa (regent)

                                Ferdinand I +                        (Austria)                                               Archduke (brother of  Charles V) (-1564)

                                Neagoe Basarab -                (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Radu of Afumati +               (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Ahmad Shah IV -                 (Bahmani Dynasty)

                                Ala ud din Shah +                (Bahmani Dynasty)

                                Emanuel I -                            (Portugal)                                             House of Aviz

                                John III +                               (Portugal)                                             House of Aviz

                                Leo X -                                    (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (1513-1521)                                    Giovanni de Medici

                                Josquin dies at Conde (8/27)

                                de Monte, Philippe                                                              1521-1603               Musician

                                Cosimo, Piero di                                                                   1462-1521

                                Dez Prez, Josquin                                                                 1440-1521               Composer

                                Magellan, Ferdinand                                                           1480-1521

1522                        CASTILIAN WAR OF THE COMMUNITIES -   (1520-1522)

                                ITALIAN WAR OF 1521 (FOUR YEAR'S WAR) ...   (1521-1525)

                                SWEDISH WAR OF LIBERATION ...   (1521-1523)

                                OTTOMAN HUNGARIAN WAR ...   (1521-1526)

                                OTTOMAN CONQUEST OF RHODES +-   (1522)

                                THE KNIGHT'S WAR +-   (1522)

                                Battle of Bicocca - Charles V defeats the French and drives them out of Milan (4/27)

                                First circumnavigation of the Earth complete - Juan Sebastian Elcano from Magellan's expedition returns to Seville -  (6/9)

                                Rhodes and the Hospitallers falls to Ottoman Turks (10/24)


                                Wolsey allies briefly with Charles V (ill-fated)

                                Tax reform in China

                                Charles -                               (Austria)                                                Archduke House of Leopold

                                Ala ud din Shah -                 (Bahmani Dynasty)

                                Waliullah Shah +                (Bahmani Dynasty)

                                Wuzong -                              (China)                                                   (1506-1522)            11th Ming Dynasty (Zhengde Era)

                                Shizong +                              (China)                                                   (1522-1567)            12th Ming Dynasty (Jiajing Era)

                                Adrian VI +                           (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (1522-1523)

                                Gafori, Franchino                                                                 1451-1522               Musician

1523                        Venus and Cupid (Palma Vecchio) (-1524)

                                Portrait of Erasmus of Rotterdam (Holbein)

                                Witches (Grien)

                                Painting in copy of Asar's Mihr-u Mushtari (Bukhara School)

                                ITALIAN WAR OF 1521 (FOUR YEAR'S WAR) ...   (1521-1525)

                                SWEDISH WAR OF LIBERATION -   (1521-1523)

                                OTTOMAN HUNGARIAN WAR ...   (1521-1526)

                                Gustavus Vasa elected King of Sweden - leads revolt against Danish rulers (6/6)

                                Adrian VI is sworn in as 219th  pope (11/19)


                                Three Spanish caravels transporting Aztec treasure back to Spain looted by French corsairs (Jean Florin)

                                Martin Luther translates New Testament into German

                                Chinese capture two Western ships with 2 Portugese breech-loading culverins

                                Christian II -                        (Denmark)(Norway)

                                Frederik I +                          (Denmark)(Norway)                            (-1533)

                                Gustavus Eriksson -           (Sweden)                                                House of Vasa (regent)

                                Gustavus I +                          (Sweden)                                                House of Vasa                     

                                Adrian VI -                           (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (1522-1523)

                                Clement VII +                      (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (1523-1534)

                                David, Gerard                                                                        1460-1523

                                Perugino                                                                                1446-1523

                                Signorelli, Luca                                                                     1445-1523

1524                        The Martyrdom of St. Flacidus and St Flavia (Correggio) (-1526)

                                ITALIAN WAR OF 1521 (FOUR YEAR'S WAR) ...   (1521-1525)

                                OTTOMAN HUNGARIAN WAR ...   (1521-1526)

                                GREAT PEASANTS' REVOLT + (German Peasants' War) +   (1524-1525)

                                Verrazano lands near Cape Fear, North Carolina (3/1)

                                Battle of Sesia – Spanish under Charles de Lannoy defeat French – they are forced to retreat from Italy (4/30)

                                Battle of Acajutla –Pedro Alvarado and his conquistadors defeat a battalion of Pipile people of western El Salvador (6/8)

                                French Siege of Pavia under Francis I begins (10/28)

                                Cordoba founds Granada, Nicaragua(12/8)


France invades Italy and recaptures Milan

Marseilles is beseiged by HRE forces under the Duke of Bourbon Charles III

                                Peasant revolt in Germany (1524-1525)

                                Erasmus defends the freedom of the will against Luther

                                Council of the Indies established by Spain

                                Giovanni da Verrazano French expedition from Carolina to Nova Scotia

                                Waliullah Shah -                   (Bahmani Dynasty)

                                Kalimullah Shah +                (Bahmani Dynasty)

                                Shah Ismail I -                       (Safavid Persia)                                    (1501-) 1st (1523)

                                Tahmasp I +                          (Safavid Persia)                                    (-1576) 2nd (1523)

                                Geystliche Gesangk Buchleyn                           Jahann Walter

                                Erastus, Thomas                                                                  1524-1583               Theologian/Physician (Swiss)

                                Gama, Vasco Da                                                                   1469-1524

                                Patinir, Joachim                                                                    1485-1524

                                Pomponatius                                                                         1462-1524

1525                        St. Michael Quelling the Rebel Angels (Beccafumi)

                                Deposition (Titian)

                                Madonna of Burgomaster Meyer (Hans Holbein the Younger)

                                Mars and Venus (Conrad Meit)

                                Tyndale's Bible (William Tyndale) first English translation from Greek New Testament

                                ITALIAN WAR OF 1521 (FOUR YEAR'S WAR) -   (1521-1525)

                                OTTOMAN HUNGARIAN WAR ...   (1521-1526)

                                GREAT PEASANTS' REVOLT - (German Peasants' War) +   (1524-1525)

                                Battle of Pavia - Francis I is captured in decisive battle of the Italian War of 1521 (Four Years War) (2/24)

                                Battle of Frankenhausen - Peasants defeated by Swabian League - end of the revolutionary phase of the Reformation (5/15)


                                Hohenzollerns rule Prussia (-1918)

                                Beginning of Anabaptism - Conrad Grebel baptizes Georg Blaurock -

                                The Reformation established in Zurich

                                Bruegel the Elder, Pieter                                                      1525-1569               Painter

                                Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigida                                         1525-1594               Composer

                                Boccaccino, Boccaccio                                                       1465-1525               Painter

1526                        Erasmus of Rotterdam (engraving) (Albrecht Durer)

                                Philipp Melanchthon (engraving) (Albrecht Durer)

                                Entombment (Titian) (-1532)

                                Assumption of the Virgin - Parma Cathedral (Antonio Correggio) (-1530)

                                The Last Judgement (Lucas van Leyden)

                                Deposition (Jacopo Pontormo)

                                Hans Holbein first travels to England (1526-1528)

                                Deudsche Messe (Martin Luther)

                                La Natural hystoria de las Indias (Oviedo)

                                OTTOMAN HUNGARIAN WAR -   (1521-1526)

                                WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF COGNAC +   (1526-1530)

                                HUNGARIAN CIVIL WAR +   (1526-1528)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR +   (1526-1555)

                                Treaty of Madrid - Francis I to give up claims to Milan, Genoa, and Naples to Charles V (1/14)

                                First Battle of Panipat - Babur defeats last Delhi sultan - Ibrahim Lodhi - Mughal (Mogul) Empire established (4/21)

                                League of Cognac - Francis I, Clement VII, Francesco Sforza of Milan, Venice & Florence vs. Charles V (5/22)

                                Milan is captured by the Spanish (7/24)

                                Battle of Mohacs - Ottomans defeat  Hungarians - defeat and kill Louis II of Bohemia and Hungary (8/29)


                                Henry VIII orders the burning of Tyndale's Bible - persecution only increased it's circulation

                                Francis I fails to honor Treaty of Madrid

                                Hungary divides between Turkey and Austria

                                Ferdinand of Austria, brother of Charles V succeeds to Bohemian throne

                                Dispute over Hungarian succession between Ottoman Empire and Ferdinand of Austria (-1528)

                                Turkey controls Croatia     

                                Pedrarias Dávila backs out of agreement with Pizarro and Diego de Almagro

                                Pedro de los Rios succeeds Pedrarias Dávila as Governor of Panama

                                War of the League of Cognac (-1530)

                                Louis II -                                (Bohemia)(Hungary)                            Luxemburg Dynasty King

                                Ferdinand I +                        (Bohemia)(Hungary)                            (-1564)    Lux. Dynasty (of Austria) br. Charles V

                                John Zapolya +                    (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Ibrahim Lodi -                      (Lodi Dynasty)                                      North Indian Delhi Sultanate

                                Babur +                                 (Mughal Empire)                 (1526-1530)         Zahir al din Muhammed

1527                        Francois I (Clouet)

                                VIsion of st. Jerome (Parmigianino)

                                WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF COGNAC ...   (1526-1530)                   HRE vs Fr, Milan, Venice, Florence, Papacy

                                HUNGARIAN CIVIL WAR ...   (1526-1528)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                WAR OF THE TWO BROTHERS (INCA CIVIL WAR) +   (1527-1532)

                                The Schleitheim Confession - first Anabaptist doctrinal statement (2/24)

                                Sack of Rome - by Spaniard and German imperial troops under Charles V - Pope Clement VII is captured (5/6)

                                Philip II is born (5/21)

                                Pedrarias Dávila becomes governor of Nicaragua (7/1)


                                Province of Nicaragua created - Castillo de Oro province susequently reduced

                                Panfilo de Narvaez expedition leaves Spain early in the year

                                Stefenita -                              (Moldavia)                                            Prince

                                Petru Rares +                        (Moldavia)                                            Prince 

                                Kalimullah Shah -                 (Bahmani Dynasty)

                                Brevarium noviomense                                       Attaingnant (1st publication)

                                Dee, John                                                                              1527-1608               Math/Astrologer(London) (7/13)

                                Philip II                                                                                  1527-1598               King of Spain

                                Ortelius, Abraham                                                                1527-1598               Cartographer (Flanders)     

                                Machiavelli, Niccolo                                                            1469-1527

1528                        The Artist's Family (Hans Holbein the Younger)

                                The Courtier (Castiglione)

                                Polemical Tracts against the Lutherans (Thomas More) (-1533)

                                WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF COGNAC ...   (1526-1530)

                                HUNGARIAN CIVIL WAR ...   (1526-1528)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                WAR OF THE TWO BROTHERS (INCA CIVIL WAR) ...   (1527-1532)

                                OTTOMAN-HAPSBURG WAR IN HUNGARY +   (1528-1533)

                                Gustav I is crowned King of Sweden (1/12)

                                Narvaez expedition lands in Florida (4/12)

                                Battle of Landriano - French army under Marshal St. Pol is defeated in Italy (6/19)

                                Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca shipwrecked near Tampa Bay & Galveston in Narvaez expedition (11/6)


                                Ferdinand of Austria succeeds to the Hungarian throne

                                Basel and Berne accept Reformation

                                Capuchin Order founded

                                Hernan Cortes sails to Spain to appeal to Charles V – his first time back to Spain since 1519

                                Hernan de Soto leads his own expedition to find passage between Atlantic and Pacific vis a vis Yucatan

                                Banez, Dominic                                                                     1528-1604

                                de Bry, Theodorus                                                               1528-1598               Illustrator

                                Fonseca                                                                                 1528-1597               Philosopher/Theologian (Portugal)

                                Veronese, Paolo Caliari                                                       1528-1588               Painter (Verona)

                                Durer, Albrecht                                                                    1471-1528

                                Ferrara                                                                                    1474-1528

                                Grunewald, Matthias                                                           1470-1528

                                Verrazano, Giovanni da                                                       1485-1528

1529                        Martin Luther (Cranach the Elder)

                                Battle of Issus (Albrecht Altdorfer)

                                Mary Magdalene (Jan van Scorel)

                                WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF COGNAC ...   (1526-1530)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                WAR OF THE TWO BROTHERS (INCA CIVIL WAR) ...   (1527-1532)

                                OTTOMAN-HAPSBURG WAR IN HUNGARY ...   (1528-1533)

                                Treaty of Zaragoza (Spain/Portugal) – Extends Tordesilla meridian into other hemisphere Phillipines/Malucca (Ptg) (4/22)

                                Sulieman and his army leave Istanbul toward Vienna (5/10)

                                Peace of Cambrai - between France and Spain - France renounces claims to Italy (8/5)

                                First Ottoman Seige of Vienna – unsuccessful   (9/27-10/14)

                                Colloquy of Marburg (10/1-4)

                                Fall of Wolsey -loses the chancellorship and all his honors and privileges except the archbishopric  (10)

                                Fall of Wolsey - Henry VIII dismisses him for failing to obtain Pope's consent to divorce Catherine (10)


                                English Reformation (-1539)

                                Clement VII summons Wolsey/Campeggio commission to Rome

                                Rise of Thomas Cromwell

                                Sir Thomas More appointed Lord Chancellor

                                Henry VIII summons the "Reformation Parliament" and begins to cut ties with the Church of Rome (-1536)

                                Treaty of Barcelona - between Pope Clement VII and Charles V

                                Ottomans acquire Algerian bases

                                Nuno de Guzman's expedition through Michoacán, Nayarit, Jalisco, Durango, Sinaloa, and Zacatecas

                                Thomas Wolsey -                                (England)                                               (1515-)    Lord Chancellor

                                Thomas More +                    (England)                                               (-1532)    Lord Chancellor

                                Radu of Afumati -                (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                Castiglione, Baldassare                       2/2                           1478-1529

1530                        The Deipara Virgin with Prophets and Sibyls (Ambrosius Benson)

                                Two Tax Gatherers (Marinus van Reymerswaele)

                                The Gods on Mount Olympus and the Fall of the Giants (Giulio Romano) (-1532)

                                De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelesticum (Copernicus)

                                WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF COGNAC -   (1526-1530)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                OTTOMAN-HAPSBURG WAR IN HUNGARY ...   (1528-1533)

                                WAR OF THE TWO BROTHERS (INCA CIVIL WAR) ...   (1527-1532)

                                Diet of Augsburg - German Protestant princes declare faith in the Augsburg Confession (6/25)

                                Wolsey arrested on false charges of treason - dies at Leicester on his way to London (11/29)

Margaret of Austria dies (12/1)


                                Thomas Cranmer travels to Rome to defend his argument of divorce on behalf of Henry VIII

                                Charles V establishes Knights of St. John at Malta

                                Pope Clement VII crowns Charles V emperor - last coronation by a pope

                                Civil war in Switzerland between Protestant and Catholic cantons - Protestants defeated

                                Fall of the last Florentine Republic - return of the Medici

                                Babur -                                  (Mughal Empire)                 (1527-1530)         Zahir ud din Muhammed

                                Humayun +                           (Mughal Empire)                 (1530-1538)         Nasir ud din Muhammed

                                Basil III -                               (Russia)                                                 (-1505)   Grand Duke of Moscow

                                Ivan IV +                                (Russia)                                                 (-1584)   Czar (The Terrible)

                                Benedetti, Giovanni Battista                                              1530-1590              

                                Bodin, Jean                                                                           1530-1596               Philosopher

                                Gabrieli, Andrea                                                                   1530-1586

                                Abravanel, Judah                                                                 1470-1530

                                Margaret of Austria                                                             1480-1530               Hapsburg Princess (d. Maximilian I)

                                Sannazaro, Jacopo                                                               1458-1530

                                Wolsey, Thomas                                                                  1473-1530               Prelate/Statesman (England)

1531                        OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                OTTOMAN-HAPSBURG WAR IN HUNGARY ...   (1528-1533)

                                WAR OF THE TWO BROTHERS (INCA CIVIL WAR) ...   (1527-1532)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS +   (1531-1555)

                                SECOND WAR OF KAPPEL (SWISS CIVIL WAR) +-   (1531)

                                SPANISH CONQUEST OF PERU +   (1531-1538)

                                Schmalkaldic League forms (2/27)

                                Pedrarias Dávila dies in Leon, Nicaragua (3/6)

                                Battle of Kappel - Zwingli dies (10/11)


                                Henry VIII breaks with the Roman Catholic Church

                                Schmalkaldic League forms

                                Charles V has brother Ferdinand I elected King of the Romans

                                Pizarro’s conquest begins (-1538)

                                Sarto, Andrea del                                                                 1487-1531

                                Zwingli                                                                                   1484-1531

1532                        Male Torso - drawn with red chalk (Michelangelo)

                                Venus (Lucas Cranach the Elder)

                                Jupiter and io (Antonio Correggio Allegri)

                                St Luke Painting the Virgin (Maerten van Heemskerck)

                                Fall of the Giants (Giulio Romano Pippi)

                                Gargantua (Rabelais)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                OTTOMAN-HAPSBURG WAR IN HUNGARY ...   (1528-1533)

                                WAR OF THE TWO BROTHERS (INCA CIVIL WAR) -   (1527-1532)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...  (1531-1555)

                                SPANISH CONQUEST OF PERU ...   (1531-1538)

                                Battle of Cajamarca - Pizarro suprise attack on the Inca (11/16)


                                Thomas More resigns as chancellor over question of Henry VIII's divorce

                                Thomas Cranmer made ambassador to Charles V

                                Religious Peace of Nuremberg - Protestants allowed to practice their religion freely

                                Calvin starts Protestant movement in France

                                Turks invade Hungary but are defeated

                                Portuguese begin colonization of Brazil

                                Cortes sends two ships in search of island of California - they are never seen again

                                Thomas More -                     (England)                                               Lord Chancellor (1529-)

                                Thomas Cromwell +             (England)                                               Chief Minister

                                Thomas Cramner (AC) +     (1533)

                                Lassus, Orlando di                                                               1532-1594

                                Xylander, Guilielmus                                                           1532-1576

1533                        Galerie Francois (Giovanni Battista Rosso) (-1540)

                                The Ambassadors (Hans Holbein the Younger)

                                A Fisherman consigning a Ring to the Doge (Bordone)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                OTTOMAN-HAPSBURG WAR IN HUNGARY -   (1528-1533)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                SPANISH CONQUEST OF PERU ...   (1531-1538)

                                Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn (1/25)

                                Henry VIII divorces Catherine of Aragon (3/30)

                                Inca ruler Atahualpa is strangled (8/29)

                                Elizabeth I is born (9/7)

                                Henry II of France marries Catherine de Medici (10/28)


                                Clement VII excommunicates Henry VIII

                                Thomas Cranmer becomes Archbishop of Cantebury

                                Peace between Suleiman I and Ferdinand of Austria

                                Ivan the Terrible succeeds as ruler of Russia at age three

                                Francisco Pizarro captures Cuzco and conquers Peru

                                Frederik I -                           (Denmark)(Norway)

                                Christian III +                      (Denmark)(Norway)                            (1533-1559)        

                                Ivan IV The Terrible +        Russia)                                                  (1533-1584)         Czar

                                First Italian madrigals

                                Merulo, Claudio                                                                   1533-1604               Composer

                                Montaigne, Michel de                                                         1533-1592               Essayist

                                Ariosto, Ludovico                                                               1474-1533               Poet

1534                        The Bible, 1st ed.  (Martin Luther)

                                Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation (Thomas More)

                                Treatise on the Passion (Thomas More)

                                Gargantua (Rabelais)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                SPANISH CONQUEST OF PERU ...   (1531-1538)

                                THE COUNT'S FEUD IN DENMARK +   (1534-1536)

                                Anababtists sieze Munster (2/27)

                                Jacques Cartier reaches Newfoundland (5/10)

                                Battle of Lauffen - Ulrich I, dispossessed duke of Wurttemberg, and Philip of Hesse defeat Ferdinand I (5/13)

                                Jacques Cartier discovers St. Lawrence River (6/9)

                                Jacques Cartier meets natives at Gulf of St. Lawrence in New Brunswick (7/7)

                                Jacques Cartier claims Nouvelle France (Canada) for France at Gaspe Peninsula (7/24)

                                Affair of the Placards in Paris, Blois Rouen, Tours, and Orléans (10/17)

                                Act of Supremacy - Henry VIII becomes supreme head of the Church in England (11)


                                Church of England established

                                Parliament Bill of Fealty

                                Ignatius Loyala with six other men found the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

                                Turks captue Tunis

                                Ottomans capture Tabriz and Iraq - Baghdad

                                Acadamie Francais founded by Richelieu

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)             Czar

                                Clement VII -

                                Paul III +                               (Patriarchate of Rome)                      (1534-1549)    

                                Soto de Langa                                                                      1534-1619               Musician

                                Cajetan                                                                                   1468-1534

                                Correggio, Antonio Allegri                                                1489-1534

1535                        Arnold von Brauweiler (Bartholomaus Bruyn the Elder)

                                Portrait of a Young Man (Bronzino)

                                Madonna del Collo Lungo (Parmigianino) (1534)

                                Cupid carving his bow (Parmigianino)

                                La Historia general de las Indias (Oviedo)

                                Thomas Cromwell patronizes Marsilius of Padua's Defensor pacis (The Defender of Peace) English translation

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                SPANISH CONQUEST OF PERU ...   (1531-1538)

                                THE COUNT'S FEUD IN DENMARK ...   (1534-1536)

                                ITALIAN WAR OF 1535 +-   (1535)

                                Antonio de Mendoza becomes 1st viceroy of New Spain - begins rule in Mexico (4/17)

                                Jacques Cartier begins second voyage with 3 ships and 110 men, two sons of Donnacona (5/13)

                                Thomas More is beheaded for failing to take Oath of Supremacy (7/6)

                                Jacques Cartier reaches Hochelaga (present day Montreal) (10/2)

                                Jacques Cartier returns to  Stadacona (Quebec city) (10/11)


                                Death of Francesco Sforza - Milan comes under direct Spanish control - Charles V occupies it as imperial fief

                                Charles V conquers Tunis

                                Jaques Cartier navigates St. Lawrence River (-1536)

                                Spaniards explore Chile (-1537)

                                Lima, Peru founded by Pizarro

                                Antonio de Mendoza +        (Spanish America)                              1st Viceroy

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Agrippa v. Nettesheim, Henricus Cornelius                    1486-1535

                                More, Thomas                                                                      1478-1535

1536                        Last Judgement (Michelangelo) (1535-1541)

                                Institutes of the Christian Religion (Calvin)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                SPANISH CONQUEST OF PERU ...   (1531-1538)

                                THE COUNT'S FEUD IN DENMARK -   (1534-1536)

                                Cabeza de Vaca party reaches San Miguel de Culiacan, a small Spanish outpost in Sinaloa, Mexico (5)

                                Anne Boleyn beheaded (5/19)

                                Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour (5/20)

                                Cabeza de Vaca party reaches Mexico City (7)

                                Erasmus dies in Basel (7/12)

                                Jacques Cartier returns to Saint Malo, France with Wendat Chief Donnacona (7/15)


                                Thomas Cranmer (AC), subservient to Henry VIII,  declares marriage to Anne Boleyn invalid

                                Suppression of monasteries in England under direction of Thomas Cromwell (-1539) (-1540)

                                Pilgrimage of Grace - Catholic uprising in the north of England is suppressed

                                Wales incorporated into England

                                John Calvin leads Protestants in Geneva

                                France invades Savoy and Piedmont

                                Pope Paul III establishes Comission of Cardinals to reform the papal court

                                Ottoman alliance with Francis I of France

                                Seige of Algiers - Charles V

                                Almagro returns to Cuzco from Chile expedition

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                First music publication of Gardano in Venice

                                First music publication of Petreius in Nuremberg

                                Sackville, Thomas                                                                1536-1608               Poet/Statesman (England)

                                Boece, Hector                                                                       1465-1536

                                Erasmus                                                 7/12                         1466-1536               Man of Letters

                                Peruzzi, Baldassare                                                              1481-1536

                                Tyndale, William                                                                  1484-1536               Biblical Translator (England)

1537                        Rustam defeating the Khakan of Cin  (from the Shah-nameh) (Tabriz School)

                                English Bible

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                SPANISH CONQUEST OF PERU ...   (1531-1538)

                                Alessandro de Medici is assassinated (1/6)

                                Jane Seymour dies after giving birth to a son - the future Edward VI (10/24)


                                Castillo de Oro province split up - divided by the Duchy of  Veragua

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

1538                        Venus d'Urbino (Titian)

                                Eva Prima Pandora (Jean Cousin the Elder)

                                A Wedding Dance (Aldegrever)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                SPANISH CONQUEST OF PERU -   (1531-1538)

                                Battle of Las Salinas - Pizarro brothers capture and defeat Almagro near Cuzco (4)

                                Diego de Almagro is executed in Cuzco (7/8)


                                Truce of Nice - between France and Spain

                                Geneva accepts the Reformation

                                Moldavia falls under Ottoman domain

                                Interregnum under Sur dynasty (-1555)

                                Petru Rares -                         (Moldavia)                                            Prince 

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Humayun -                            (Mughal Empire)                                  (1530-)    Nasir ud din Muhammed (1540?)

                                Altdorfer, Albrecht                                                              1480-1538

                                Guru Nanak                                                                           1469-1538

1539                        Illustration of Miraj Muhammad from copy of nizam's Khamsa (-1543)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                Estevanico leads small advance recon party  to Arizona/New Mexico from Culiacan, Mexico (2)

                                Truce of Frankfurt - between HRE Charles V and Melancthon –Schmalkaldic League loses French support (4/19)

                                Hernando de Soto's expedition reaches west coast of Florida near Bradenton (Espiritu Santo) (5)

                                Fernando de Ulloa's expedition along the west coast of Mexico under the auspices of Cortes begins (7/8)

                                Ordinance of Villers-Cotterets - by Francis I proscribed the use of French in all judicial acts /

                                Ordinance of Villers-Cotterets –baptisms and deaths to be recorded in  all parishes

                                Fernando de Ulloa's expedition resumes journey north up the Sea of Cortes after repairs (9/12)


                                Revolt of Ghent - suppressed by Charles V

                                Statute of the Six Articles

                                Hernando de Soto explores Mississippi etc (-1542)

                                Western Castillo de Oro merges with Royal Veragua to form the Province of New Cartago and Costa Rica

                                Vilacambo founded by Manco Inca

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                First book of five part madrigals                        Arcadelt

                                Brantome, Pierre de                                                              1539-1614

                                Gilbert, Humphrey                                                                1539-1589

1540                        Henry VIII (Holbein the Younger)

                                St. Benedict (Master of Messkirch)

                                Islamic Lacquer Painting (Style of Sultan Muhammad)

                                Life at Camp - from Mir Sayyid Ali's Khamsa (Layla wa Majnun story)

                                The Boar Hunt (Vijayanagara School - India)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves following negotiations by Thomas Cromwell (1/6)

                                Marriage to Anne of Cleves to secure North German Princes against the Catholic Emperor Charles V (1/6)

                                Coronado expedition sets out north  in search of Seven Cities of Cibola (2)

                                Hernan de Soto expedition reaches modern day Columbia, SC capital of the Cofitachequi tribe (5)

                                Henry VIII divorces Anne of Cleves (6/24)

                                Henry VIII marries Catherine Howard (8/8)

                                Hernan de Soto reaches Maubila, in southwestern Alabama - meet Choctaw chief Tuscaloosa (10)

                                Battle of Maubilla - twenty of de Soto's men are killed , 2500 Tuscaloosa's men dead (10/18)


                                Thomas Cromwell beheaded on charge of treason by the Duke of Normandy (reality - Anne of Cleves)

                                Pope Paul III officially recognizes the Society of Jesus  (Jesuits)

                                Francisco Vasquez de Coronado leads expeditionary force through Texas and Oklahoma

                                Francisco Vasquez de Coronado splinter group travels to the Grand Canyon under Garcia Lopez de Cardenas

                                Suri Dynasty in India

                                Mixton Rebellion begins     (-1541)

                                Tiguex War - 1st war between Europeans and Native Americans north of Mexico - Coronado vs Tiwa Pueblos

                                Philip +                                   (Milan)                                                   Duke (son of Charles V)

                                John Zaoolya -                       (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                John Sigisimund +               (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...           (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Sher Shah Suri +                   (Suri Dynasty)

                                Andreani, Andrea                                                                1540-1623

                                Gilbert, William                                                                     1540-1603

                                Guami, Gioseffo                                                                    1540-1611               Musician

                                Hatton, Christopher                                                             1540-1591

                                Vecchi, Orazio                                                                       1540-1603               Musician

                                Viete, Francois                                                                      1540-1603

                                Cromwell, Thomas                                                               1485-1540               Statesman (Putney, England)

                                Merici, Angela                                                                      1479-1540

                                Parmigianino                                                                         1503-1540               Painter

1541                        Chambre de la Duchesse d'Etampes (Francesco Primaticcio) (1541-1545)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago (Santiago de Nueva Extremadura) in Chile (2/12)

                                De Soto exdpedition (the remainder of it) reach the Mississippi River (5/8)

                                Jacques Cartier's Third Expedition leaves Saint-Malo with 5 ships  to find the Kingdom of Sanguenay  (5/23)

                                De Soto exdpedition crosses Mississippi travelling west (6)

                                Coronado Expedition members reach the Arkansas River - first Europeans to do so (6/29)

                                Jacques Cartier arrives at Stadacona (8/23)

                                Two of Cartier's ships carrying quartz crystal (diamonds) and pyrite (gold) set back to France (9/2)

                                Cartier sets off up St. Lawrence in search of Kingdom of Sanguenay (9/7)

                                Santiago, Chile destroyed by Michima Lonco (9/11)

                                Mixton Revolt suppressed by Spanish (12)


                                John Knox brings the Reformation to Scotland

                                Conclave of Regensgurg -  Lutheran, Reformed (Zwinglian), and Catholic Churches meet - it fails to resolve

                                Turks conquer Hungary

                                Mixton War - Indians revolt againt Spanish rule in Nueva Galicia

                                Hernando de Soto discovers Mississippi River            

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Francisco de Orellana separates from Pizarros expedition at the Napo River - sails length of amazon (12) -(1542)

                                Cabezon, Hernando de                                                        1541-1602               Composer

                                Charron, Pierre                                                                      1541-1603

                                Theotokopoulos, Domenicos (El Greco)                          1541-1614               Painter

                                Paracelcus                                                                             1493-1541

                                Van Orley, Bernaert                                                             1488-1541

1542                        Very Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies (Las Casas)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                ITALIAN WAR OF 1542 +   (1542-1546)

                                Henry VIII's wife Catherine Howard beheaded (2/12)

                                Battle of Wayna Daga - Ethiopians under Emperor Gelawdewos defeat Sultanate of Adal under Amahd ...(2/21)

                                Hernan de Soto dies in La Florida (5/21)

                                Cartier begins return voyage from St. Lawrence to France in three remaining ships (6)

                                Cartier returns to France (10)

                                Battle of Solway Moss - English route Scots -  James V retreats ill to Falkland Palace (11/24)

                                Mary Queen of Scots is born (12/8)

                                James V dies at Falkland Palace (12/14)


                                Henry VIII assumes title King of Ireland, head of Church of Ireland

                                Roman Inquisition established by the papal bull Licot ab initio

                                Portuguese merchants first reach Japan

                                Charles V enacts the “New Laws” designed to end encomienda system

                                James V -                               (Scotland)                                              King

                                Mary Queen of Scots +       (Scotland)                                              Queen

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                First book of madirgals                                       de Rore

                                Bellarmine, Robert                                                                1542-1621               Saint/Cardinal/Doctor (Montepulciano)

                                John of the Cross                                                                 1542-1591

1543                        Pope Paul III (Titian)

                                De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (Copernicus)

                                On the Structure of the Human Body (Vesalius)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                ITALIAN WAR OF 1542 ...   (1542-1546)

                                Treaty of Greenwich - Mary Queen of Scots promised to marry Edward VI of England (7)

                                Henry VIII marries Catherine Paar (7/10)

                                Mary Stuart crowned queen of Scotland at Stirling Castle (9/9)

                                Scotland and France renew alliance - Scotland parliament breaks off Treaty of Greenwich (12)


                                Alliance between Henry VIII and Charles V against Scotland and France

                                Philip II is made regent of Spain 

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Byrd, William                                                                        1543-1623

                                Ferrabosco I, Alfonso                                                         1543-1588               Composer (Bologna, Italy)

                                Copernicus                                                                            1473-1543

                                Franck, Sebastian                                                                 1499-1543

                                Holbein, Hans                                                                       1497-1543

1544                        Sleeping Groom and a Sorceress - Woodcut (Hans Baldung Grien)

                                Man Holding a Mirror (Georg Pencz)

                                Herbarium (Luca Ghini)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                ITALIAN WAR OF 1542 ...   (1542-1546)

                                Francis II of France is born (1/19)

                                Battle of Ceresole - French under the Comte d'Enghien defeat Fr./HRE  under the Del Vasto near Turin (4/11)

                                Henry VIII and Charles V invade France (5)

                                Siege of St. Dizier in eastern France by Imperial forces begins(6/19) -(8/18)

                                English forces under Henry VIII besiege and capture Boulogne (7/19) -(9/14)

                                Treaty of Crespy-en-Laonnois -  between Spain and France (9/18)

                                French forces under the Dauphin attack Enlgish held Boulogne - ultimately rebuffed (10/9)


                                Rough Wooing - Anglo-Scottish War follows from Scotland’s refusal to honor the Treaty of Greenwich (-1551)

                                University of Konigsberg founded

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Francis II                                                                               1544-1560               King (France)

                                Masson, Jean Papire                                                           1544-1611               Historian/Geographer (France)         

1545                        Perseus (Cellini) (-1554)

                                Ars Magna  (Girolamo Cardano)        mathematical treatise

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                ITALIAN WAR OF 1542 ...   (1542-1546)

                                Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scottish victory over English forces temporarily ends English campaign (2/12)

                                30 of the New Laws are suppressed - encomienda system still secure (10/20)

                                Treaty between Ferdinand and Suleiman - Ferdinand to pay tribute to the Porte - ends hostilities in Medit.(11/10)

                                1st Council of Trent is convened by Pope Paul III - under Jesuit guidance to reform the Church  (12/4)              (-1547)


                                Council of Trent (-1563)

                                25 French galleys leave Mediterranean to participate in landing on the Isle of Wight - Paulin de la Garde

                                Opening of Potosi mines, Bolivia

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Sher Shah Suri -                    (Suri Dynasty)

                                Islam Shah Suri +                  (Suri Dynasty)

                                Bodley, Thomas                                                                   1545-1613               Scholar/Diplomat (England)

                                Breton, Nicholas                                                                  1545-1626               Writer (England)

                                Gerard, John                                                                          1545-1612               Botanist (England)

                                Harvey, Gabriel                                                                     1545-1630               Writer (Saffron Walden, Essex)

                                Rudolf, Christoff                                                                  1500-1545

1546                        Edward VI (Guillim Scrotes)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                ITALIAN WAR OF 1542 -   (1542-1546)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                Martin Luther dies (2/18)

                                France makes peace with England (6)

                                Mining settlement of Zacatecas founded (9/8)


                                Schmalkaldic Wars begin

                                Silver deposits found in Zacatecas by Juan de Tolosa

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Prince

                                L’Estoile, Pierre de                                                               1546-1611

                                Tycho Brahe                                                                         1546-1601               Astronomer

                                Luther, Martin                                                                      1483-1546               Catholic Reformer (2/18)

1547                        William, 13th Lord Grey de Wilton (Gerlach Flicke)

                                Panels from the Fontaine des Innocents (Jean Goujon) (1547-1549)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                Ivan IV crowned Tsar of Russia (1/16)

                                Henry VIII dies - Edward VI becomes King of England - Duke of Somerset acts as protector (1/28)

                                Edward VI is crowned at Westminster Abbey (2/20)

                                Francis I King of France dies (3/31)

                                Battle of Muhlberg - Charles V defeats Schmalkaldic League (4/24)

                                Battle of Muhlberg - Elector John Frederick I defeated & captured - Saxony Elector passes to Maurice (4/24)

                                Fire of Moscow - displaced 25,000 households and killed approximately 1,600 people (6/21)

                                Henry II succeeds his father Francis I as King of France (7/31)

                                Battle of Pinkie Cleugh - first "modern" battle fought in the British Isles (9/10)  (Black Saturday)

                                Hernan Cortes dies (12/2)


                                Hapsburgs become hereditary kings of Bohemia

                                Ferdinand virtually abrogates the prerogatives of the Bohemian diet and the towns

                                Ernestine line of Wettin family retains possession of Thuringia

                                Ottomans gain larger part of Hungary

                                Francis I -                             (France)                                                 (1515-)   King      

                                Henry II +                              (France)                                                 (-1559)   King      

                                Henry VIII -                          (England)                                               (1509-)   King      

                                Edward VI +                          (England)                                               (-1553)   King

                                Ivan IV The Terrible +        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)         Czar

                                Dodecachordon                                                   Glareanus

                                Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de                                         1547-1616

                                Holborne, Anthony                                                             1547-1602               Composer

                                Lipsius, Justus                                                                     1547-1606

                                Francis I                                                                                 1494-1547

                                Henry VIII                                                                             1491-1547

1548                        St. Mark Freeing a Christian Slave (Tintoretto)

                                Spiritual Exercises (St. Ignatius of Loyola)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                Charles V annexes the Netherlands

                                Sigismund the Old +            (Poland)                                                 Jagiellon Dynasty

                                Sigismund II Augustus +   (Poland)                                                 Jagiellon Dynasty

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Bruno, Giordano                                                                   1548-1600                                                              

                                Stevin, Simon                                                                        1548-1620

                                Suarez                                                                                    1548-1617

                                Victoria, Tomas Luis de                                                      1548-1611               Composer

1549                        Book of Common Prayer (England) - authorized by Edward VI

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                Antonio de Mendoza steps down as Viceroy of New Spain (7/4)

                                Introduction of uniform Protestant service in England with Edward VI's Book of Common Prayer

                                St. Francis Xavier introduces Christianity to Japan (-1551)

                                Permanent settlement of Brazil begun by Thome de Souza - Jesuits begin missionary work

                                Brazil becomes a Portuguese Royal Colony

                                Pedro Menendez de Aviles is commissioned by Charles V to drive French privateers off Spanish Coast

                                Ricercari                                                 Willaert

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...           (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Antonio de Mendoza -             (New Spain)                                          (1535-1549)    Viceroy

                                Paul III -                                    (Patriarchate of Rome)                       (1534-1549)

1550                        Lady in her Bath (Clouet)

                                Engraved Ceiling of the Galerie d'Ulysse (Du Cerceau)

                                Suleymaniye Mosqu construction begins in Istanbul (-1556)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)                                Turkey vs. Persia

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                Fall of Duke of Somerset - Duke of Northumberland succeeds as Protector

                                Tatars raid China

                                De Las Casas and Juan Gines debate at Valladolid whether the Indians are natural slaves according to Aristotle

                                Charles V sends Luis de Velasco to New Spain to deal with problems in the spanish colonies

                                Chichimeca War begins in Zacatecas (first frontier war in Mexico)

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1530-1584)            Czar

                                Julius III +                             (Patriarchate of Rome)                           (1550-1555)

                                Cavalieri, Emilio de'                                                              1550-1602               Composer

                                Handl, Jakob (Gallus)                                                          1550-1591               Composer

                                Napier, John                                                                          1550-1617

1551                        OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                HAPSBURG-VALOIS WAR (ITALIAN WAR OF 1551) +   (1551-1559)

                                Henry III Valois is born (9/19)

                                Archbishop Cramner publishes Forty-two Articles of Religion

                                2nd Coucil of Trent (-1552)

                                Treaty of Friedewalde - between Saxony and France

                                Turkey and Hungary at war (-1562)

                                Universty of Mexico receives charter

                                University of Peru receives charter

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                First Book of Psalms                                            Goudimel

                                Caccini, Giulio                                                                       1551-1618               Composer

                                Ursus, Nicholas Reimers                                                     1551-1600

1552                        OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                HAPSBURG-VALOIS WAR (ITALIAN WAR OF 1551) ...   (1551-1559)

                                Peace of Passau - between Saxony (Maurice) and Holy Roman Empire  (Charles V) - Ferdinand I as mediator (8)

                                Peace of Passau - grants Lutheran religious freedoms - ends Charles' quest for European religious unity (8)

                                War between Charles V and Henri II of France (-1556)

                                France siezes Toul, Metz, and Verdun

                                Kazan and Tatar khanate (Astrakhan) conquered  by Ivan IV (-1556)

                                Las Casas report published

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Angad -                                 (Sikh)                                                      (1504-)    3rd Guru

                                Justus Byrgius                                                                     1552-1632

                                Raleigh, Walter                                                                     1552-1626

                                Spenser, Edmund                                                                 1552-1599

                                Attaingnant, Pierre                                                                      -1552

1553                        Natural Magic (della Porta)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                HAPSBURG-VALOIS WAR (ITALIAN WAR OF 1551) ...   (1551-1559)

                                Henry IV of France is born (4/1)

                                Edward VI dies - Lady Jane Grey proclaimed Queen of England by Duke of Northumberland - lasts nine days

                                Restoration of Roman Catholic bishops in England under queen Mary (-1558)

                                Voyage to Archangel by Richard Chancellor

                                Edward VI -                           (England)                                               (1547-)

                                Mary I +                                 (England)                                               (-1558)    Queen (d. of Henry VIII and Catherine)

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Islam Shah Suri -                  (Suri Dynasty)

                                Adil Shah +                           (Suri Dynasty)

                                Chamaraja Wodeyar III -     (Mysore)                                               Hiriya Bettada

                                Thimmaraja Wodeyar II +   (Mysore)

                                Marenzio, Luca                                                                     1553-1599               Composer

                                Thou, Jacques August de                                                  1553-1617

                                Cranach, Lucas                                                                     1472-1553

                                Rabelais, Francis                                                                  1495-1553

                                Servet                                                                                     1509-1553

1554                        Ulysses blinding Polyphemus - Frescoe Cycle (Pellegrino Tibaldi) (-1555)

                                Neptune (Jacopo Sansovino Tatti) (-1567)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR ...   (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS ...   (1531-1555)

                                HAPSBURG-VALOIS WAR (ITALIAN WAR OF 1551) ...   (1551-1559)

                                SECOND RUSSO-SWEDISH WAR +   (1554-1557)

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Sao Paulo Mission in Brazil founded by  Jose de Anchieta and Manoel da Nobrega (1/24)

                                Lady Jane Grey is executed (2/12)

                                Mary I marries Philip II,  heir to the throne of Spain (7/25)


                                Turks conquer coast of North Africa (-1556)

                                Turkish merchants first introduce tulip seeds into Europe

                                Francois Le Clerc (Pegleg) sacks Santiago de Cuba

                                First Book of Madrigals                                      Philippe de Monte

                                First Book of Masses                                          Palestrina

                                Lyly, John                                                                             1554-1606

                                Sydney, Philip                                                                      1554-1586

1555                        Portrait of the artist’s three sisters with their governess (Anguissola)

                                The Sending of an Emissary (Hamza-Nama)

                                OTTOMAN-SAFAVID WAR -  (1526-1555)

                                SCHMALKALDIC WARS -   (1531-1555)

                                HAPSBURG-VALOIS WAR (ITALIAN WAR OF 1551) -   (1551-1559)

                                SECOND RUSSO-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1554-1557)

                                Joanna of Castile (the Mad) dies (4/12)

                                Peace of Augsburg - ends Schmalkaldic Wars - Protestant princes granted freedom of worship and reform (9/25)

                                Peace of Augsburg - puts forth the the principle of cuius regio, eius religio (whose territory, his religion) (9/25)


                                England returns to Roman Catholicism - Protestants are prosecuted and 300 burned at the stake

                                Admiral Pedro Menendez de Aviles chosen to command Spanish treasure fleets

                                Ottoman-Safavid peace

                                Mughal Dynasty restored by Humayun (-1556)

                                Charles V -                             (Netherlands)                                        Count

                                Phillip II +                              (Netherlands)                                        Count

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Adil Shah -                            (Suri Dynasty)

                                Humayun +                           (Mughal Empire)                                  Nasir ud din Muhammed

                                Julius III -                              (Roman Patriarchate)                           (1550-)

                                Marcellus II +-                      (Roman Patriarchate)                           *****

                                Paul IV +                                (Roman Patriarchate)                           (-1559)    Gian Caraffa

                                1st Book of Madrigals                                         Orlando di Lasso

                                Magini, Giovanni Antonio                                                 1555-1617               6/13 Padua

1556                        HAPSBURG-VALOIS WAR (ITALIAN WAR OF 1551) ...   (1551-1559)

                                SECOND RUSSO-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1554-1557)

                                Abdication of Charles V- division of territories - Ferdinand I HRE; Philip II King of Spain (1/16)

                                Shaanxi Earthquake - deadliest earthquake in history - kills approx 830,000 (1/23)

                                Mughal Emperor Humayun  falls to his death  climbing down library steps (1/25)

                                Treaty of Vaucelles - between Philip II and Henri II - Franche-Compte ceded to Philip II (2/5)

                                Akbar is enthroned as Mughal Emperor (2/14)

                                Thomas Cranmer declared a heretic (2/15)

                                AC Thomas Cranmer is burnerd at the stake for treason (3/21)

                                Treaty of Vaucelles fails - resumption of Hapsburg-Valois War (11)

                                Second Battle of Panipat - Akbar the Great defeats Hindus (11/5)


                                Alliance between Pope Paul IV and Henri II of France

                                Jacques de Sores destroys city of Havana

                                Equal sign (=) introduced by Robert Recorde

                                Charles V -                             (Spain)(HRE)                                         (1519-)    House of Austria

                                Ferdinand I +                        (HRE)                                                     (-1564)    Hapsburg

                                Philip II +                               (Spain)                                                   (-1598)    House of Austria

                                Alexandru Lapusneaunu +-(Moldavia)                                            *****    Prince 

                                Patrascu the Kind +-            (Walachia)                                             *****    Prince

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Humayun -                            (Mughal Empire)                                  Nasir ud din Muhammed

                                Akbar +                                  (Mughal Empire)                                  (-1605)    Jalal ud din Muhammed 

                                Libro de cifra nueva                                             Luis Venegas de Henestrosa

                                Gabrielli, Giovanni                                                                1556-1612               Composer/Organist (Venice)

                                Vair, Guillaume du                                                                1556-1621               Author/Lawyer (France)

                                Cranmer, Thomas                                                                 1489-1556

                                Gombert, Nicolas                                                                  1490-1556

                                Loyola, Ignatius                                                                   1491-1556

1557                        Landscape with the parable of the sower (Bruegel)

                                HAPSBURG-VALOIS WAR (ITALIAN WAR OF 1551) ...   (1551-1559)

                                SECOND RUSSO-SWEDISH WAR -   (1554-1557)

                                Battle of St. Quentin - Spain and England defeat France (8/10) Feast Day of St. Lawrence

                                Bankruptcy of the Spanish Crown

                                Livonian War between Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark over the succession to the Balkan territories

                                Russia invades Poland

                                Portuguese settle at Macao, China - gain possession

                                John III -                                (Portugal)                                              House of Aviz

                                Sebastian +                           (Portugal)                                              House of Aviz

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Claudio Merulo at San Marco

                                Althusius, Johannes                                                           1557-1638

                                Lodge, Thomas                                                                    1557-1625

                                Morley, Thomas                                                                   1557-1603

                                Peele, George                                                                        1557-1596

                                Agricola, Mikael                                                                   1510-1557

                                Lotto, Lorenzo                                                                      1480-1557

                                Tartaglia, Nicolo                                                                   1500-1557

1558                        HAPSBURG-VALOIS WAR (ITALIAN WAR OF 1551) ...   (1551-1559)

                                LIVONIAN WAR +   (1558-1583)

                                Eleanor Hapsburg dies (2/25)            

Mary Queen of Scots marries Francis II , French Dauphine (4/24)

                                Charles V HRE dies at monastery in Extremadura, Spain (9/21)

                                Mary I Queen of England dies - Elizabeth I succeeds (11/17)


                                Repeal of Catholic legislation in England

                                England loses Calais - last English possession in France

                                Diego Laynez elected general of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

                                Mary I -                  (England)                                               (1553-1558) Queen (d. of Henry VIII and Catherine)

                                Elizabeth I +                          (England)                                               (1558-1603) Queen (d. Henry VIII/Anne Boleyn)

                                Charles V -  (Hpsbrg)         (Holy Roman Empire)                         Emperor

                                Ferdinand I +                        (HRE)(K. Bohemia)(K. Hungary)      Emperor                (-1564)

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...       (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)         Czar

                                Musica nova                                                         Willaert

                                Institutioni harmoniche                                     Zarlino

                                Greene, Robert                                                                      1558-1592

                                Kid, Thomas                                                                         1558-1594

                                Charles V                                                                               1500-1558               Emperor

                                Janequin, Clement                                                                1485-1558               Musician

                                Scalinger, Julius Caesar                                                      1484-1558

1559                        Acteon Surprising Diana and Nymphs Bathing (Titian)

                                The fight between carnival and lent (Pieter Bruegel the Elder)

                                Netherlandish proverbs (Pieter Bruegel the Elder)

                                Frances Brandon, Duchess of Suffolk, and Adrian Stokes (Hans Eworth)

                                Index of Banned Works (Roman Papacy)

                                HAPSBURG-VALOIS WAR (ITALIAN WAR OF 1551) -   (1551-1559)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis - signed between Elizabeth I and Henry II of France (4/2)

                                Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis - signed between Spain and France - ends the Hapsburg/Valois wars (4/3)

                                Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis - France gives up all conquests except Toul, Metz, and Verdun (4/3)

                                Henry II of France is fatally pierced in the brain during a tournament to celebrate the Cateau Cam. Treaty (7/1)


                                Henry II dies from his injury - son Francis II succeeds (7/10)

                                Philip II leaves Netherlands and returns to Spain which becomes the center of his government

                                Beginning of opposition of higher nobility against government of Philip II's confidants in the Netherlands

                                Spain controls virtually all Italy

                                Calvinist Huguenot Church founded - 1st French  national synod  held  - 66 churches send representatives

                                Akbar captures Gwalior kingdom

                                Christian III -                         (Denmark)(Norway)                             (1533-)

                                Frederik II +                           (Denmark)(Norway)                             (-1588)                   

                                Henry II -                               (France)                                                 (1547-)    King -died in accident during tournament

                                Francis II +                            (France)                                                 (1559-1560)            King (Francois)

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Paul IV -                                 (Roman Patriarchate)                       (1555-1560)    Gian Caraffa

                                Pius IV +                                (Roman Patriarchate)                       (1560-1565)

1560                        Children’s Games (Pieter Bruegel the Elder)

                                The Three Graces (Germain Pilon)

                                Neptune Fountain - Florence (Ammanati) (-1575)

                                First Book of Discipline (Scotland)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                Treaty of Berwick - between Elizabeth I and Scottish reformers (2)

                                Treaty of Edinburgh - betw. England, France, & Scotland - ends Auld Alliance betw. France & Scotland (7/6)

                                Francis II King of France dies from brain absess (caused by ear infection) - Charles IX succeeds (12/5)


                                Mary Queen of Scots returns to Scotland a widow

                                Amboise Conspiracy -  in France - 1200 Huguenots executed and displayed on hooks and trees for treason

                                Carlo Borromeo launches Catholic "model" reform as archbishop of Milan

                                Scottish Reformation - Scotland formally breaks with the papacy

                                Goa Inquisition begins (-1774)

                                Francis II -                             (France)                                                 (1559-1560)            King (Francois)

                                Charles IX +                          (France)                                                 (-1574)    King      

                                Catherine de Medici +        

                                Gustavus I -                          (Sweden)                                               House of Vasa

                                Eric XIV +                              (Sweden)                                               House of Vasa

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Academy of the Secrets of Nature founded at Naples

                                Arminius (Jacob Harmanzoon)                                          1560-1609

                                Bauhin, Casper                                                                     1560-1634

                                Brade, William                                                                      1560-1630               Composer

                                Carracci, Annibale                                                               1560-1609               Painter

                                Cerone, Domenico                                                               1560-1626               Composer

                                Chettle, Henry                                                                      1560-1607               Dramatist (England)

                                Cotán, Juan Sáanchez                                                         1560-1627               Painter (Orgaz, Spain)          (6/25)

                                Gesualdo, Carlo                                                                    1560-1613               Composer

                                Francis II                                                                               1544-1560               King (France)

                                Gombert, Nicolas                                                                  1495-1560               Composer

                                Melanchthon                                                                        1497-1560

1561                        Johann Neudorffer with his Son (Nicolas de Neufchatel)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                Mary Queen of Scots returns to Scotland after Francois' death

                                Colloquium of Poissy

                                Iacob Eraclid +                      (Moldavia)                                            Prince (the Despot)

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Improperia                                                             Palestrina

                                Bacon, Francis                                                                      1561-1626

                                Finck, Thomas                                                                      1561-1646

                                Peri, Jacopo                                                                           1561-1633               Composer

                                Philips, Peter                                                                         1561-1628               Composer

                                Bourgeois, Louis                                                                  1510-1561

                                de Milan, Luys                                                                     1500-1561               Composer

                                Schwekfeld, Kaspar                                                             1489-1561

1562                        The Fall of the Rebel angels (Pieter Bruegel the Elder)

                                Mad Meg (Dulle griet) (Pieter Bruegel the Elder)

                                The triumph of death (Pieter Bruegel the Elder)

                                The suicide of Saul (Pieter Bruegel the Elder)

                                Two Monkeys (Pieter Bruegel the Elder)

                                Marriage at Cana (Paolo Veronese Calliari)                    

                                Loci Theologici (Melchor Cano)

                                Gorbaduc (Thomas Sackville/Thomas Norton)   play

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                FIRST FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION +   (1562-1563)

                                Edict of St. Germain - Catherine de Medici extends tolerance to Huguenots - Guises opposed (1)

                                Wassy-sur-Blaise Massacre - Duc du Guise led faction mass murders worshippers - sparks FWR (3/1)


                                French Wars of Religion begin - Huguenots (French Protestants) and Roman Catholics (-1594)(-1598)

                                3rd Council of Trent (-1563)

                                Maximilian II is crowned king of Bohemia

                                Maximilian II is elected King of the Romans

                                Truce between Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I and Turkey

                                Admiral Pedro Menendez de Aviles sails from Spain with Armada de la Carrera de Indias

                                Durango settled by Francisco de Ibarra in Mexico

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Pope Marcellus Mass                                         Palestrina

                                Abbot, George                                                                      1562-1633               Archbishop of Cantebury

                                Bull, John                                                                              1562-1628               Composer

                                Sanchez                                                                                 1562-1632

                                Severin, Christian (Longomontanus)                                1562-1647

                                Sweelinck, Jan Pieterszoon                                                 1562-1621               Composer

                                Sermisy, Claudin de                                                             1490-1562               Composer

                                Willaert, Adrian                                                                    1490-1562               Composer

1563                        The Tower of Babel I (Bruegel)

                                Summer (Arcimboldo)

                                Philip II's Escorial construction begins (-1584)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                FIRST FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION -   (1562-1563)

                                NORTHERN SEVEN YEARS WAR +   (1563-1570)

                                Francis, Duc du Guise is shot by Jean de Poltrot de Mer (2/18)

                                Francis, Duc du Guise dies of gunshot wound (2/24)

                                Edict of Amboise - signed by Catherine de Medici- restored freedoms of Huguenots in France (3/19)

                                Thirty-nine Articles complete establishment of the Anglican Church (Church of England)

                                Statute of Apprentices

                                Maximilian II is crowned king of Hungary

                                Ivan the Terrible conquers part of Livonia

                                Iacob Eraclid -                       (Moldavia)                                            Prince (the Despot)

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Byrd appointed organist at Lincoln Cathedral

                                Dowland, John                                                                     1563-1626               Composer

                                Glareanus                                                                              1488-1563               Musician

1564                        Index of Prohibited Books (revised) (Pope Pius V)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                NORTHERN SEVEN YEARS WAR ...   (1563-1570)

                                Peace of Troyes - between England and France

                                Reign of terror begins in Russia

                                Fort Caroline established by French Huguenots on St. John's River, Florida (Rene de Laudonniere)                 

                                Ferdinand I -                         (HRE)                                                     (1556-)    Emperor Hapsburg

                                Maximilian II +                      (HRE)                                                     (-1576)  Emperor (son of Ferdinand I)

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Buxdorf, Johann                                                                   1564-1629               Hebraist (Germany)

                                Galilei, Galileo                                                                       1564-1642               Astrophysicist

                                Shakespeare, William                                                          1564-1616               Playwright (England)

                                Viadana, Lodovico                                                               1564-1645               Composer

                                Calvin, John                                                                          1509-1564               Theologian/Reformer

                                Ferdinand I                                                                            1503-1564               HR Emperor

                                Manchicourt, Pierre de                                                        1510-1564               Musician

                                Michaelangelo                                                                      1475-1564               Painter/Sculptor (Italy)

                                Vesalius, Andreas                                                                1514-1564               Anatomist (Flanders)

1565                        Peasant Wedding (Bruegel the Elder) (1566)

                                Hunters in the snow (Bruegel)

                                The Harvesters (Bruegel)

                                Winter landscape with a bird trap (Bruegel)

                                The Return of the Herd (Bruegel)

                                Crucifixion (Tintoretto)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                NORTHERN SEVEN YEARS WAR ...   (1563-1570)

                                Battle of Talikota -  Deccan Sultanates rout Vijayanagara Empire on the banks of the Krishna River (1/26)

                                Miguel Lopez de Legazpi & 500 soldiers establish fist Spanish settlement at Cebu Island in the Philippines (4/27)

                                Mary Queen of Scots marries cousin Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley (7/29)

                                St. Augustine, FL founded by Spanish  under Admiral Pedro Menendez de Aviles  (9/4)


                                French expedition to Florida

                                Turks besiege  Malta without success

                                Portuguese attack French colony and found Rio de Janeiro (-1567)

                                Pillage and plunder of city of Vijayanagara

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Pius IV -                                 (Patriarchate of Rome)                        (1559-1565)

                                Penitential Psalms                                                Orlando di Lasso

                                Aguilera de Heredia, Sebastian                                         1565-1627               Composer

                                Farnaby, Giles                                                                       1565-1640               Composer

                                Reyman, Matthaus                                                              1565-1625               Composer

                                Rore, Cipriano de                                                                 1516-1565               Composer

1566                        Christ before Pilate (Tintoretto) (1566-1567)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                NORTHERN SEVEN YEARS WAR ...   (1563-1570)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) +   (1566-1648)

                                David Rizzio, the favorite of Mary Queen of Scots is murdered in her presence at Holyroodhouse (3/9)


                                First outbreaks of large-scale revolts and iconoclastic movements against the Church (-1567)

                                Philip II sends the Duke of Alva to supress the uprising (Netherlands) (-1567)

                                Revolt of the Netherlands (-1609)

                                William of Orange flees the country

                                Juan Pardo arrives in Santa Elena, the would-be Spanish capital on Parris Island, SC to secure the interior

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Suleiman I -                           (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan (the Magnificent (Kanuni)) (1520-)

                                Selim II +                                (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan

                                Pius V +                                  (Patriarchate of Rome)                        (1566-1572)

                                Piccinini, Alessandro                                                          1566-1638               Composer

                                Cabezon, Antonio de                                                          1510-1566               Composer

                                Nostradamus, Michel                                                          1503-1566

1567                        The Conversion of Saul (Bruegel)

                                The Land of Cockaigne (Bruegel)

                                Descent from the Cross (Federico Barocci) (1567-1569)

                                Mercury (Giambologna)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                NORTHERN SEVEN YEARS WAR ...   (1563-1570)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                SECOND FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION +   (1567-1568)

                                Lord Darnley is murdered , husband of Mary Queen of Scots, probably by Earl of Bothwell (2/10)

                                Mary Queen of Scots marries Earl of Bothwell (5/15)

                                Duke of Alba arrives in Brussels at the head of 12,000 strong army (8/2)


                                Portuguese settle at Rio de Janeiro

                                Mary Queen of Scots -        (Scotland)

                                James VI (I) +                        (Scotland) (England)                           King

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Shizong -                               (China)                                                   (1522-)    12th Ming Dynasty (Jiajing Era)

                                Muzong +                              (China)                                                   (-1573)    13th Ming Dynasty (Longqing Era)

                                English Metrical Psalter published by Matthew Parker

                                Campion, Thomas                                                                1567-1620

                                Monteverdi, Claudio                                                           1567-1643                               Composer

                                Nashe, Thomas                                                                    1567-1600

1568                        The Misanthrope (Bruegel)

                                The Parable of the Blind (Bruegel)

                                The Peasant and the Bird-nester (Bruegel)

                                Landscape with the Magpie on the Gallows (Bruegel)

                                The Cripples (Bruegel)

                                The True History of the Conquest of New Spain (Bernal Diaz)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                NORTHERN SEVEN YEARS WAR ...   (1563-1570)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                SECOND FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION -   (1567-1568)

                                THIRD FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION +   (1568-1570)

                                Treaty of Lonjumeau - ends Second French War of Religion - signed by Charles IX and Catherine Med. (3/23)

                                Treaty of Lonjumeau expires (8)

                                Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England where Elizabeth I imprisons her

                                Netherlands begins revolt against Spain (-1648)

                                St. John of the Cross founds the discalced Carmelites

                                Nobunaga in control of Kyoto

                                Landgravate of Hesse divides upon the death of Philip I of Hesse

                                Francis Drake's slave ship is attacked by Spanish fleet at San Juan de Ulua  - has to swim to safety

                                Eric XIV-                                (Sweden)                                               House of Vasa

                                John III+                                (Sweden)                                               House of Vasa

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Campanella, Tommaso                                                        1568-1639               Philosopher/Writer (Italy)

                                d'Urfe, Honore                                                                      1568-1625               Novelist

                                Maier, Michael                                                                     1568-1622               Composer

                                Arcadelt, Jacob                                                                    1505-1568               Composer

1569                        LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                NORTHERN SEVEN YEARS WAR ...   (1563-1570)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                THIRD FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION ...   (1568-1570)

                                Union of Lublin -  merges Poland and Lithuania into Polish-Lithuania Commonwealth (7/1) (-1791)


                                Ottomans drive Portuguese out of Oman

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                1st Book of Motets                                              Palestrina

                                Marino, Giambattista                                                           1569-1625               Poet (Italy)

                                Bruegel, Pieter                                                                      1525-1569

1570                        The Dervish Wondering at the Divine Mercy (36 of Anwar-i-Suhayli Album)

                                I quattro libri dell' architectura (Palladio)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                NORTHERN SEVEN YEARS WAR -   (1563-1570)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                THIRD FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION -   (1568-1570)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR +   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                Theatrum Orbis Terraru (Abraham Ortelius) (31 ed. -1612)

                                Peace of St. Germain - Huguenots given conditional freedom of worship - ends Third French War of Relig. (8/5)

                                Elizabeth I excommunicated by Pope Pius V

                                Ivan IV ravages Novgorod

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Cima, Giovanni Paolo                                                          1570-1622               Composer

                                Dekker, Thomas                                                                   1570-1632

                                Selma, Bartolme de                                                               1570-1638               Composer

                                de Henestrosa, Luis Venegas                                            1510-1570               Composer

                                Walter, Johann                                                                     1496-1570               Composer

1571                        LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                WAR OF THE HOLY LEAGUE AGAINST THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE +   (1571-1573)

                                Austrian religion granted freedom of religion (1/11)

                                Royal Exchange opens in London (1/23)

                                Battle of Lepanto - papal and Venetian fleet under Don John of Austria defeats Turks under Ali Pasha (10/7)

                                Repression of revolt of the Moriscos

                                Bornu Empire in Sudan reaches greatest height under Idris III (-1603)

                                Age of Sail begins (-1862)

                                John Sigisimund -                (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Gaspar Bekesy +                  (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Stephen Bathory +               (Transylvania)                                      Prince (king of Poland)

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Kepler, Johannes                                                                 1571-1630               Astronomer

                                Lupo, Thomas                                                                      1571-1627               Composer

                                Praetorius, Michael                                                              1571-1621               Composer

                                Abbati, Niccolo dell’                                                           1512-1571

                                Cellini, Benvenuto                                                               1500-1571

                                Vasari, Giorgio                                                                      1511-1571

1572                        LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                WAR OF THE HOLY LEAGUE AGAINST THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE ...   (1571-1573)

                                FOURTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION +   (1572-1573)

                                St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre - mass murder of Huguenots in Paris (8/24)

                                Tupac Amaru dies (9/24)


                                Succuessful attack of William of Orange - he occupies the provinces of Holland and Zeeland

                                End of Jagiellon dynasty in Poland

                                Gaspar Bekesy -                   (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Sigismund II Augustus -    (Poland)                                                 Jagiellon Dynasty

                                John the Terrible +               (Moldavia)                                            Prince

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Thimmaraja Wodeyar II -    (Mysore)

                                Chamaraja Wodeyar IV+     (Mysore)                                               Bola

                                Pius V -                                 (Patriarchate of Rome)                        (1566-1572)

                                Gregory XIII +                     (Patriarchate of Rome)                        (1572-1585)

                                Byrd assumes duties as co-organist with Tallis at Chapel Royal in London

                                Caravaggio, Michaelangelo Merisi                                   1572-1610               Painter

                                Tomkins, Thomas                                                                1572-1656               Composer

                                Bronzino, Agnolo                                                                1503-1572

                                Goudimel, Claude                                                                 1505-1572               Musician

                                Knox, John                                                                            1505-1572

                                Serton, Pierre (sp?)                                                              1510-1572               Musician

1573                        Pieta (Titian)

                                Feast in the house of levi (Paolo Veronese Calliari)

                                Sir Thomas Kytson (George Gower)

                                Veronese called before the Inquisition to defend the orthodoxy of his painting

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                WAR OF THE HOLY LEAGUE AGAINST THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE -   (1571-1573)

                                FOURTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION -   (1572-1573)

                                Venice abandons Cyprus and makes peace with Turkey - Holy League disbands (3/7)

                                Edict of Boulogne - ends Fourth French War of Religion - Huguenots granted amnesty (6/25)

                                Spanish forces under the Duke of Alva capture Haarlem after a seven month siege (7/12)

                                Lang Seige

                                Electoral kings in Poland (-1795)

                                Don John recaptures Tunis

                                Henry of Valois +                 (Poland)

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Muzong -                               (China)                                                   (1567-)    13th Ming Dynasty (Longqing Era)

                                Shenzong +                           (China)                                                   (-1620)    14th Ming Dynasty (Wanli Era)

                                Jonson, Ben                                                                          1573-1637               Dramatist/Poet (Westminster, London)

                                Laud, William                                                                        1573-1645               Archbishop of Canterbury

1574                        LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                FIFTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION +   (1574-1576)

                                Charles IX dies at Vincennes, Val-de-Marne, leaving Henry III as the new King of France (5/30)


                                Henry III leaves Poland and returns to France via Venice - tryst with Veronica Franco - courtesan

                                Assembly of Millau - establishes firmer government for French Protestants

                                Ottomans change Moldavian Princes often

                                Turks regain Tunis from Spain

                                Charles IX -                           (France)                                                 (1560-)   King

                                Henry III +                             (France)                                                 (-1589)   King

                                Henry of Valois -                  (Poland)

                                Stephen Bathory +               (Poland)

                                John the Terrible -              (Moldavia)                                             Prince

                                Peter the Lame +                  (Moldavia)                                             Prince

                                Selim II -                                (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Murad III +                             (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...         (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Fludd, Robert                                                                        1574-1637               Philosopher (England)

                                Wilbye, John                                                                        1574-1638               Composer

                                Ferrabosco, Domenica Maria                                             1513-1574               Composer (Bologna, Italy)

1575                        Queen Elizabeth I (Nicholas Hilliard)

                                El Greco arrives in Spain

                                Memoir (Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda)

                                Terze rime (Veronica Franco)

                                SENGOKU JIDAI ...   (1467-1600)                      Japanese Civil War (rival daimyos battle for supremacy)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                FIFTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION ...   (1574-1576)

                                Henri III is crowned King of France at Reims (2/13)

                                Battle of Nagashino - seige of Nagashino castle fails - Oda-Tokugawa victory (6/28)

                                Master of  Spanish ships now required to keep a daily log book (11/22)


                                St. Philip Neri reforms and extends the Oratory

                                University of Leiden established by William III of Orange

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1530\3-1584)         Czar

                                Cantiones sacrae (1st set)                                  Byrd / Tallis

                                Boehme, Jakob                                                                     1575-1624               Religious Mystic (Gorlitz, Germany)

                                de Paul, St. Vincent                                                              1575-1660               Chaplain (Paris)

                                Gagliano, Marco da                                                             1575-1642               Composer

                                Gaultier, Ennemond                                                             1575-1651               Composer

                                Oughtred                                                                               1575-1660

                                Trabaci, Giovanni Maria                                                     1575-1647               Composer

                                Weelkes, Thomas                                                                                1575-1623               Composer

1576                        Ascension of Christ (Tintoretto)

                                Six Books of the Republic (Jean Bodin)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                FIFTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION -   (1574-1576)

                                SIXTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION +   (1576-1577)

                                HRE Maximilian II dies (10/12)

                                Estates General of Blois - seekes religious compromise and fails - rejects Edict of Beaulieu (12)

                                Pacification of Ghent - Netherlands provinces unite to drive out the Spaniards

                                Edict of Beaulieu - Henry III gives concessions to Huguenots - right of public worship

                                Protestantism forbidden in France

                                Martin Frobisher searches for Northwest Passage (-1578)

                                Maximilian II -                       (Holy Roman Empire)                          (1564-)    Emperor

                                Rudolf II +                             (Holy Roman Empire)                          (1576-1612)            Emperor

                                Stephen Bathory -                (Transylvania)                                      Prince (king of Poland)

                                Christopher Bathory +        (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Tahmasp I -                           (Safavid Persia)                                    (1524-) 2nd (1523)

                                Ismail II Murza +                   (Safavid Persia)                                    (-1577) 3rd

                                Chamaraja Wodeyar IV-      (Mysore)                                               Bola

                                Devaraja Wodeyar +           (Mysore)                                               Bettada

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Correa de Arauxo, Francisco                                              1576-1654               Composer

                                Bakfark, Baliny Valentin                                                      1507-1576               Composer

                                Cardano, Geronimo                                                              1501-1576

                                Rhaticus                                                                                1514-1576

                                Sachs, Hans                                                                          1494-1576

                                Vecellio, Tiziano (Titian)                                                     1485-1576

                                Xylander, Guilielmus                                                           1532-1576

1577                        General and Rare Memorials pertayning to the Perfect Art of Navigation (John Dee)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                SIXTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION -   (1576-1577)

                                TURKISH-PERSIAN WAR ...   (1577-1590)

                                Peace of Bergerac (Edict of Poitiers) - limits Huguenot worship - ends Sixth FWR (9)

                                Francis Drake starts voyage around the world from Plymouth (12/13)       (-1580)

                                Alliance between England and Netherlands

                                Akbar the Great unifies northern India

                                Ismail II Murza -                   (Safavid Persia)                                    (1576-) 3rd

                                Mohammed Murza +           (Safavid Persia)                                    (-1586) 4th (mn. Khodabanda)

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Philippe de Monte in Prague

                                Rubens, Peter Paul                                                               1577-1640               Painter

1578                        Vincenzo Morossini (Jacopo Tintoretto Robusti) (-1588)

                                Scene of Rustic Life (Muhammadi of Herat) (Safavid Painting)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                TURKISH-PERSIAN WAR ...   (1577-1590)

                                Battle of Al Kasr Al-kabil (Battle of the Three Kings) - Moroccans defeat the Portuguese (8/4)


                                Duke of Parma subdues the southern provinces of the Netherlands

                                Duke of Anjou invades the Low Countries

                                Order of the Holy Spirit founded

                                Devaraja Wodeyar -            (Mysore)                                               Bettada

                                Raja Wodeyar I +                 (Mysore)

                                Sebastian -                            (Portugal)                                              House of Aviz

                                Henry +                                  (Portugal)                                              House of Aviz

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Agazzari, Agostino                                                              1578-1640               Composer

                                Harvey, William                                                                    1578-1657

                                Liu Zongzhou                                                                       1578-1645               Philosopher (China)

1579                        The Infanta Isabella, daughter of Philip II (Coello)

                                Vindiciae contre Tyrannes

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                TURKISH-PERSIAN WAR ...   (1577-1590)

                                SECOND DESMOND REBELLION +   (1579-1583)                         Ireland

                                SEVENTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION +   (1579-1580)

                                League of Arras - Southern provinces Atrois, Hainaut, and Douay unite under Spanish protection (1/5)

                                Union of Utrecht - Dutch Rep.: Frisia, Groningen, Overijssel, Holland, Gelderland, Utrecht & Zeeland (1/23)

                                Mehmed Sokollu, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire is assassinated (10)


                                Treaty of Arras - Walloon nobility defect  from the rebellion

                                Alexander of Parma commander of the Spanish troops

                                Disgrace and arrest of Antonio Perez, principal Spanish minister

                                William I the Silent +           (Dutch Republic)                  (1584-)    Stadholder (of Orange)       (1581)

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

1580                        Essais, 1st ed. (Montaigne)

                                Lettere familiari a diversi (Veronica Franco)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                TURKISH-PERSIAN WAR ...   (1577-1590)

                                SECOND DESMOND REBELLION ...   (1579-1583)                        Ireland

                                SEVENTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION -   (1579-1580)

                                Treaty of Fleix - recognized all previous treaties of toleration with huguenots - ends Seventh FWR (11/26)


                                Spanish Captivity - Spain controls Portugal and its empire under Philip(s) (-1640)

                                Political unification of Spain and Portugal

                                Henry -                                   (Portugal)                                              House of Aviz

                                Antonio +-                            (Portugal)                                              *****    House of Aviz

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Ford, Thomas                                                                       1580-1648               Composer

                                Hals, Frans                                                                            1580-1666               Painter

                                Palladio, Andrea                                                                   1508-1580               Architect

1581                        Second Book of Discipline (Scotland)

                                LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                TURKISH-PERSIAN WAR ...   (1577-1590)

                                SECOND DESMOND REBELLION ...   (1579-1583)                        Ireland

                                Alexander Farnese captures Tournai

                                Revolutionary Estates General depose Philip II as Lord of the Netherlands

                                Union of Utrecht declares itself the Dutch Republic independent of Spain and elects William of Orange as ruler

                                Poland invades Russia

                                Christopher Bathory -         (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Sigisimund +                         (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Phillip II -                               (Netherlands)                                        Count

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Dialogo della musica antica e della moderna (Galileo)

                                Gunter, Edmund                                                                   1581-1626               Mathemetician/Astronomer (England)

1582                        LIVONIAN WAR ...   (1558-1583)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                SECOND DESMOND REBELLION ...   (1579-1583)                        Ireland

                                Treaty of Jam Zapolski -  between Russia, Poland, and Sweden - ends Livonian War (1/15)

                                Inter gravissimas - Gregorian Calendar reform soon to take effect  (2/24 OS) Thursday

                                Nobunaga assassinated - rise of Hideyoshi (6/21)

                                Last day of Julian Calendar in four Catholic Countries: Spain, Portugal, Polish Commonwlth, Ialy (10/4 Thursday OS  )

                                Spain, Portugal, Polish Commonwlth, Italy adopts Gregorian Calendar - 1st day - 10 days skipped (10/15 Friday  NS)

                                Last day of Julian Calendar for France (12/9 OS)

                                France adopts Gregorian Calendar - 10 days skipped (12/20)

                                Holland and Zeeland adopt Gregorian Calendar (12)


                                League of Arras (Artois): Flanders, Antwerp, Hainault, Brabant, Namur, Liege, Limburg, and Luxembourg

                                Gregory XIII ...                      (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (1572-1585)            Pope

                                Gabrieli named second organist at St. Marks in Venice

                                Simpson, Thomas                                                                1582-1628               Composer

                                St. Theresa of Avila                                                                    -1582

1583                        Massacre of the Innocents (Jacopo Tintoretto Robusti) (-1587)

                                LIVONIAN WAR -   (1558-1583)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                  Sweden vs. Russia

                                TURKISH-PERSIAN WAR ...   (1577-1590)

                                SECOND DESMOND REBELLION -   (1579-1583)                          Ireland

                                French Fury – François, Duke of Anjou’s failed attempt to take the city of Antwerp by surprise – 1500 troops perish (1/17)

Battle of Terceira - Spanish Admiral Santa Cruz defeats Portuguese, French, and English (7)

                                Sir Humphrey Gilbert claims Newfoundland for England at St. John's (8/5)

                                Petru Cercel enters Bucharest and becomes Prince of Wallachia (8/19)


                                Philip II sends entire Iberian fleet to clear French traders out of the Azores

                                Mateo Ricci arrives in China

                                Treaty of Plussa - truce between Russia and Sweden

                                Petru Cercel +                     (Walachia)                                            (-1585)   Prince

                                Ivan IV The Terrible ...        (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Frescobaldi, Girolamo                                                          1583-1643               Composer

                                Gibbons, Orlando                                                                 1583-1625               Composer (England)

                                Grotius, Hugo                                                                       1583-1645               Jurist/Humanist (Dutch)

                                Vallet, Nicolas                                                                       1583-1642               Composer

                                Erastus, Thomas                                                                  1524-1583               Theologian/Physician (Swiss)

1584                        Ratio Studiorum (Jesuit)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                TURKISH-PERSIAN WAR ...   (1577-1590)

                                Fancis Hercules, duke of Anjou dies (6)

                                William of Orange is murdered, shot in the chest at close range (7/10)

                                Pedro Moya de Contreras becomes 6th viceroy of New Spain (9/25)

                                Treaty of Joinville - between France and Spain (12/31)


                                England sends aid to the Netherlands

                                Alliance of Bern, Geneva, and Zurich against Roman Catholic cantons

                                Spain intervenes in French civil wars

                                Walter Raleigh reconnaissance fleet under Captains Amadas & Barlow to Croatoan Sound, NC.

                                Ivan IV The Terrible -          (Russia)                                                 (1533-1584)            Czar

                                Feodor I +                              (Russia)                                                 (1584-1598)            Czar

                                William I the Silent -            (Dutch Republic)                                  (1579-)    Stadholder (of Orange) murdered

                                Maurice of Orange +           (Dutch Republic)                                  Stadholder of Orange

                                Pedro Moya de Contreras + (New Spain)                                        (-1585)    6thViceroy

                                Canzonettas                                                          Monteverdi

                                Mylius, Johann Daniel                                                        1584-1628               Composer

1585                        EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                TURKISH-PERSIAN WAR ...   (1577-1590)

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR +   (1585-1604)                                         England vs. Spanish Empire

                                EIGHTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION +   (1585-1598)

                                Philip II names Alvaro de Zuniga as Viceroy of New Spain to replace Pedro Moya de Contreras (2/26)

                                Philip II's embargo on all northern European goods, men, shipping, etc. from Spain (5)

                                Elizabeth I commissions fleet to capture French fishing fleet of of Newfoundland (6)

                                Elizabeth I's Privy Council issues letters of marque authorizing recoup of French embargo losses (7)

                                Treaty of Nonsuch - Elizabeth I promises economic and military aid to Dutch in return for three ports (8)

                                Antwerp falls to Spain (8/17)

                                Alvaro Manrique de Zuniga arrives at Veracruz in New Spain to take over as Viceroy (9/7)

                                Drake fleet leaves Plymouth bound for Spain (9/24)

                                Francis Drake invades Galicia (10/7)

                                Alvaro Manrique de Zuniga  arrives in Mexico city as new Viceroy (10/16)

                                Philip II indicates to the pope Sixtus V and Grand Duke of Tuscany that Spain agrees to invade England (10/24)

                                Earl of Leicester is sworn in as goveror general of the Dutch Republic (12)


                                England sends troops to the Dutch Republic

                                Parma takes Antwerp - rebels withdraw behind the great rivers

                                War of the Three Henrys - between Henry III of France, Henri of Navarre, and Henri of Guise - 8th religious war

                                1st Roanoake Colony (N. C.) with John White and Thomas Harriot - Drake brings them back at their request

                                Francis Drake sacks several Spanish settlements on expedition to the Caribbean

                                Simon Stevin, Flemish mathematician, introduces  decimal system of mathemtatical notation

                                Petru Cercel -                        (Walachia)                                             (1583-)    Prince

                                Pedro Moya de Contreras - (New Spain)                                         (1584-)    6thViceroy

                                Alvaro de Zuniga +             (New Spain)                                          (1585-1590)            7th Viceroy

                                Gregory XIII -

                                Sixtus V +

                                Tallis dies - Byrd now has exclusive “royal patent”

                                Jansenius                                                                              1585-1638

                                Richelieu, Armand Emmanuel du Plessis, duc de           1585-1642               Prelate/Statesman (France)

                                Schutz, Heinrich                                                                   1585-1672               Composer (Kostritz, Thuringia)

                                Gabrieli, Andrea                                                                   1520-1585               Composer (b. 1510;1533) (d. 1611?)

                                Tallis, Thomas                                                                      1510-1585

1586                        Burial of Count Orgaz (El Greco)

                                Disputation Against the Heretics of Our Times, vol. 1 (Robert Bellarmine)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                TURKISH-PERSIAN WAR ...   (1577-1590)

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1585-1604)                                        England vs. Spanish Empire

                                EIGHTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION ...   (1585-1598)

                                Battle of Zutphen - Spanish forces defeat combined Dutch-English army - Sir Philip Sidney dies (9/22)

                                Francis Drake takes Manila galleon Santa Ana (10/18)


                                Don Juan Zuniga dies (autumn)

                                Conspiracy against Elizabeth I involves Mary Queen of Scots

                                Francis Drake sails to West Indies

                                Stephen Bathory -                (Poland)

                                Mohammed Murza -            (Safavid Persia)                                    (1577-) 4th (mn. Khodabanda)

                                Gabrieli named first organist at St. Marks in Venice

                                Opus musicum                                                      Handl (Gallus)

                                Schein, Johann Hermann                                    1/20         1586-1630               Composer

                                Gabrieli, Andrea                                                                   1530-1586

                                Guami, Giuseppe                                                                  1510-1586               Composer

                                Sydney, Philip                                                                      1554-1586

1587                        EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                TURKISH-PERSIAN WAR ...   (1577-1590)

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1585-1604)                                        England vs. Spanish Empire

                                EIGHTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION ...   (1585-1598)

                                Mary Queen of Scots executed (2/8)

                                Thomas Cavendish takes Port of Huatulca Oaxaca (8/6)

                                Thomas Cavendish sacks Navidad (Jalisco) (9/3)

                                Thomas Cavendish  captures Malina galleon Santa Ana off the coast of Baja California (11/4)


                                Scotland finally ratifies Treaty of Edinburgh

                                England at war with Spain (-1603)

                                Francis Drake defeats Spanish fleet at Cadiz

                                Battle of Courtras - first pitched battle won by the Protestants

                                Savoy and the Catholic cantons form an alliance with Spain

                                2nd Ronoake settlement of 117 men under John White governor

                                Sigismund III Vasa +           (Poland)                                                 (1587-1632)

                                Abbas I The Great +            (Safavid Persia)                                    (1587-1628) 5th

                                1st Book of Madrigals                                         Monteverdi

                                Scheidt, Samuel                                                                    1587-1654               Composer

1588                        Doctor Faustus (Christopher Marlowe)

                                A Brief and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia (Thomas Harriot)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                TURKISH-PERSIAN WAR ...   (1577-1590)

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1585-1604)                                        England vs. Spanish Empire

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR +   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                EIGHTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION ...   (1585-1598)

                                Frederik II, King of Denmark/Norway dies - Christian IV succeeds (4/4)

                                English defeat the Spanish Armada under Lord Howard of Effingham, Francis Drake, &  John Hawkins (7/29)

                                Spanish Armada in Ireland - 24 ships of the  Armada are shipwrecked

                                Henry Duke of Guise is assassinated (12/23)


                                Charles Emmanuel I Duke of Savoy occupies Marquisate of Saluzzo - War with Henry IV ensues (autumn)

                                Revolt of Paris against Henry III

                                Dutch drive the Spanish out of the northern Netherlands - attempts at liberation of the south fail (-1609)

                                Frederik II -                            (Denmark)(Norway)                             (1559-)

                                Christian IV +                        (Denmark)(Norway)                             (-1648)   

                                Sonam Gyatso -                    (Tibet)                                                    (1543-1588             3rd Dalai Lama     

                                Pappus’ Mathematical Collection (6 ½ books extant)  translated to Latin by Commandinus

                                Orchesographie                                                    Arbeau  

                                Musica Transalpina                                             Nicholas Yonge   

                                Hobbes, Thomas                                                                  1588-1674                               Political Theorist

                                Mersenne, Marin                                                                 1588-1648

                                Wither, George                                                                     1588-1667

                                Ferrabosco I, Alfonso                                                         1543-1588               Composer (Bologna, Italy)

                                Veronese, Paolo Caliari                                                       1528-1588               Painter (Verona)  (4/19)

                                Telesio, Bernardino                                                             1508-1588

1589                        Paradise (Tintoretto) .... @Palazzo Ducale, Venice   largest painting on canvas? (1588-1594)

Tensho 17             Holy Family with Saints and Master Alonso de Villegas (Blas de Prado) Toledo

997-998 AH           Flora (Guiseppi Arcimboldo)  sent from milan to Rudolf II in Prague

                                Holy Family (Bartholomaeus Spranger)  ca. 1589

                                Founding of Rome (3 Carracci Brothers) @ Palazzo Magnani, Bologna (-1592)

                                Elizabeth Brydges Portrait (Hieronymus Custodis)

                                Frances clinton, Lady Chandos Portrait (Hieronymus Custodis)

                                Tomb of Hai Rui (Binya Village, Xiuying District, Hainan)

                                Tray or Rectangular Dish, Ming Dynasty

                                El Greco lives in Toledo, Spain, having just completed Burial of Count Orgaz

                                Renovation of the Church of St. Jerome is completed in Rome

                                Cupola of St. Peter's Basilica under construction (1585-1590)

                                Palazzo Farnese completed by Giacomo della Porta (with the porticoed facade)

                                Rialto Bridge reconstructed from wood to stone in Venice (1588-1590)

                                Hiroshima Castle construction begins (foundation)   (-1593)  

                                Harimandir Sahib, most sacred shrine in Sikkhism under construction (1588-1601)

                                Anand Mahal (Palace of Delights) built under Adil Shah II in Bijapur, India

                                Junagarh Fort begins construction in Thar Desert

                                Pierce's Supererogation (Gabriel Harvey) written in November

                                The First Voyage Made to the Coasts of America (Arthur Barlow)

                                Principle Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation (Richard Hakluyt)

                                Novæ cœlestium orbium theoricæ congruentes cum observationibus N. Copernici (Giovanni Antonio Magini)

                                Politicorum libri sex (Justus Lipsius)  political treatise

                                Certain Mineral and Metaphysical Schoolpoints (Martin Marprelate) p(2)

                                Hay Any Work for Cooper (Martin Marprelate) p(3)

                                Martin Junior (Martin Marprelate) p(7)

                                Martin Senior (Martin Marprelate) p(7)

                                The Protestation of Martin Marprelate (Martin Marprelate) p(9)

                                An Admonition to the People of England (Thomas Cooper, Bishop of Winchester)

                                Pap with a Hatchet (Johh Lyly)

                                Plain Perceval (Richard Harvey)

                                An Almond for a Parrot (Thomas Nashe)

                                Anatomie of Absurdities (Thomas Nashe)

                                Arte of English Poesie (attrib. to George Puttenham)

                                Shang Han Lan Tiao Bian (Sytematic Differentiation of the Shan Han Lun)  Chinese Medical Text

                                Fables of Bidpay (in Turkish)

                                Thesoro Politico (attrib. to Giovanni Maria Manelli)

                                SENGOKU JIDAI ...   (1467-1600)                      Japanese Civil War (rival daimyos battle for supremacy)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                TURKISH-PERSIAN WAR ...   (1577-1590)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1585-1604)                                        England vs. Spanish Empire

                                EIGHTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION ...   (1585-1598)

                                Al-Mansur sends an ambassador to Queen Elizabeth in England, he is well received (1)

                                Jan Huygen van Linschoten, secretary to the Portuguese Archbishop of Goa sets sail from Goa to home (1)

                                Chambre des États de Picardie sends out deputies to key towns within the province (1/1)

                                Catherine de Medici Queen Mother of France dies of pneumonia(1/5)

                                Abbeville deputies arrive at the town hall in Amiens and swear an oath of union to the Holy League (1/9)

                                Hasan Veneziano pasha of Algiers, arrives in Constantinople with five galliots to prepare Fez expedition (1/10)

                                Chambre des États de Picardie burn a package of letters from Henry III

                                Anabaptists Joost de Tollenaer, Michiel Buyse, and Sijntgen Wens are arrested in Ghent, Flanders  (1/13) 10PM

                                Francis Kett, mystic is burned at the stake in Norwich, England (1/14)

                                Job is elected first Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia (1/26)    

                                First dig ceremony for Junagarh Fort in Thar Desert (1/30)   (Phalgun Vali 19, VS 1645)  Thursday?

                                Ralph Fitch Expedition leaves Bengala (Bangladesh)  headed west to Cochin (2/3)

                                British Parliament convenes (2/4)

                                Foundation for Junagarh Fort is laid (2/17)  (Phalgun Sudi 12, VS 1645)   Monday?

                                Ralph Fitch Expedition arrives in Ceylon (3/6)

                                Sir Walter Raleigh deeds his interest in the Virginia Colony (exc. 1/5 gold & ore) to group incl. John White (3/7)

                                Ralph Fitch Expedition leaves Ceylon (3/11)

                                William Bradford, future governor of Plymouth colony is born (baptized) (3/19)

                             *Ralph Fitch Expedition arrives in Cochin (3/22)

                                Hay Any work for Cooper is put into circulation from Coventry (3/22)

                             *Henry III reconciles himself to Henry IV of Navarre (4/3)

                                Second Janissary revolt in Constantinople (4/3)

                                Saint Benedict (il Moro) dies at Franciscan Friary of St. Mary in Palermo, Sicily (4/4)

                                Anabaptists Joost de Tollenaer, Michiel Buyse, and Sijntgen Wens are executed and displayed (4/13)

                                Termoto Mori appoints Nonomiya and Hoita magistrates in Charge of construction of Hiroshima Castle (4/15)

                                La Pellagrina is first performed as part of the marriage festivities of Fernando I de Medici and Christine (5/2)

                                Fernando I de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany marries Christine of Lorraine (5/3)

                                Drake-Norris Expedition - w/ Antonio of Crato lands at Peniche to spark uprising  against Philip II (5/16)

                                Savoyard Ambassador to Rome complains about the lack of help from the Spaniards and the Pope (6)

                                Battle of Suriage-ga-hara - Date Masamune defeats Ashina clan (6/5)

                                Spanish Cedula orders Viceroy of New Spain to expel Diego Camargo et al from Tlaxcala (6/14)

                                Abbas I has Morshed Gholi Ostajlou killed, who had assisted him gain the Persian throne (7)

                                Scottish Embassy to Denmark presents 7 articles (demands) regarding marriage of James VI and Anna (7/9)

                                Danish response to Scottish demands are presented (7/10)

                                Luis de Velasco receives appointment as Viceroy of New Spain (7/19)

                                Henry III of France is stabbed by Jacques Clement  (8/1)

                                Henry III dies of stab wounds - Protestant leader Henri IV (of Navarre) succeeds (8/2)

                                Matteo Ricci and Almeidai are forced to leave Zhaoqing (in Guangdong) by new Viceroy (8/15)

                                James VI of Scotland marries Anne of Denmark by proxy (8/20)

                                Anna of Denmark sails from Copenhagen to Kronburg - en route to Scotland - heavy wind begins (9/6)

                                Masio Serra de Leguizamon's deathbed apologia to Philip II fr. Cuzco decries Spanish treatment of natives (9/18)

                                Battle of Arques - Henry IV's forces defeat the Catholic League forces under Duke Charles of Mayenne (9/21)

                                Maria Caranza, owner of a textile mill in Puebla, writes to her brother in Spain to sail to New World (10/2)

                                Francisco de Cuellar, Spanish Armada survivor who landed in Ireland, writes letter to Philip II fr. Antwerp (10/4)

                                Valignano/Frois Letter - written from Macao en route back to Japan after successful Japan Embassy (10/7)

                                Anna of Denmark arrives in Oslo to overwinter (10/25)

                                Henry IV repulsed in attempt to take Catholic League (11/1)

                                James VI arrives in Oslo (11/19)

                                James VI of Scotland marries Anne of Denmark in person (11/23)

                                Luis de Velasco, newly appointed governor of New Spain, disembarks in Veracruz from Spain (12)

                                Mariano Pierbenedetti is created cardinal priest in the consistory of cardinals (12/20)


                                Francis Drake fails to capture Lisbon with 150 ships and 18,000 men (English Armada)

                                French chronicler Pierre de L'Estoil spends time in prison for his  "Politique" leanings

                                Boris Godunov asserts Russia's independence from Constantinople

                                Ottoman Turks build a small fort at Mombassa

                                235 English ships sail to America (1589-1591)

                                Robert Bellarmine accompanies papal legate Gaetano to Paris to negotiate with League after Henry III's death

                                Anne of Denmark marries James IVof Scotland

                                Chichimeca tribes in revolt in New Spain

                                New Spain Almiranta galleon is lost, probably sunk in deep water off Miami

                                Father Alonso Ponce de Leon finishes five year inspection tour of New Spain with Ciudad Real

                                Ming Dynasty - year 222

                                Wanli makes last general audience appearance until 1615

                                Mei Tang and Liu Ruguo revolts from Wanli

                                Li Yuanlang revolts in China

                                Tolmod invades Liaoshen

                                Matteo Ricci in China

                                Michele Ruggiero is recalled to Rome/Lisbon by Alessandro Valignano

                                Toyotomi Hideyoshi orders preparations for camapign against the Hojo clan

                                Martin Frobrsher cruises the English Channel

                                Hyderabad is about to be founded by Muhammed Quli Qutub Shah of the Golconda Sultanate

                                Shah Abbas sets out for Khorasan to quell the attack by Abdol Mo'men Khan Uzbek - falls ill in Tehran

                                Christopher and Cosmas, two Japanese captured by Cavendish from the Santa Anna, are in England

                                English Armada - Foresight - Cpt. William Winter/

                                Giordano Bruno in Prague or Helmstadt

                                Justus Lipsius at University of Leiden

                                Galileo Galilei (25) is offered a teaching position at the University of Pisa - works on unfinished De Motu

                                Johannes Kepler (18) begins theology studies at University of Tübingen

                                Michael Maestlin at the University of Tübingen, professor of  Astronomy and Mathematics

                                John Dee returns from Bohemia to England

                                Michel de Montaigne in Bordeaux helps keep the city loyal to Henry IV

                                William Lee, English clergyman invents the stocking frame, first knitting machine

                                Sir John Harrington designs and installs a water closet in his country home in Bath

                                Bernard Palissey is locked up in the Bastille for speculating that fossils were the remains of ancient creatures

                                Kite is first mentioned in Europe in a popular book of marvels and tricks 

                                Elizabeth I ...                          (England)                                               (1558-1603)

                                John Whitgift ...                   (Archbishopric of Cantebury)           (1583-1604)

                                Christian IV ...                       (Denmark)(Norway)                             (1588-1648)

                                John III ...                              (Sweden)                                               (1568-1592)

                                Maurice of Nassau ...          (Holland)(Zeeland)                              (1585-1625)            Stadtholder

                                Alessandro Farnese ...        (Spanish Netherlands)                        (1578-1592)            Governor

                                Henry III -                              (France)                                 (1574-1589)            King (last Valois murdered)

                                Henry IV +                             (France)                                 (1589-1610)            King (1st Bourbon)

                                Charles III ...                          (Lorraine)                                               (1545-1608)

                                Philip II ...                              (Spain)(Portugal)(Chile)                      (1556-1598)

                                Luis de la Cueva +               (Canary Islands)                   (1589-1591)            1st Captain General

                                Albert Frederick ...               (Prussia)                                                                (1568-1618)            Duke

                                Heinrich von Bobenhausen ...  (Teutonic Order)                            (1572-1590)            Hochmeister

                                John George ...                      (Brandenburg)                                      (1571-1598)            Elector  (Hohenzollern)

                                Christian I ...                          (Saxony)                                                (1586-1591)            Prince-Elector

                                *Frederick IV ...                    (Palatinate)                                            (1583-1610)            Elector (John Casimir regent)

                                William V ...                           (Bavaria)                                                (1579-1597)            Duke Wittelsbach

                                Rudolf II ...                            (Holy Roman Empire)                          (1576-1612)            Emperor

                                Charles Emmanuel I ...         (Savoy)                                                  (1580-1630)            Duke

                                Davide Vacca -                     (Republic of Genoa)                             (1587-1589)            Doge

                                Battista Negrone +               (Republic of Genoa)                             (1589-1591)            Doge

                                Vincenzo I Gonzaga ...         (Mantua)(Montferrat)                         (1587-1612)            Duke/Marquess

                                Pasqual Cicogna ...              (Republic of Venice)                            (1585-1595)            Doge

                                Alessandro Farnese ...        (Parma)(Piacenza)                 (1586-1592)            Duke

                                Anfonso II ...                        (Ferrara) (Moddena) Reggio)             (1559-1597)            Duke/ last legitimate Este

                                Fernando I de Medici ...      (Tuscany)                                              (1587-1609)            Grand Duke

                                Sixtus V ...                              (Papal States)                                        (1585-1590)            Pope

                                Claudius Aquaviva ...          (Society of Jesus)                                                (1581-1615)            Superior General

                                Sigismund III Vasa ...           (Poland)                                                 (1587-1632)            King

                                Feodor I ...                             (Russia)                                                 (1584-1598)            Czar (last Rurikid)

                                Boris Godunov ...                 (Russia)                                                 (1584-1598)            Regent

                                Kuchum Khan ...                  (Khanate of Siberia)                             (1563-1598)            Khan

                                Tevekkül Khan ...                 (Khazak Khanate)                                (1586-1598)            Khan

                                Haji Muhammed I ...             (Khanate of Khiva)                              (1558-1602)            Khan (Arabshanid Dynasty)

                                'Abd Allah Khan II              (Shaybanid Empire)                             (1557-1598)            Uzbek

                                Sengge Düüreng ...              (Right Wing of the Mongols)            (1582-????)            assuming he ruled in 1589

                                Gazi II Giray ...                       (Khanate of the Crimea)                      (1588-1596)            1st reign

                                Mihnea Turcitul ...               (Wallachia)                                            (1585-1591)            Prince (Vovoide) 2nd reign

                                Murad III ...                           (Ottoman Empire)                 (1574-1595)            Sultan

                                ?????????????                      (Imam of Oman)                                    (????-????)            Imam

                                Abbas I The Great ...           (Safavid Persia)                                    (1587-1628)            5th Shah

                                Akbar the Great ...                (Mughal Empire)                                  (1556-1605)            4th Emperor

                                Todarmal -                             (Mughal Empire)                  (????-1589)            Minister of  State Finance

                                Qalij Khan +                          (Mughal Empire)                  (1589-????)           

                                Arjan Dev ...                          (Sikh Guru)                                            (1581-1606)            5th Guru

                                Mian Mir ...                           (Qadiriyyah Sufi Order)                       (????-????)            (Awliya)

                                Man Singh I                          (Amber/Jaipur)(Bihar)                         (????-1614)            Raja  (Kacchwaha) Governor

                                Raja Rai Singji ...                   (Bikaner Princely State)                       (1571-1612)            Mughal General

                                Pratap Ray ...                         (Jaintia Kingdom)                 (1580-1596)            King

                                Miran Husain -                     (Ahmednagar Sultanate)                     (1588-1589)            Nizam Shahi Sultan

                                Isma'il Shah +                        (Ahmednagar Sultanate)                     (1589-1591)            Nizam Shahi Sultan

                                Ibrahim Adil Shah II ...        (Bijapur Sultanate)                               (1579-1627)            regent: Dilavar Khan

                                Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah ...  (Golconda Sultanate)                   (1580-1612)            5th Qutb Shahi Sultan

                                ????????                                (Bidar Sultanate)                                  (???)                      

                                ????????                                (Berar Sultanate)                                  (???)                      

                                Venkata II ...                          (Vijayanagara Empire)                         (1586-1614)            King (Aravidu Dynasty)

                                Raja Wodeyar I ...                (Kingdom of Mysore)                         (1578-1617)

                                Cevvappa Nayak ...              (Thanjavur)                                           (1535-1590)            1st Thanjavur Nayak

                                Achuthappa Nayak ...         (Thanjavur)                                           (1564-1612)            2nd Thanjavur Nayak co-ruler

                                Two Sons of  Kumara Krishnappa ... (Madurai Kingdom)            (1573-1595)            Joint Nayaks

                                Rajasingha I ...                      (Sitawaka Kingdom)                            (1581-1593)

                                Puviraja Pandaram ...           (Jaffna Kindom)                                    (1582-1591)

                                Dom Joao Dharmapala ...    (Kotte Kingdom)                                  (1551-1597)

                                Seonjo ...                                (Choson Kingdom)                              (1567-1608)            King

                                Nurhaci  ...                             (Jurchen Confederation)                     (1583-1626)            Manchu Chieftan

                                Tsang Dynasty ...                                (Tibet)                                                    (1565-1642)            Kings                    

                                Yonten Gyatso +                  (Tibet)                                                    (1589-1616)            4th Dalai Lama    (Mongolian)

                                Wanli ...                                 (Ming China)                                        (1572-1620)            Emperor

                                Trinh Tung ...                        (Vietnam)                                               (1570-1623)            Trinh Lord

                                Lê The Tông ...                     (Vietnam)                                               (1573-1599)            Nominal Le King

                                Mac Mau Hop ...                  (North Vietnam/Hanoi)                        (1561-1592)            Mac Dynasty

                                Nguyen Hoang ...                 (South Vietnam/Tra Bat)                     (1558-1613)            Nguyen Lord

                                Interregnum ...                      (Lan Xang Kingdom)                           (1583-1591)

                                Sattha ...                                 (Khmer)

                                Sanpet I ...                             (Ayutthaya Kingdom)                         (1569-1590)            King

                                Ali Jalla Abdul Jalil Shah II ... (Johor Sultanate)                 (1571-1597)            Sultan

                                Maulana Muhammad ...      (Banten Sultanate)                               (1580-1596)            Sultan

                                Senapati Ingalaga ...            (Mataram Kingdom)                            (1584-1601)            Sultan

                                Go-Yozei ...                            (Japan)                                                   (1586-1611)            107th Emperor

                                Terumoto Mori                     (Council of Five Elders/Daimyo)       (????-????)            Hiroshima

                                Tayyib ...                               (Funj Sultanate of Sennar)                  (1587-1591)            Sultan

                                Sarsa Dengal ...                     (Ethiopia)                                               (1563-1597)            negusa nagast

                                Bong-he (Borrete) ...            (Kingdom of Kaffa)                              (1565-1605)            Bushasho Dynasty

                                Ambiraj  ...                             (Kingdom of Garo)                               (1567-1600)            Tato (King) Bosha Dynasty

                                Ahmad I al-Mansur ...         (Morocco)                                             (1578-1603)            Saadi Dynasty

                                Askia Ishaq II ...                   (Songhai Empire)                                  (1588-1591)            Emperor

                                ??????????????                     (Kano State)                                          (????-????)            Hausa State

                                Idris Alooma ...                     (Kanem-Bornu Empire)                        (1571-1603)            Mai (King)

                                Adbullah IV ...                      (Baguirmi Sultanate)                            (1568-1608)            Mbangi (Sultan)

                                Alvaro II ...                            (Kongo)                                                 (1587-1614)            King (Nimi a Nkanga)

                                Kambolo Matamba              (Matamba Kingdom)                           (?????????)           King

                                ?????????                              (Kakongo Kingdom)                                                           

                                Njinga Ngola Kilombo kia Kasenda ...  (Ndogno Kingdom)             (1575-1592)            King

                                Paulo Dias de Novais -        (Luanda Colony/Angola)                   (1575-1589)            Portuguese Governor                                         

                                Luis Serrão +                         (Luanda                   (1589-????)            Portuguese Governor

                                Nkongolo? ...                        (Luba Empire)                                       (1585-????)            1st King deposed by his son

                                Kilala  Ilunga                         (Luba Empire)                                       (????-????)            son of Kongolo

                                Chisamharu Negomo Mupuzangutu  -  (Mutapa Kingdom)         (1560-1589)            Monomatapas

                                Gatsi Ruseri +                       (Mutapa Kingdom)                              (1589-1623)            Monomatapas     

                                Wahunsunacock  ...             (Powatan Confederacy)                      (????-1618)            Weroance (Pamunkey)       

                                Alvaro de Zuniga ...             (New Spain)                                          (1585-1590)            7th Viceroy

                                Fernando Torres de Portugal - (Peru)                                               (1584-1589)            Viceroy

                                Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza + (Peru)                                               (1589-1596)            Viceroy (Marquis of Canete)

                                Antonio Barreiros/Cristovao de Barros ... (Brazil)                          (1587-1591)

                                Monteverdi unsuccessfully attempts to get a job in Milan

                                Cantiones sacrae                                                  Byrd

                                Songs of Sundrie Natures                                  Byrd

                                La Pellegrina Intermedii                                      

                                Orchesographie                                                    Arbeau  

                                Yuwu Qinpu (Jade Tree Qin Handbook)          Zhang Jinchao

                                Carpenter, Nathaniel                                                            1589-1628

                                John of St. Thomas                                                              1589-1644

                                Turini, Francesco                                                                 1589-1656               Composer

                                Gilbert, Humphrey                                                                1539-1589

1590                        Young Man amid Roses (Nicholas Hilliard)

                                Faerie Queen, Bk 1 (Spenser)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                TURKISH-PERSIAN WAR -   (1577-1590)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1585-1604)                                        England vs. Spanish Empire

                                EIGHTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION ...   (1585-1598)

                                RUSSO-SWEDISH WAR +                (1590-1595)

                                Luis de Velasco arrives in Mexico City as new Viceroy (1)

                                Battle of Ivry - Henri IV victorious against the Roman Catholic League (3/14)

                                Seige of Paris begins – Henry IV tries to take French capitol  (5/7)

                                Third Siege of Odawara begins - Hideyoshi vs. Hojo clan (5)

                                Third Siege of Odawara ends - Hideyoshi vs. Hojo clan - Hojo surrenders(8/4)

                                Alesandro Farnese rescues citizens of Paris from defeat – Henry IV eventually retreats (9/30)

                                Seige of Paris Ends (9)


                                Peace between Turkey and Persia

                                Moroccan invasion of the Songhai Empire for gold resources

                                Hideyoshi unifies Japan

                                Ronoake settlers disappear, White discovers “Crotoan” carved on a tree

                                Alvaro de Zuniga -               (New Spain)                                          (-1585)   Viceroy

                                Luis de Velasco +                (New Spain)                                          Viceroy

                                Sixtus V -                              (Patriarchate of Rome)

                                Urban VII +-                          (Patriarchate of Rome)

                                Gregory XIV +                     (Patriarchate of Rome)

                                Landi, Stefano                                                                      1590-1655               Composer

                                Benedetti, Giovanni Battista                                              1530-1590

                                Palladio, Andrea                                                                   1518-1590

                                Zarlino, Gioseffo                                                                  1517-1590               Composer

1591                        EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1585-1604)                                        England vs. Spanish Empire

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                EIGHTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION ...   (1585-1598)

                                RUSSO-SWEDISH WAR ...               (1590-1595)

                                Battle of Tondibi - Moroccan army under Judar Pasha defeats Songhai army under Askia Ishaq II (3)

                                Puviraja Pandaram, King of Jaffna, is captured by local officials allied with Portuguese ... beheaded (10/28)


                                Revolt of Aragon

                                Songhai Empire destroyed by Spanish and Portuguese mercenaries in the service of Morocco

                                Gregory XIV -                   (Patriarchate of Rome)                            (1590-1591)

                                Innocent IX +-                   (Patriarchate of Rome)

                                Handl, Jakob (Gallus)                                                          1550-1591               Composer

                                Hatton, Christopher                                                             1540-1591

                                John of the Cross                                                                 1542-1591

1592                        The Last Supper (Jacopo Tintoretto Robusti) (-1594)

Imjin                       Allegory of Rudolph II (Bartholomeus Spranger)

                                Maple Tree Doors (Momoyama Period - Japan) (Hasegawa Tohaku)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1585-1604)                                        England vs. Spanish Empire

                                EIGHTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION ...   (1585-1598)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                RUSSO-SWEDISH WAR ...               (1590-1595)

                                IMJIN WAR  (JAPANESE INVASIONS OF KOREA) +   (1592-1598)

                                Ippolito Aldobrandini is elected Pope as Clement VIII (1/30)

                                Hideyoshi invades Korea with plans to conquer China - 1st and 2nd division landing at Pusan (5/23)

                                Akbar the Great conquers Sind

                                Japanese-Korean War (Imjin War)(Seven Years' War) (-1598)

                                John III -                                (Sweden)                                                House of Vasa

                                Sigismund +                         (Sweden)                                                House of Vasa

                                Clement VIII +                      (Patriarchate of Rome)                      (1592-1604)    Ippolito Aldobrandini

                                Gassendi, Pierre                                                                    1592-1655

                                Jenkins, John                                                                        1592-1678               Composer

                                Mazzocchi, Domenico                                                         1592-1655               Composer

                                Greene, Robert                                                                      1558-1592

                                Montaigne, Michel de                                                         1533-1592               Essayist

1593                        Death of St. Francis (Carducho)

                                The Taming of the Shrew (Shakespeare)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1585-1604)                        England vs. Spanish Empire

                                EIGHTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION ...   (1585-1598)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                RUSSO-SWEDISH WAR ...  (1590-1595)

                                IMJIN WAR  (JAPANESE INVASIONS OF KOREA) ...   (1592-1598)

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS +   (1593-1621)        Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                FIFTEEN YEARS WAR (LONG WAR) +   (1593-1606)                  Ottoman Empire vs. Hapsburg Monarchy

                                Henry IV abjures protestantism – “Paris is well worth a Mass” (7/23)


                                Diet of Uppsala in Sweden upholds Martin Luther's doctrines

                                War between Austria and Turkey (-1606)

                                Hideyoshi  forced to withdraw from Korea

                                Portuguese build Fort Jesus in Mombasa, Kenya

                                Michael the Brave +            (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                De la Tour, Georges                                                             1593-1652

                                Gentileschi, Artemisia                                                          1593-1651

                                Jordaens, Jacob                                                                    1593-1678

                                Walton, Izaac                                                                        1593-1683

1594                        Romeo and Juliet (Shakespeare)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1585-1604)                        England vs. Spanish Empire

                                EIGHTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION ...   (1585-1598)

                                IMJIN WAR  (JAPANESE INVASIONS OF KOREA) ...   (1592-1598)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                RUSSO-SWEDISH WAR ...               (1590-1595)

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)       Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                FIFTEEN YEARS WAR (LONG WAR) ...   (1593-1606)                 Ottoman Empire vs. Hapsburg Monarchy

                                NINE YEARS WAR (TYRONE'S REBELLION) +   (1594-1603)    Gaelic Chiefdoms vs. Elizabethan Irish Govt.

                                Henry IV takes Paris –as King of France at Chartres (2/27)


                                Willem Barents rounds the tip of Novaya Zemla

                                Amfiparnaso                                                         Vecchi

                                1st Book of Ballets for Five Voices                   Morley

                                1st Book of Madrigals                                         Gesualdo

                                Doni, Giovanni                                                                     1594-1647               Composer

                                Herrick, Robert                                                                     1594-1674               Poet (England)

                                Mercula, Tarquinio                                                              1594-1665               Composer

                                Kid, Thomas                                                                         1558-1594

                                Lassus, Orlando di                                                               1532-1594               Composer

                                Mercator, Gerardus                                                              1512-1594               Cartographer

                                Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigida                                         1525-1594               Composer

                                Tintoretto, Jacopo Robusti                                                 1518-1594               Painter

1595                        Venus and Anchises (Annibale Carracci)

                                A Prince Submits to Justice having Accidentally Killed a Shephard Boy (Akbar)

                                Paeonies (Yusho) (Japan) (-1600)

                                Briefe and True Report of the New found land of Virginia (Hariot)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WAR ...   (1570-1595)                                                Sweden vs. Russia

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1585-1604)                        England vs. Spanish Empire

                                EIGHTH FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION ...   (1585-1598)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                RUSSO-SWEDISH WAR - (1590-1595)

                                IMJIN WAR  (JAPANESE INVASIONS OF KOREA) ...   (1592-1598)

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)       Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs