HOME                                                                                                        1500’s                         1600's                        1700’s

         

 

1600                        Head of a Man (Hendrick Goltzius)

                                Polyphemus Hurling Rocks at Acis (Annibale Carracci)

                                England's Helicon (Nicholas Breton)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1585-1604)                        England vs. Spanish Empire

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)       Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                FIFTEEN YEARS WAR (LONG WAR) ...   (1593-1606)                 Ottoman Empire vs. Hapsburg Monarchy

                                NINE YEARS WAR (TYRONE'S REBELLION) ...   (1594-1603)    Gaelic Chiefdoms vs. Elizabethan Irish Govt.

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR +                 (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                Giordano Bruno burned at the stake as a heretic in the Campo di Fiori, Rome (2/17)

                                Battle of Sekigahara - Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats rivals to become ruler of Japan (10/21) (9/15 Chinese Cal)

                                Henry IV of France marries Marie de' Medici (12/17)

                                British East India Company receives charter from Elizabeth I (12/31)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Tokugawa period in Japan - military and administrative headquarters established at Edo (Tokyo) (-1868)

                                Andrew -                                (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Michael the Brave +            (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                De Magnete (William Gilbert)

                                Nuove Musiche

                                Euridice                                                                                Caccini

                                La Representazione di anima e di corpo        Cavalieri

                                Euridice                                                                                Jacopo Peri

                                Farina, Carlo                                                                          1600-1640               Composer

                                Gaultier, Denis                                                                      1600-1672               Composer

                                Lorrain, Claude Gellee                                                         1600-1682               Painter (Lorraine, France)

                                Marazzoli, Marco                                                                 1600-1662               Composer

                                Moulinie, Etienne                                                                 1600-1669               Composer

                                Ruysdael, Salomon van                                                      1600-1670

                                Bruno, Giordano                                                                   1548-1600

                                Nashe, Thomas                                                                    1567-1600

                                Ursus, Nicholas Reimers                                                     1551-1600

1601                        Cardinal Don Fernando Nino De Guevara (El Greco)

                                Hamlet (Shakespeare) (1603)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1585-1604)                          England vs. Spanish Empire

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                FIFTEEN YEARS WAR (LONG WAR) ...   (1593-1606)                   Ottoman Empire vs. Hapsburg Monarchy

                                NINE YEARS WAR (TYRONE'S REBELLION) ...   (1594-1603)      Gaelic Chiefdoms vs. Elizabethan Irish Govt.

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                Siege of Kinsale - English landing in Ireland (10/2)

                                Irish rebellion under Hugh O'neill, Earl of Tyrone is put down

                                Elizabethan Poor Law - charges the parishes with providing for the needy

                                Earl of Essex attempts rebellion and is executed

                                Michael the Brave -             (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Radu Serban +                     (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Michael the Brave -             (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Concerning the More Certain Fundamentals of Astrology (Johannes Kepler)

                                La Nuove Musiche                                              Caccini

                                The Triumphes of Oriana                                    Thomas Weelkes (Morley)

                                Fermat, Pierre de                                                                   1601-1668

                                Tycho Brahe                                                                         1546-1601               Astronomer

1602                        Quince, Cabbage, Melon and Cucumber (Juan Sanchez Cotan)

                                The Birth of Prince Salim (Chatar / Keshav)

                                Hercules Fountain (Adriaen de Vries)

                                Bodleian Library at Oxford opens to the Public

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1585-1604)                          England vs. Spanish Empire

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                FIFTEEN YEARS WAR (LONG WAR) ...   (1593-1606)                   Ottoman Empire vs. Hapsburg Monarchy

                                NINE YEARS WAR (TYRONE'S REBELLION) ...   (1594-1603)      Gaelic Chiefdoms vs. Elizabethan Irish Govt.

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR +   (1602-1623)                   

                                Foundation of Dutch East India Company (Netherlands)  (3/20)

Savoy in alliance with Philip III of Spain  attacks Geneva - Protestant cantons ally with France (12/11-12)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Holy War between Persia under Shah Abbas I and Ottoman Empire(-1618)

                                Henry IV …                           (France)                                                 (1589-1610)            King (Bourbon)

Philip III …                            (Spain)                                                   (1598-1621)            King (Hapsburg) 

Moyses Szekely +                (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Galileo Galilei discovers law of falling bodies

                                Cento concerti ecclesiastici                              Viadana

                                Cavalli, Pier Francesco                                                        1602-1676               Composer

                                Chambonnieres, Jacques Champion de                            1602-1672               Composer

                                Fantini, Girolamo                                                                  1602-                       Composer

                                Guericke, Otto von                                                               1602-1686

                                Kircher, Athanasius                                                            1602-1680               Composer

                                Lilly, William                                                                         1602-1681

                                Mazarin, Jules (Giulio)                                                         1602-1661               Prelate/Statesman (b. Italy)

                                Cabezon, Hernando de                                                        1541-1602               Composer

                                Cavalieri, Emilio de'                                                              1550-1602               Composer

                                Holborne, Anthony                                                             1547-1602               Composer

1603                        Flight into Egypt (Annibale Caracci)

                                Virgin Annunciate (Francesco Mochi) (-1608)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1585-1604)                          England vs. Spanish Empire

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                FIFTEEN YEARS WAR (LONG WAR) ...   (1593-1606)                   Ottoman Empire vs. Hapsburg Monarchy

                                NINE YEARS WAR (TYRONE'S REBELLION) -   (1594-1603)       Gaelic Chiefdoms vs. Elizabethan Irish Govt.

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                Samuel Champlain arrives in North America on fur trading expedition (3/15)

                                Elizabeth I Queen of England dies (3/24)

                                Hugh O'Neill surrenders to Montjoy - ends Tyrone's Rebellion (3/30)

                                James I is crowned King of England (7/25)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                End of Tudor Dynasty in England

                                Great Britain created from Union of Scottish and English crowns under the Stuart James I

                                Ottomans retreat from Caucasus and Azerbaijan

                                Persia conquers Tabriz, Erivan, Shirvan, and Kars

                                Tokugawa Ieyasu appointed shogun of Japan - Tokugawa Shogunate established - moves capital to Edo (Tokyo)

                                Samuel de Champlain explores St. Lawrence River

                                Academy of Lynxes (dei Lincei) founded in Rome

                                Elizabeth I -                           (England)                                               (1558-1603) Queen (d. Henry VIII/ Anne Boleyn)

                                James I +                               (England)                                               (1603-162King (James IV of Scotland) (7/25)

                                Moyses Szekely -                (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Rudolph II +                          (Transylvania)                                      Emperor

                                Mehmet III -                          (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan (Muhammed)

                                Ahmet I +                              (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Tokugawa Ieyasu +             (Japan)                                                   Shogun

                                Pierre Dugua +                    (Acadia)                                 (-1608)   Governor (Sieur de Mons)

                                Uranometria (Johann Bayer)  pub. Augsberg, Germany

                                Le Nain, Louis                                                                      1603-1648

                                Uccellini, Marco                                                                   1603-1680               Composer

                                Charron, Pierre                                                                      1541-1603

                                de Monte, Philippe                                                              1521-1603               Composer

                                Morley, Thomas                                                                   1557-1603

                                Recorde, Robert                                                                   1510-1603

                                Vecchi, Orazio                                                                       1540-1603               Composer

                                Viete, Francois                                                                      1540-1603

1604                        The Passionate Sherpherd (Nicholas Breton)

                                Othello (Shakespeare)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                ANGLO-SPANISH WAR -   (1585-1604)                            England vs. Spanish Empire

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                FIFTEEN YEARS WAR (LONG WAR) ...   (1593-1606)   Ottoman Empire vs. Hapsburg Monarchy

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                Hampton Court Conference - no relaxation by the Church toward Puritans - James I bans Jesuits

                                England and Spain make peace

                                "Time of Troubles" in Russia - Polish intervention in Russia (-1613)

                                Russians begin to settle Siberia and found Tomsk

                                Ottomans retreat from Iraq

                                French East India Company founded

                                Charles IX -                          (Sweden)                                                House of Vasa  (regent)

                                Charles IX +                         (Sweden)                                                House of Vasa  (King)

                                SN 1604 first observed in northern Italy (10/9)

                                Kepler begins observing SN 1604 (10/17)

                                Albert, Heinrich                                                                    1604-1651               Composer

                                Du Fault, Francois                                                               1604-1670               Composer

                                Vittori, Loreto                                                                       1604-1670               Composer

                                Banez, Dominic                                                                     1528-1604

                                Merulo, Claudio                                                                   1533-1604               Composer

1605                        Death of the Virgin (Caravaggio) (-1606)

                                Dipak Raga (Nisradi) (Mewar Painting)

                                Coronation of Jahangir (Mughal) (-1606)

                                The Dead Christ (Gregorio Fernandez)

                                Don Quixote de la Mancha, Pt I (Cervantes) 1st modern novel

                                Volpone (Jonson)

                                King Lear (Shakespeare)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)       Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                FIFTEEN YEARS WAR (LONG WAR) ...   (1593-1606) Ottoman Empire vs. Hapsburg Hapsburg Monarchy

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...                (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                Boris Gudanov dies of a stroke (4/13)

                                Fedor II of Russia is deposed and murdered (7/20)

                                Battle of Kircholm - Polish-Lithuanian forces defeat Swedish army (9/27)

                                Gunpowder Plot to blow up English Parliament discovered - Guy Fawkes and others are arrested & tried (11/5)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                St. Vincent de Paul's ship captured by brigands from Marseilles to Toulouse

                                Boris Godunov -                   (Russia)                                                 (1598-)   Czar

                                Fedor II +-                             (Russia)                                                 *****    Czar (murdered)

                                Demetrius I +                       (Russia)                                                 (-1606)   Czar (Dimitri the Imposter)

                                Rudolph II -                           (Transylvania)                                      Emperor

                                Stephen Bocskai +              (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Akbar -                                  (Mughal Empire)                 (1556-)   Jalal ud din Muhammad 

                                Jahangir +                            (Mughal Empire)                 (-1627)   Nur ud din Muhammad 

                                Clement VIII -

                                Leo XI +-

                                Paul V +

                                On the Advancement of Learning (Bacon)

                                Requiem                                                                                Thomas Luis de Victoria

                                Buccinate in neomenia tuba                             Gabrieli

                                Lachrymae                                                            Dowland

                                5th Book of Madrigals                                       Monteverdi

                                Musae Sioniae                                                     Praetorius

                                Benevoli, Orazio                                                                   1605-1672               Composer

                                Carissimi, Giamomo                                                              1605-1674               Composer

1606                        Macbeth (Shakespeare)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                FIFTEEN YEARS WAR (LONG WAR) -   (1593-1606)     Ottoman Empire vs. Hapsburg Monarchy

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                Charter of 1606 - James I grants royal charter to Virginia Company for land in VA, DE, and MD (4/10)

                                Captain Newport sails back to England from Jamestown for help - leaves 50 settlers behind (9/10)

                                Treaty of Zsitva-Torok - between Ottoman Empire and Austria - Austria abandons Transylvania (11/11)

                                Discovery of Australia  by Willem Janszoon (11)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Laws passed in England against Roman Catholics

                                Several attempts by pretenders to gain Russian throne - cossack and peasant uprisings (-1608)

                                Demetrius I -                        (Russia)                                                 (1605-)   Czar (Dimitri the Imposter)

                                Basil IV Chouiski +            (Russia)                                                 (-1610)   Czar

                                Ieremia Movila -                   (Moldavia)                                             Prince

                                Simeon Movila +  (Moldavia)                                             Prince

                                Stephen Bocskai -               (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Corneille, Pierre                                                                    1606-1684

                                Davenant, William                                                               1606-1668

                                Rembrandt, Harmenzoon van Rijn                                     1606-1669               Painter

                                Waller, Edmund                                                                    1606-1687               Poet (Coleshill, Hertfordshire)

                                Lipsius, Justus                                                                     1547-1606

                                Lyly, John                                                                             1554-1606

1607                        EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                Battle of Gibraltar - Dutch fleet destroys anchored Spanish fleet (4/25)

                                Jamestown colonists make landfall at Cape Henry (4/26)

                                Jamestown is settled - first permanent English colony in North America (5/14)

                                Popham Colony founded in Maine (Fort St. George) when Gift of God (plymouth Company) arrives (8/13)

                                Flight of the Earls from Ireland - set the stage for the Plantation of Ulster (9)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                English Parliament rejects proposals for union between England and Scotland

                                Peace between China and Japan

                                Establishment of Jamestown, Virginia by English under John Smith - Pocahontas saves his life

                                Henry Hudson explores in eastern Greenland, Canada and Hudson River

                                Demetrius II +                      (Russia)                                                 (-1610)   Czar (Dimitri)

                                Simeon Movila -                   (Moldavia)                                             Prince

                                Sigisimund Rakoczi +        (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Monteverdi employed at the Gonzaga court in Mantua

                                Monteverdi's Orfeo produced in Mantua

                                Monteverdi's Scherzi musicali, 1st book is published  

                                Orfeo                                                                      Monteverdi

                                Dafne                                                                     Marco da Gagliano

                                Del sonare sopra il basso                                  Agazzari

                                Chettle, Henry                                                                      1560-1607               Dramatist (England)

1608                        Eskimo woman and baby (John White)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                Jamestown destroyed by fire (1/7)

                                Susenyos crowned Emperor of Ethiopia (3/18)

                                Protestant Union formed in Germany led by Frederick IV(5/14)

                                Samuel Champlain founds Colony of Quebec for France - first permanent French outpost (7/3)

                                Champlain shoots and kills two Iroquois chiefs - sets the tone for next hundred years (7/30)

                                First English representative of India lands at Surat (8/24)

                                John Smith elected Council President of Jamestown (9/10)

                                Sigisimund Rakoczi -         (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Gabriel Bathory +               (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Frescobaldi is the organist at Saint Peter's, Rome

                                Arianna                                                                 Monteverdi

                                Music for San Rocco                                           G. Gabrielli

                                Borelli, Giovanni                                                                   1608-1679

                                Milton, John                                                                         1608-1674

                                Dee, John                                                                              1527-1608               Math/Astrologer(London)

                                Sackville, Thomas                                                                1536-1608

1609                        The Martyrdom of St. Andrew (Juan de Roelas)

                                Flight into Egypt (Elsheimer)

                                Winter Scene with Skaters near a Castle (Avercamp)

                                Introduction to the Devout Life (St. Francis of Sales)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                FIRST ANGLO-POWHATAN WAR +   (1609-1614)

                                The Relation debuts in Germany - one of the first newspapers (1/15)

                                Edict of Expulsion of the Meriscos from Spain signed by Phillip III (4/4)

                                Twelve Years' Truce - ends fighting betw. Spain and the United Provinces - virtual Netherlands indep. (4/9)

                                Second Charter of Virginia - official ratification (5/23)

                                Letter of Majesty - Bohemia is granted religious freedom (7/6)

                                Bermuda first settled  by survivors of Sea Venture (7/28)

                                Galileo demonstates his telescope to Venetian lawmakers (8/25)

                                Henry Hudson first sights Delaware Bay (8/28)

                                Henry Husdson enters New York Bay aboard Halve Maen (9/2)

                                Henry Hudson discovers Hudson River (9/12)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Catholic League led by Maximilian of Bavaria forms in opposition to the Protestant Union

                                Bank of Amsterdam founded

                                Poland intervenes in Russia during the Time of Troubles (-1618)

                                Henry Hudson Voyage - claims part of North America for the United Provinces

                                Warsaw becomes the capital of Poland

                                Astronomia nova (Kepler)

                                Kepler publishes First Two Laws of Planetary Motion

                                Heinrich Schutz studies with Giovanni Gabrielli at Venice

                                "Three Blind Mice"                                             Thomas Ravenscroft

                                Le varie musiche                                                  Peri

                                Leyster, Judith                                                                      1609-1660               Painter

                                Suckling, John                                                                      1609-1641

                                Arminius (Jacob Harmanzoon)                                          1560-1609

                                Carracci, Annibale                                                               1560-1609               Painter

1610                        Kermis (David Vinckb oons)

                                St. Cecilia and the Angel (Carlo Saraceni)

                                Illustrations to Anvar-i-Suhayli - Bidpai's Fables (Mughal School) (-1611)

                                L'Astree (Honoré d'Urfé)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                FIRST ANGLO-POWHATAN WAR ...   (1609-1614)

                                END OF RENAISSANCE

                                Galileo discovers moons of Jupiter (1/7)

                                Swedish troops under Jacob de la Gardie occupy Moscow (3/12)

                                Henri IV of France is assassinated  by Francois Ravaillac (5/14)

                                Francois Ravaillac is drawn and quartered in the Place de Grève (5/27)

                                John Guy and 39 colonists set sail from Bristol to colonize Newfoundland (7/5)

                                Galileo sees Saturn through telescope – thinks it is composed of three planets (7/25)

                                Henry Hudson discovers Hudson Bay thinking he has found the Northwest Passage (8/2)

                                Louis XIII is crowned King of France (10/17)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                The Great Contract - James I to receive an annual income of £200,000

                                Tea introduced to Europe

                                Basil Shruisky is deposed and the Russian throne offered to Wladyslaw, son of Sigismund,  King of Poland

                                Santa Fe established as new capitol of New Mexico, Pedro de Peralta governor

                                Sidereal Messenger (Sidereus Nuncius)  (Galileo Galilei) (3)

                                Tyrocinium Chymicum  (Jean Beguin)

                                Galileo reveals stellar observations made for the first time with a telescope - Jupiter's moons

                                Henry IV -                             (France)                                 (1589-1610)         King (of Navarre) murdered (Bourbon)

                                Louis XIII +                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)         King

                                Basil IV Chouiski -             (Russia)                                                 (1606-)   Czar

                                Demetrius II -                       (Russia)                                                 (1607-)   Czar (Dimitri)

                                Ladislaus IV +                      (Russia)                                                 (-1612)   Czar (from Poland)

                                Battiferri, Luigi                                                                      1610-1682               Composer

                                Du Mont, Henri                                                                    1610-1684               Composer

                                Huang Zongxi                                                                       1610-1695               Philosopher (China)

                                Lambert, Michel                                                                   1610-1696               Composer

                                Louis XIII of France                                                            1610-1643               King of France

                                Ostade, Adraen van                                                            1610-1685

                                Caravaggio, Michaelangelo Merisi                                   1572-1610               Painter

1611                        Descent from the Cross (Peter Paul Rubens) (-1614)

                                King James Bible

                                The Tempest (Shakespeare)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                FIRST ANGLO-POWHATAN WAR ...   (1609-1614)

                                BEGINNING OF THE AGE OF KINGS

                                Henry Hudson and his son are set adrift in mutiny (6/22)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Plantation of Ulster - English and Scottish Protestant colonists settle in Ulster

                                Gustavus Adolphus succeeds to the Swedish throne

                                Rebellion of the French princes (-1614)

                                Ottoman Empire controls Walachia

                                Ottoman Empire restored

                                8th Voyage of the British East India Company led by Cpt. John Saris to Japan

                                Charles IX -                          (Sweden)                                                House of Vasa  (King)

                                Gustavus II Adolphus +      (Sweden)                                                House of Vasa 

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Radu Serban -                      (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Radu Mihnea +                     (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Parthenia

                                Bruna, Pablo                                                                         1611-1679               Composer

                                Cartwright, William                                                              1611-1643

                                Guami, Gioseffo                                                                    1540-1611               Composer

                                Masson, Jean Papire                                                           1544-1611               Historian/Geographer (France)

                                Victoria, Tomas Luis de                                                      1548-1611               Composer

                                L’Estoile, Pierre de                                                               1546-1611

1612                        EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                FIRST ANGLO-POWHATAN WAR ...   (1609-1614)

                                Battle of Swally - marks the rise of the British East India Company and the decline of the Portuguese (11/29-30)

                                ------------------------------------------------------

                                Ferdinand II becomes king of Hungary and Bohemia

                                Dutch merchants establish post on Manhattan Island

                                Louvre construction begins (-1690)

                                De Legibus ac Deo Legislatore (Suarez)

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Rudolf II -                              (Holy Roman Empire)

                                Matthias +                             (Holy Roman Empire)                         (-1619)   Emperor

                                Ladislaus IV -                       (Russia)                                                 (1610-)   Czar (from Poland)

                                Novum organum (Bacon)

                                Arnauld, Antoine                                                                 1612-1694

                                Bradstreet, Anne                                                                  1612-1672

                                Butler, Joseph                                                                       1612-1680

                                Hammerschmidt, Andreas                                                  1612-1675               Composer

                                Gabrielli, Giovanni                                                                1556-1612               Composer

                                Gerard, John                                                                          1545-1612

1613                        Ceiling Frescoe in the Casino Rospigliosi, Rome (Guido Reni)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                FIRST ANGLO-POWHATAN WAR ...   (1609-1614)

                                Elizabeth Stuart marries Frederick V of Bohemia, Elector Palatinate (2/14)

                                ---------------------------------------------------------------

                                Estates-General forms in France for last time until 1788

                                Accession of Michael I Romanov in Russia

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Michael I +                            (Russia)                                                 (-1645)   Emperor (Romanov)

                                Gabriel Bathory -                (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Gabriel Bethlen +                (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Monteverdi at San Marco

                                The Art of Music and Instructor  (Cerone)

                                Cleveland, John                                                                    1613-1658

                                Crashaw, Richard                                                                 1613-1649

                                Gu Yanwu                                                                              1613-1682               Philosopher (China)

                                La Rouchefoucald                                                                1613-1680

                                Suyderhoef, Jonas                                                               1613-1686

                                Taylor, Jeremy                                                                      1613-1667

                                Bodley, Thomas                                                                   1545-1613

                                Gesualdo, Carlo                                                                    1560-1613               Composer

1614                        The Descent from the Cross (Rubens)

                                Last Communion of St. Jerome (Domenichino)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                FIRST ANGLO-POWHATAN WAR +   (1609-1614)

                                John Rolfe marries Pocahontas (Lady Rebecca)  in Virginia (4/5)

                                James I dissolves the "Addled Parliament" which has failed to pass any legislation

                                Estates-general summoned in France to curb the nobility - last meeting until 1789

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                John Napier discovers logarithms

                                Mediciean Gradual                                               published in Rome

                                Toccate e partite d’intavolatura di cembalo    Frescobaldi           (-1615)   

                                More, Henry                                                                         1614-1682               Philosopher (England)       

                                Brantome, Pierre de                                                              1539-1614

                                Theotokopoulos, Domenicos (El Greco)                          1541-1614               Painter

1615                        Portrait of Ibrahim Adil Shah II (Deccan - Bijapur School)

                                Don Quixote de la Mancha, Pt II (Cervantes)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                Tribes in Northern China form military organizations - later called Manchus (-1620)

                                First chemical equation diagrammed by Jean Beguin

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Canzone et sonate                                               Gabrieli

                                Symphoniae sacrae II                                         Gabrieli

                                Simpson, Christopher                                                          1615-1669               Composer

1616                        A Description of New England  (John Smith)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                Tobacco becomes export staple for Virginia

                                Smallpox epidemic decimates Native American population in New England

                                Dutch navigator Willem Schouten rounds Cape Horn

                                Spanish forced to leave Japan

                                Cornelius Hendricksen

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Radu Mihnea -                      (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                Froberger, Johann Jakob                                                    1616-1667               Composer

                                L’Estrange, Roger                                                                1616-1704

                                Wallis, John                                                                          1616-1703

                                Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de                                         1547-1616               Writer

                                Shakespeare, William                                                          1564-1616               Playwright

1617                        EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                Treaty of Stolbovo - between Russia and Sweden (2/27)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                James I's only visit to  Scotland  - Church of England vs Church of Scotland

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Ahmet I -                               (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Mustafa I +                            (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Raja Wodeyar I -                  (Mysore)

                                Chamaraja Wodeyar V +   (Mysore)

                                Heinrich Schutz becomes Kapellmeister at the Saxon court of Dresden

                                Affetti musicali                                                     Marini

                                Banchetto musicale                                            Schein

                                Cudworth, Ralph                                                                  1617-1688

                                Murillo, Bartolome, Esteban                                               1617-1682               Painter (Seville, Spain) (1618)

                                Thomas of Ypres                                                                  1617-1678               Painter

                                Napier, John                                                                          1550-1617

                                Thou, Jacques August de                                                  1553-1617

1618                        Portrait of a Woman (Michiel van Mierevelt)

                                Juno Discovering Jupiter with Io (Pieter Lastman)

                                Jahangir's Dream of Shah Abbas I's Visit (Abu'l-Hasan) (1619)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR +   (1618-1648)

                                Defenestration of Prague - two imperial Catholic ministers thrown out of window at Hradcin Castle (5/23)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Thirty Years War begins with Defenestration of Prague (-1648)

                                Paul Imbert - French explorer -  reaches Timbuktu        

                                Outbreak of fighting between Manchus and China

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Mustafa I -                             (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Osman II +                            (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Kepler publishes last of three laws of planetary motion

                                Opella nova                                                          Schein

                                Court, Pieter de la                                                                1618-1685

                                Cowley, Abraham                                                                1618-1667

                                Sweerts, Michael                                                                  1618-1664

                                Lovelace, Richard                                                                1618-1658

                                Caccini, Giulio                                                                       1551-1618               Composer

1619                        The water carrier of Seville (Velasquez)

                                Jahangir visiting his father's tomb at Sikandra (Manohar)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                Bohemians depose Ferdinand II and elect Frederick V -the "Winter King" - as ruler

                                Bank of Hamburg founded

                                Bidar Sultanate is absorbed by the Bijapur Sultanate

                                Colonial American slave trade begins - twenty slaves brought to Jamestown on Dutch ship

                                First American Parliament meets at Jamestown, Virginia

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Matthias -                              (Holy Roman Empire)                         (1612-)   Emperor

                                Ferdinand II +                       (Holy Roman Empire)                         (-1637)   Emperor

                                De Cometis (Kepler)

                                Harmonice Mundi (Kepler)

                                Seventh book of Madrigals                               Monteverdi

                                Syntagma musicum                                             Praetorius

                                Psalms of David as motets and concertos...    Heinrich Schutz

                                Colbert, Jean-Baptiste                                                         1619-1683

                                Horrocks, Jeremiah                                                              1619-1641

                                Strozzi, Barbara                                                                     1619-1663               Composer

                                Soto de Langa                                                                      1534-1619               Musician

                                Yonge, Nicholas                                                                           -1619               Musician

1620                        EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS ...   (1593-1621)         Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                Battle of Cecora begins - Ottomans vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (9/17)

                                Battle of Cecora ends - Ottoman army defeats Polish-Lithuanian forces - ends Magnate Wars (10/7)

                                Battle of White Mountain - Frederick V /the Protestants crushed by Ferdinand II/Maximilian of Bavaria (11/8)

                                Battle of White Mountain - end of Bohemian independence (11/8)

                                Pilgrims set sail from Plymouth (9/16)

                                Mayflower lands at Cape Cod, signs Mayflower Compact (11/19)

                                Plymouth Landing  (12/26)

                                ------------------------------------------------------------

                                Kingdom of Navarre merges with France

                                New Plymouth Colony established by Separatists (corporate)

                                First public library opens in Virginia

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Frederick V -                       (Bohemia)                                             Luxemburg Dynasty (of the Palatinate)

                                Shenzong -                            (China)                                                  (1573-)   14th Ming Dynasty (Wanli Era)

                                Guangzong +                        (China)                                                  (-1621)   15th Ming Dynasty (Taichang Era)

                                Brome, Alexander                                                                 1620-1666

                                Mariotte, Edme                                                                     1620-1684

                                Noordt, Anthoni van                                                           1620-1675               Composer

                                Picard, Jean                                                                           1620-1682

                                Rosenmuller, Johann                                                           1620-1684               Composer

                                Campion, Thomas                                                                1567-1620

                                Stevin, Simon                                                                        1548-1620

1621                        Anatomy of Melancholy (Robert Burton)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                MOLDAVIAN MAGNATE WARS -   (1593-1621)           Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Ottomans & Hapsburgs

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                End of Spanish-Dutch truce

                                Dutch West India Company founded

                                Huguenot uprising put down by Richelieu (-1622)

                                Count Duke Olivares rises to power (Spain)

                                Nurhachi expels the Ming and sets up Manchu capital at Liaoyang

                                Treaty between Plymouth Pilgrims and Wampanoag Tribe w/ Squanto

                                1st Thanksgiving at Plymouth

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Philip III -                              (Spain)                                                   King (House of Austria)

                                Philip IV +                            (Spain)                                                   House of Austria

                                Guangzong -                         (China)                                                  (1620-)   15th Ming Dynasty (Taichang Era)

                                Xizong +                                (China)                                                  (-1628)   16th Ming Dynasty (Tianqi Era)

                                Paul V -

                                Gregory XV +

                                Musica Boscareccia                                           Schein

                                La Fontaine, Jean de                                                            1621-1695               Poet (Chateau-Thierry, France)

                                Marvell, Andrew                                                                  1621-1678

                                Bellarmine, Robert                                                                1542-1621

                                Praetorius, Michael                                                              1571-1621

                                Sweelinck, Jan Pieterszoon                                                 1562-1621               Composer

                                Vair, Guillaume du                                                                1556-1621

1622                        Apollo and Daphne (Bernini)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                James I dissolves Parliament for asserting its right to debate foreign affairs

                                Spain occupies Valtelline Pass - war with France follows

                                Battle of Wimpfen and Rochst - Count Tilly defeats Protestant forces

                                Execution of Christian missionaries in Japan reaches its height (-1624)

                                Powhatan Confederacy begins intermittent war (-1644)

                                Dutch massacre English at Amboina in the Molucca islands      (1623)

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Osman II -                             (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Mustafa I +                            (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Moliere                                                                                  1622-1673

                                Varen, Bernhard                                                                   1622-1650

                                Vaughn, Henry                                                                     1622-1695               Poet (Brecknockshire, Wales)

                                Viviani,                                                                                   1622-1703

                                Cima, Giovanni Paolo                                                          1570-1622               Composer

                                Maier, Michael                                                                     1568-1622               Composer

1623                        Adone (Marino)

                                The New Cyneas  (Emeric Crucé)

                                Shakespeare's first folio

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                PERSIAN-OTTOMAN WAR ...   (1602-1623)

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                Duke of Buckingham and Charles, Prince of Wales visit Spain on unsuccessful attempt to negotiate marriage

                                Maximilian of Bavaria receives electoral vote held previously by Palatinate

                                Cornelius Jacobsen

                                Dutch West India Companyfounds New Netherland

                                Persians capture Baghdad

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Radu Mihnea +                     (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Mustafa I -                             (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Murad IV +                           (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Gregory XV -

                                Urban VIII +

                                Israelbrunnlein                                                                                    Schein

                                Historia der frohlichen und siegreichen Auferstehung                               Schutz

                                Becker, Dietrich                                                                    1623-1679               Composer

                                Cesti, Marc' Antonio                                                           1623-1669               Composer

                                Pascal, Blaise                                                                        1623-1662

                                Petty, William                                                                       1623-1687

                                Playford, John                                                                      1623-1686               Composer

                                Reincken, Jan Adam                                                            1623-1722               Composer

                                Schmelzer, Johann Heinrich                                               1623-1680               Composer

                                Byrd, William                                                                        1543-1623               Composer

                                Weelkes, Thomas                                                                                1575-1623               Composer

1624                        Laughing Cavalier (Frans Hals)

                                1st Duke of Hamilton as a Boy (Daniel Mytens)

                                River Landscape (Lan Ying - "Last Master of the Che School" - trad)

                                Der Weg zu Christo (Jakob Boehme)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire                                                                  

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                Alliance between James I and France - Parliament votes supplies for war against Spain

                                Cardinal Richelieu becomes chief minister in France (-1642)

                                Richelieu enters and soon dominates royal Council of State

                                French-Dutch treaty

                                Dutch drive English out of spice trade of the East Indies

                                Dutch begin their 30 year rule in Pernambuco, Brazil

                                Spanish under Ambrogio Spinola besiege Breda in the Netherlands (-1625)

                                Virginia becomes a crown colony

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Il Combattimento di Tancredi                          Monteverdi

                                Tabulatura Nova                                                 Scheidt

                                Fox, George                                                                           1624-1691               Religious leader (England)

                                Guarini, Guarino                                                                   1624-1683

                                Sydenham, Thomas                                                             1624-1689

                                Boehme, Jakob                                                                     1575-1624               Religious Mystic (Gorlitz, Germany)

1625                        Air (Albani) (from the "Elements" series)

                                Willem van Heythuyzen (Frans Hals)

                                De Jure Belli et Pacis (Hugo Grotius)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                Charles I marries Henrietta Maria, sister of Louis XIII of France

                                Charles I dissloves Parliament which refuses to give him money

                                Huguenot uprising

                                Surrender of Breda - Spanish under Ambrogio Spinola victorious

                                Christian IV, Protestant King of Denmark, enters war against Ferdinand II

                                James I (VI)-                         (England)                                               (1603-1625)         King

                                Charles I +                            (England)                                               (1625-1649)         King

                                Maurice of Orange -           (Dutch Republic)                 Stadholder

                                Frederick Henry +              (Dutch Republic)                 Stadholder

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)         King

                                Compendium of Music (predate 1628)              Descartes

                                Cantiones sacrae                                                                Schutz

                                Bartholin, Erasmus                                                               1625-1698

                                Geulinex, Arnold                                                                  1625-1669

                                d'Urfe, Honore                                                                      1568-1625               Novelist

                                Gibbons, Orlando                                                                 1583-1625               Composer (England)

                                Lodge, Thomas                                                                    1557-1625

                                Marino, Giambattista                                                           1569-1625               Poet (Italy)

                                Reyman, Matthaus                                                              1565-1625               Composer

1626                        EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                Battle of Brunswick - Count Tilly defeats Danish troops

                                Battle of Dessau - Catholic forces under von Wallenstein defeat Protestants

                                Battle of Lutter - Christian IV defeated

                                Peter Minuit purchases Manhattan for Dutch from Manahata Indians for $24 - New Amsterdam founded

                                First French settlements on Madagascar

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Miron Movila +                    (Moldavia)                                             Prince (Barnovschi)

                                Radu Mihnea -                      (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                La Catena d'Adone                                             Domenico Mazzocchi

                                Mouton, Charles                                                                  1626-1710               Composer

                                Couperin, Louis                                                                    1626-1661               Composer

                                Legrenzi, Giovanni                                                               1626-1690               Composer

                                Redi, Franceso                                                                      1626-1698

                                Bacon, Francis                                                                      1561-1626

                                Breton, Nicholas                                                                  1545-1626               Writer (England)

                                Cerone, Domenico                                                               1560-1626               Composer

                                Dowland, John                                                                     1563-1626               Composer

                                Gunter, Edmund                                                                   1581-1626               Mathemetician/Astronomer (England)

                                Raleigh, Walter                                                                     1552-1626

1627                        Jacob Reproching Laban for giving him Rachel... (Hendrick Terbrugghen)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR +   (1627-1673)

                                Siege of La Rochelle - Huguenots beseiged by Richelieu

                                Charles I raises forced loan to aid Huguenots

                                Bohemia formally declared a Hapsburg crownland

                                Bohemia creates new constitution that confirms hereditary rule of the Hapsburgs

                                Imperial forces under Counts Tilly and Wallenstein subdue most of Protestant Germany

                                Duke of Buckingham leads disastrous expedition to the Isle of Re

                                Kepler's Rudolphine Tables

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Jahangir -                             (Mughal Empire)                                 Nur ud din Muhammad  (1605-)

                                Shah Jahan +                       (Mughal Empire)                                 (-1658) (1628)

                                Leipziger Kantional                                           Schein

                                Dafne                                                                     Schutz

                                Bossuet, Jacques Benigne                                                 1627-1704               Prelate/Orator (France)       

                                Boyle, Robert                                                                        1627-1691

                                Kerll, Franz                                                                            1627-1693               Composer

                                Ray, John                                                                              1627-1705

                                Aguilera de Heredia, Sebastian                                         1565-1627               Composer

                                Cotán, Juan Sáanchez                                                         1560-1627               Painter (Orgaz, Spain)          (9/8)

                                Lupo, Thomas                                                                      1571-1627               Composer

1628                        St. Serapion (Zurbaran)

                                Shah Jahan Receiving Ambassadors from the Persian Emperor, Shah Abbas I

                                St. Andrew (Francois Duquesnoy) (-1640)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                 Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                            Vietnam

                                WAR OF THE MANTUAN SUCCESSION +   (1628-1631)

                                Petition of Right - Charles I forced to accept Parliaments statement of civil rights in return for finances

                                Duke of Buckingham assassinated

                                The Republic joins the anti-Spanish coalition (-1648)

                                Huguenots surrender to Richelieu -La Rochelle captured - Huguenots lose all political power

                                Thomas Morton and Merrymount colonists celebrate May Day (5/1).  Miles Standish opposition

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Abbas I The Great -             (Safavid Persia)                                   (1586-) 5th

                                Safi I +                                   (Safavid Persia)                                   (-1642) 6th

                                Xizong -                                 (China)                                                  (1621-)   16th Ming Dynasty (Tianqi Era)

                                Sizong +                                 (China)                                                  (-1645)   17th Ming Dynasty (Chongzhen Era)

                                Essay on the Motion of the Heart and the Blood (Harvey)   demonstrates circulation of blood

                                Carissimi at San Apollonare, Rome

                                Salzburg Festival Mass                                      Benevoli

                                La Flora                                                                Gagliano / Peri

                                Psalms of David                                                   Schutz

                                Bunyan, John                                                                       1628-1688

                                Malpighi, Marcello                                                              1628-1694

                                Perrault, Charles                                                                   1628-1703

                                Ruisdael, Jacob van                                                             1628-1682

                                Bull, John                                                                              1562-1628               Composer

                                Carpenter, Nathaniel                                                            1589-1628

                                Mylius, Johann Daniel                                                        1584-1628               Composer

                                Philips, Peter                                                                         1561-1628               Composer

                                Simpson, Thomas                                                                1582-1628               Composer

1629                        Stormy Sea (Jan Porcellis)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                POLISH-SWEDISH WAR ...                (1600-1629)                          Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth vs. Sweden

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)                           

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                WAR OF THE MANTUAN SUCCESSION ...   (1628-1631)

                                Cambridge Agreement - John Winthrop & his friends pledge they will sail & create Puritan Colony in NE (3/4)

                                Edict of Restitution - Ferdinand II entitles Catholic Church to reclaim Protestant lands in Germany (3/6)

                                Treaty of Lubeck - between Albrecht von Wallenstein & Christian IV - Denmark withdraws from TYW  (5/22)

                                Peace of Alais - between Louis XIII and Huegenots - confirms basic principles of Edict of Nantes  (6/28)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Charles I dissolves the Parliament for nine years - Period of personal rule - the "Eleven Years' Tyranny" (-1640)

                                Dutch obtain rights to trade at Arkhangelsk

                                Mutapa Empire in Zimbabwe/Mozambique is conquered by the Portuguese

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Miron Movila -                     (Moldavia)                                            Prince (Barnovschi)

                                Gabriel Bethlen -                (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Leon Tomsa +                      (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                Abbas I -                               (Safavid)                                                Shah

                                Symphoniae Sacrae I (for 4 voices)                   Schutz

                                Colista, Lelio                                                                         1629-1680               Composer

                                De Hooch, Pieter                                                                  1629-1684

                                Huygens, Christian                                                              1629-1695

                                Nicolai, Johann Michael                                                     1629-1685               Composer

1630                        Landscape (Hercules Seghers)

                                Vulcan's Forge (Diego Velasquez)

                                Two Lovers (Riza Abbasi <or> Aqa Riza)

                                Shahjahan riding with his son, Dara Shikoh (Govardhan)

                                Lady with a Myna Bird (Deccan - Goldonka School)

                                Plum and Pleasant (Sanraku) (Japan) (-1635)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                WAR OF THE MANTUAN SUCCESSION ...   (1628-1631)

                                Charles II King of England is born (5/29)

                                Swedish troops under Gustavus Adolphus II lands in Pomerania, Germany to assist Protestants (6/26)

                                Success lands at Salem Harbor - last ship of the Winthrop Fleet (7/6)

                                Boston, Massachusetts is founded (9/17)

                                First ship of de Sauce's immigrants land at Southampton Hundred on the James River  (9/24)

                                Day of Dupes - Marie de Medici unsuccsessfully tries to oust Richelieu - the three meet with Louis XIII (11/10)

                                ------------------------------------------------------

                                England makes peace with France and Spain

                                Electoral Assembly of Regensburg insists on Wallenstein's resignation

                                Gustavus Adolphus II of Sweden (subsidized by France) enters war against Ferdinand II

                                Turks under Murad IV take Hamadan in Persia

                                Memorandum of Koca Bey

                                Great Migration to Massachusetts - Winthrop Fleet - 16,000 colonists migrate from England (-1642)

                                Population -  Virginia: 3000; Plymouth: 300

                                Great Migration - 1630        

                                Massachusetts Bay Colony (corporate) established

                                William Bradford begins writing  Of Plymouth Plantation (pub. 1856)

                                Paramarimbo, Suriname is first settled by the British

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                                 (1610-1643)

                                Stephen Bethlen +-              (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                George Rakoczy I +              (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Barrow, Isaac                                                                        1630-1677

                                Locke, Matthew                                                                   1630-1677               Composer

                                Richer, Jean                                                                           1630-1696

                                Brade, William                                                                      1560-1630               Composer

                                Harvey, Gabriel                                                                     1545-1630

                                Kepler, Johannes                                                                 1571-1630               Astronomer

                                Schein, Johann Hermann                                                    1586-1630               Composer

1631                        Woman Tearing up a Letter (Dirk Hals)

                                The Anatomy Lesson (Rembrandt)

                                Dialogo dei due massimi sistemi del mondo (Galileo Galilei)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                WAR OF THE MANTUAN SUCCESSION -  (1628-1631)

                                Catholic forces under Count Tilly sack the city of Magdeburg

                                Battle of Leipzig (Brietenfeld) - Swedish and Saxon forces defeat Tilly

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Dryden, John                                                                        1631-1700               Poet (Northamptonshire, England)

                                Lower, Richard                                                                     1631-1691

1632                        The garden of love (Peter Paul Rubens) (-1634)

                                River Landscape (Salomon van Ruysdael)

                                Two Chief Systems of thr World (Galileo Galilei)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                Battle of Lutzen - Swedish victory over Hapsburgs but Gustavus Adolphus II is killed  (11/16)

                                -----------------------------------------------------------

                                Pequots drive Naragansetts ten miles beyond the Pawcatuck river

                                Lord Baltimore founds Colony of Maryland

                                Gustavus II Adolphus -      (Sweden)                                               House of Vasa (killed in battle) 

                                Christina +                             (Sweden)                                               House of Vasa 

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Sigismund III Vasa -            (Poland)

                                Ladislaus IV Vasa +             (Poland)

                                Leon Tomsa -                        (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                Matei Basarab +                   (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                Monteverdi's Scherzi musicali, 2nd book is publshed

                                Cumberland, Richard                                                           1632-1718

                                Spinoza, Baruch                                                                   1632-1677

                                Leeuwenhoek, Anton van                                                  1632-1723

                                Locke, John                                                                           1632-1704               Philosopher

                                Lully, Jean-Baptiste                                                             1632-1687               Composer

                                Vermeer, Jan                                                                          1632-1675

                                Dekker, Thomas                                                                   1570-1632

                                Justus Byrgius                                                                     1552-1632

                                Sanchez                                                                                 1562-1632

1633                        Les Grandes Miseres de la Guerre (Jacques Callot)

                                Allegory of Divine Providence (Pietro Berrettini da Cortona) (-1639)

                                St. Hugo in the Refectory (Francisco de Zurbaran)

                                Poetry (Francesco Furini)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                Charles I appoints William Laud Archbishop of Cantebury

                                Colony of Connecticut founded

                                Pequots attack  British traders

                                Colonizarion of Maryland begins

                                Japan cuts off all contact with the West

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Miron Movila +-                   (Moldavia)                                            Prince (Barnovschi)

                                Schutz at Copenhagen - Dreden Chapel closes

                                Inquisition forces Galileo to recant his position on the Copernican Theory

                                Pepys, Samuel                                                                      1633-1703

                                Vauban, Sebastien le Prestre                                              1633-1707

                                Abbot, George                                                                      1562-1633               Archbishop of Cantebury

                                Peri, Jacopo                                                                           1561-1633               Composer

1634                        Surrender at Breda (Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velasquez)

                                The Image Seen by Nebuchadnezzar (Rembrandt)

                                Taj Mahal construction begins (-1653)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                Wallenstein dismissed and later murdered

                                Battle of Nordlingen - Imperial forces defeat Swedes

                                Treaty of Polianov - between Russia and Poland

                                English begin trading in Bengal

                                Maryland begins settlement on Lord Baltimore’s land grant, founded as Catholic colony

                                Pequots murder Capt. John Stone, English seaman and merchant

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Vasie Lupu +                         (Moldavia)                                            Prince

                                Il Sant' Alessio                                                     Landi

                                Comus                                                                    Laws

                                Sola, Andres de                                                                    1634-1696               Composer

                                Bauhin, Casper                                                                     1560-1634

1635                        Chateau de Steen (Peter Paul Rubens)

                                Charles I of England (Sir Anthony Van Dyck)

                                Surrender of Breda (Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velasquez)

                                The Five Senses Series (Abraham Bosse)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR +   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                Treaty of Prague - Ferdinand II revokes Edict of Restitution and makes peace with Saxony

                                Most Protestant princes accept Treaty of Prague

                                France declares war on Spain

                                Compagnie Francais des iles d'Amerique founded

                                Roger Williams expelled from Massachusetts

                                Saybrook Colony established at the mouth of the Connecticut River

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Acadamie Francaise founded - establishes uniform grammar and usage for French language

                                Becher, Johann Joachim                                                     1635-1682

                                Burnet, Thomas                                                                    1635-1715               Philosopher (Yorkshire,England)

                                D’Anglebert, Jean Henri                                                     1635-1691               Composer

                                Hooke, Robert                                                                      1635-1703

1636                        Helene Fourment with her children (Peter Paul Rubens)

                                Rape of the sabine women (Poussin)

                                Still-life (Claesz)

                                Finding the Infant Moses (Breenbergh)

                                Le Cid (Corneille)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PEQUOT WAR +   (1636-1638)

                                Roger Williams founds Providence, R.I. Democratic and separation of church and state (6)

                                John Oldham trader murdered by Pequot band under Sassacus (7/20)

                                Peasant revolts in southern and western France (-1637)

                                Capture of Corbie by the Spanish

                                John Endicott force destroys Block Island Pequot settlement (8/24) Pequots attack Fort Saybrook

                                Reverend Thomas Hooker expedition to Connecticut becomes first permanent settlement

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Harvard College founded (10/28)

                                Harmonie Universelle                                          Mersenne

                                Boileau-Despreaux, Nicolas                                               1636-1711               Literary Critic/Poet (France)

                                Reusner Jr., Esaias                                                               1636-1679               Composer

1637                        The Children of Charles I (Van Dycke)

                                Discourse on Method (Descartes)

                                New English Canaan (Thomas Morton)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PEQUOT WAR ...   (1636-1638)

                                Mystic Massacre -  militia under John Mason and John Underhill attack Misistuck - 600-700 killed (5/26)

                                Sassacus captured near Fairfield, CT; Pequots sold as slaves to West Indies (7/28)

                                Anne Hutchinson & John Wheelwright sentenced to banishment (11/12)

                                Swedish Expedition to New Sweden (Peter Minuit) (12)

                                ------------------------------------------------------------

                                Portuguese lose almost all their enclaves in West Africa to the Dutch (-1642)

                                Russian explorers cross Siberia and reach Pacific

                                Dutch take posession of Aruba

                                John Wheelwright’s sermon supporting ideas of Anne Hutchinson

                                John Winthrop elected governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony over Henry Vane

                                Edward M. Harnett Jr. immigrates to Salem, Mass from Kent, England (6/9)

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Ferdinand II -                        (Holy Roman Empire)                          (1619-)    Emperor

                                Ferdinand III +                      (Holy Roman Empire)                          Emperor

                                Chamaraja Wodeyar V -      (Mysore)

                                Raja Wodeyar II +                (Mysore)

                                Johann Froberger organist at Vienna court chapel

                                First public opera house opens in Venice

                                Della musica scenica                                           Doni

                                Buxtehude, Dietrich                                                             1637-1707               Composer (Sweden)

                                Heyden, Jan van der                                                            1637-1712               Painter (Dutch)

                                Pasquini, Bernardo                                                              1637-1710               Composer

                                Swammerdam, Jan                                                                1637-1680               Naturalist (Dutch)

                                Fludd, Robert                                                                        1574-1637               Philosopher (England)

                                Jonson, Ben                                                                          1573-1637               Dramatist/Poet (Westminster, London)

1638                        Et in Arcadia Ego (Nicolas Poussin) (-1639)

                                The Vision of St. Romuald (Andrea Sacchi)

                                San Francisco, and Fort Maurice, Brazil (Frans Post)

                                Discourses and Demonstrations Concerning Two New Sciences (Galileo Galilei)

                                Philosophia Moysaica (Robert Fludd)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PEQUOT WAR -   (1636-1638)

                                Portsmouth Compact -  signed in Boston -  Anne Hutchison and disciples leave to  found Portsmouth, RI (3/7)

                                Minuit’s expedition reaches Delaware Bay; build Fort Christina at present day Wilmington (3)

                                Louis XIV, King of France is born (9/5)

                                First Treaty of Hartford - formally ends Pequot War; Pequots divided among Indian allies (9/21)

                                ----------------------------------------------------------

                                Turks retake Baghdad

                                Shimbara uprising and slaughter of Japanese Christians - virtually stamps out Christianity in Japan

                                Blast furnace buit in Coalbrookdale using charcoal as fuel to smelt iron

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Raja Wodeyar II -                 (Mysore)

                                Narasaraja Wodeyar I +      (Mysore)                                               Ranadira Kantheerava

                                Heinrich Albert's first arias

                                Pier Francesco Cavalli second organist at San Marco

                                Madrigali a 5 voci in partitura                            Mazzocchi

                                Madrigali guerrieri et amorosi                            Monteverdi

                                Louis XIV of France                                                            1638-1715               King of France

                                Malebranche, Nicolas                                                         1638-1715

                                Steno, Nicholaus                                                                  1638-1686

                                Althusius, Johannes                                                           1557-1638

                                Jansenius                                                                              1585-1638

                                Piccinini, Alessandro                                                          1566-1638               Composer

                                Selma, Bartolme de                                                               1570-1638               Composer

                                Wilbye, John                                                                        1574-1638               Composer

1639                        St. Basil Dictating his Rule (Francisco Herrera)

                        Shepherds in Arcadia (Poussin)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                Newport Contract – nine sign docoment that founds Newport, RI (Thomas Hazard et al.) (4/28)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                First Bishop's War begins - Scottish Church versus Charles I - ends with the Pacification of Dunse

                                Revolt of the Nu-Pieds (Bare-foots) in France

                                Founding of Fort St. George, Madras by English traders

                                Ottomans seize Iraq from Persia

                                Peace of Zuhab - favorable to Ottomans over Safavids

                                Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

                                War of the Three Kingdoms - bewteen England Scotland and  Ireland (-1651)

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Virgilio Mazzocchi and Marco Marazzoli compose first comic opera

                                Chi soffre, speri                                                    Vergilio Mazzocchi / Marco Marazzoli

                                La Galatea                                                              Vittori

                                Racine, Jean                                                                          1639-1699

                                Campanella, Tommaso                                                        1568-1639               Philosopher/Writer (Italy)

                                Carew, Thomas                                                                     1598-1639               Poet (England)

1640                        The Adoration of the Shepherds (Guido Reni)

                                Wealth (Simon Vouet)

                                Bay Psalm Book (1st book printed in America)

                                Jesuit Relation

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR +    (1640-1668) Portugal vs. Spain 

                                Charles I summons the "Short Parliament" (4)

                                Charles I dissolves Short Parliament for refusal to grant money (5)

                                Treaty of Ripon - ends  Second Bishop's War  (10/26)

                                Charles I calls "Long Parliament" in response to Scotland's victories in the north (11)

                                Portugese revolt against Spain - gains independence - João IV becomes King - not recog. by Spain (12/1)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Frederick William becomes Elector of Brandenburg

                                Catalonian revolt against Spain led by Joao Ribeiro with French support (-1659)

                                Irish revolt

                                Neapolitan revolt

                                Japanese seclusion and exclusion policies in effect

                                Sioux first noted historically in the Jesuit Relation

                                Gotha becomes capital of the Duchy of Saxe-Gotha

                                Nathaniel Browning to Massachusetts

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Frederick William +              (Brandenburg)                                      Elector (Hohenzollern) (-1688)

                                John IV +                               (Portugal)                                              House of Braganza

                                Murad IV -                             (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan

                                Ibrahim I +                             (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan

                                Harquart, Carolus                                                 1640-1701               Composer

                                Mayow, John                                                                        1640-1679               Chemist/Physiologist (England)

                                Sainte-Colombe, Sieur de                                                    1640-1690               Composer

                                Vejvanovsky, Pavel Josef                                                   1640-1693               Composer

                                Agazzari, Agostino                                                              1578-1640               Composer

                                Farina, Carlo                                                                          1600-1640               Composer

                                Farnaby, Giles                                                                       1565-1640               Composer

                                Rubens, Peter Paul                                                               1577-1640               Painter

1641                        The Farm Wagon (Louis le Nain)

                                Portrait of a Girl in a Light Blue Dress (Jan Verspronck)

                                Decapitation of St. Paul (Algardi) (-1647)

                                Biography of Thomas Wolsey (George Cavendish)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                Triennial Act - English Parliament must be called every three years

                                Star Chamber and High Commission abolished by Parliament

                                Constitutional laws in England change power structure from absolute to constitutional monarchy

                                Grand Remonstrance of Parliament to Charles I

                                Execution of the Earl of Strafford - Irish rebellion begins

                                Irish Catholic revolt - 30,000 Protestants massacred

                                Mazarin raised to cardinal by Louis XIII

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Muhammed IV +                   (Ottoman Empire)

                                Grew, Nehemiah                                                                   1641-1711

                                Horrocks, Jeremiah                                                              1619-1641

                                Suckling, John                                                                      1609-1641

                                Van Dyck, Anthony                                                            1599-1641

1642                        The Bean King (Jacob Jordaens)

                                Christ Healing the Sick (Rembrandt) (-1645)

                                The Night Watch (Rembrandt)

                                Polyeucte (Corneille)

                                The True Constitution of a Particular Visible Church (John Cotton)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                FIRST ENGLISH CIVIL WAR +   (1642-1646)

                                Charles I attempts to arrest five members of the Long Parliament but fails - they escape (1/4)

                                Galileo Galilei dies (1/8)

                                Thomas Granger becomes first person to be hanged in Massachusetts Bay Colony for bestiality  (9/8)

                                Battle of Podwick Bridge - first major cavalry engagement of the 1st English CW - Royalist victory (9/23)

                                Battle of Edgehill -  begins First English Civil War - Royalists win a narrow victory (10/23)

                                (Second Battle of Breitenfeld) First Battle of Leipzig - Swedish defeat HRE - Swed. occupies Saxony (10/23)

                                Discovery of Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) and New Zealand by Abel Tasman (11/24)

                                Isaac Newton is born (12/25 OS)       (1/4 1643 NS)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                First Civil War in England begins between Cavaliers (Royalists) and Roundheads (Parliamentarians) (-1646)

                                Charles I rejects Parliament's Nineteen Propositions

                                Mazarin succeeds Richelieu as chief minister in France

                                Montreal founded by the French

                                John Winthrop                     (Massachusetts Bay Colony)            (1642-1643)3          Governor

                                Christina ...                            (Sweden)                                               (1632-1654)            Queen

                                Christian IV ...                       (Denmark)(Norway)                             (1588-1648)            King

                                Charles I ...                            (England)                                               (1625-1649)            King

                                Frederick Henry ...                (Dutch Republic)                                  (1625-1647)            Stadholder (Prince of Orange)

                                Louis XIII ...                          (France)                                                 (1610-1643)            King

                                Ferdinand III ...                     (HRE)                                                     (1637-1657)            Emperor

                                John George I ...                   (Saxony)                                                (1611-1656)            Elector

                                Urban VIII ...                         (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (1623-1644)            Pope

                                Michael I ...                           (Russia)                                                 (1613-1645)            1st Czar (Romanov)

                                Kösem ...                                (Ottoman Empire)                                 (1623-1651)            Valide Sultan (m. Ibrahim I)

                                Ibrahim I ...                            (Ottoman Empire)                                   (1640-1648)            Sultan

                                Safi I -                                     (Safavid Persia)                                    (1628-1642)            6th Shah

                                Abbas II +                             (Safavid Persia)                                    (1649-1667)            7th Shah

                                Shah Jahan ...                        (Mughal Empire)                                  (1628-1658)            5th Sultan

                                Chongzhen (Sizong)...         (Ming China)                                        (1627-1644)            16th (last) Emperor

                                Injo ...                                     (Joseon Korea)                                     (1623-1649)            16th King

                                Meisho ...                              (Japan)                                                   (1629-1643)            109th (Empress)

                                Prasat Thong ...                    (Ayutthaya Kingdom)                         (1629-1656)            1st King (Prasat Thong Dyn)

                                L'incoronazione di Poppea                 Monteverdi (his last opera)

                                Newton, Isaac                                                                       1642-1727               Mathematician

                                Stradella, Alessandro                                                          1642-1682               Composer

                                Gagliano, Marco da                                                             1575-1642               Composer

                                Galilei, Galileo                                                                       1564-1642               Astrophysicist    

                                Richelieu, Armand Emmanuel du Plessis, duc de           1585-1642               Prelate/Statesman (France)

                                Vallet, Nicolas                                                                       1583-1642               Composer

1643                        Endymion Porter (William Dobson) (-1645)

                                Taj Mahal construction ends

                                A Key into the Language of America (Roger Williams)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                FIRST ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ...   (1642-1646)

                                Anne Hutchinson and family murdered by Native Americans near Eastchester, LI (8/20)

                                Kieft's War (Wappinger War) begins - 121 Dutch massacre 120 Wappani at Pavonia (2/25)  -(1645)

                                Solemn League and Covenant - English Parliament signs

                                Louis XIV’s reign begins at age five - Cardinal Mazarin is chief minister - Anne of Austria acts as regent

                                Battle of Rocroi - France defeats Spain

                                Denmark and Sweden at war for Baltic supremacy (-1645)

                                Governor Johan Printz New Sweden Capitol at Tinicum

                                New England Confederation formed (Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, New Haven)

                                Louis XIII -                            (France)                                                 (1610-1643)

                                Louis XIV                              (France) le Grand +                             (1643-1715)            King

                                Cartwright, William                                                              1611-1643

                                Frescobaldi, Girolamo                                                          1583-1643               Composer

                                Louis XIII of France                                                            1610-1643               King of France

                                Monteverdi, Claudio                                                           1567-1643               Composer

                                Pym, John                                                                                      -1643

1644                        The Interior of the Buurkerk at Utrecht (Pieter Saenredam)

                                Self-portrait (Jan Lievens)

                                Areopagatica (John Milton)   (pub. 11/23)

                                Principles of Philosophy (Rene Descartes)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                FIRST ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ...   (1642-1646)

                                SECOND ANGLO-POWHATAN WAR +   (1644-1646)

                                MING DYNASTY ENDS-

                                QING (MANCHU+) (-1912)

                                Battle of Nantwich - Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists, ending six week siege of Nantwich (1/26)

                                Second Expedition of Abel Tasman - maps north coast of Australia (2) -(8)

                                Rhode Island Charter -  Roger Williams granted official charter for Rhode Island Colony  (3/24)

                                Suicide of last Ming emperor (4)

                                Manchus enter Peking - becomes capital of the Ch'ing Dynasty    (6/6)

                                Battle of Marston Moor - Oliver Cromwell defeats Price Rupert (7/2)

                                Battle of Tippernuir - Montrose defeats Elcho's Covenanters - revives Royalist cause in Scotland (9/1)

                                Second Battle of Lostwithiel - last major victory for Charles I and the Royalists in the Civil War (9/2)

                                Pope Innocent succeeds Urban VIII as 236th pope (9/15)

                                Plague breaks out in Edinburgh, Scotland (12)

                                Knights of Malta attack Ottoman convoy and take booty to Candia, Crete, prompting Turkish retaliation

                                Jean D'Ailley to New Amsterdam from Bristol

                                Sizong -                                  (China)                                                   (1627-)    17th Ming Dynasty (Chongzhen Era)

                                Shizu Zhang +                      (China)                                                   (-1661)    1st Qing Dynasty (Shunzhi Era)

                                Urban VIII -

                                Innocent X +

                                Biber, Heinrich Ignaz Franz                                                1644-1704               Composer

                                Cabanilles, Juan Bautista Jose                                           1644-1712               Composer             

                                Charpentier, Marc Antoine                                                 1644-1704               Composer

                                Penn, William                                                                        1644-1718

                                Roemer, Olaus                                                                      1644-1710

                                John of St. Thomas                                                              1589-1644

1645                        A View of Emmerich Across the Rhine (Jan Van Goyen)

                                The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa (Bernini) (-1652)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                FIRST ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ...    (1642-1646)

                                SECOND ANGLO-POWHATAN WAR ...   (1644-1646)

                                Execution of William Laud - Archbishop of Cantebury (1/10)

                                Battle of Naseby - Parliamentary forces defeat Charles I (6/14)

                                Cromwell's New Model Army forms

                                Capuchin monks ascend Congo River

                                Michael I -                             (Russia)                                                 (1613-1645)            Emperor

                                Aleksei +                               (Russia)                                                 (-1676)    Emperor (Alexis)

                                Dialogues                                                              Hammerschmidt

                                Seven Last Words                                                               Schutz

                                Bruyere, Jean de la                                                               1645-1696

                                Conradi, Johann Georg                                                       1645-1699               Composer

                                Grotius, Hugo                                                                       1583-1645               Jurist/Humanist (Dutch)

                                Laud, William                                                                        1573-1645               Archbishop of Canterbury

                                Liu Zongzhou                                                                       1578-1645               Philosopher (China)

                                Viadana, Lodovico                                                               1564-1645               Composer

1646                        EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                FIRST ENGLISH CIVIL WAR -    (1642-1646)

                                SECOND ANGLO-POWHATAN WAR -   (1644-1646)

                                Charles I surrenders to the Scots

                                Oliver Cromwell defeats Royalists

                                Swedish and French troops invade Bavaria

                                Massachusetts general court makes religious heresy punishable by death - Robert Child banished

                                Synod of 1646

                                "Electricity" coined by Sir Thomas brown, derived from William Gilbert's "electricus"

                                Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm                                                 1646-1716               Philosopher

                                Mansart, Jules Hardouin                                                    1646-1708              

                                Finck, Thomas                                                                      1561-1646

                                Mazzocchi, Virgilio                                                              1597-1646               Composer

1647                        The Bull (Paulus Potter)

                                Landscape - Leaf 2 (Ch'en Hung-shou)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) ...   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR ...   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                Scots surrender Charles I to the English Parliament - captured in turn by the army 

                                Charles I escapes to the Isle of Wight - makes secret treaty with Scots

                                Margaret Brent (barrister) seeks and is denied right to vote in Maryland Assembly

                                Frederick Henry -                 (Dutch Republic)                                  (1625-1647)            Stadholder

                                William II +                            (Dutch Republic)                                  Stadholder

                                Revival of the ancient Epicurian atomic philosophy by Pierre Gassendi

                                Luigi Rossi's Orfeo staged in Paris

                                Praxis pietatis melica                                            Cruger

                                Orfeo                                                                      Rossi

                                Bayle, Pierre                                                                          1647-1706

                                Doni, Giovanni                                                                     1594-1647               Composer

                                Severin, Christian (Longomontanus)                                1562-1647

                                Trabaci, Giovanni Maria                                                     1575-1647               Composer

1648                        Still-Life (Willem Heda)

                                Hesperides (Robert Herrick)

                                EIGHTY YEARS WAR (DUTCH REVOLT) -   (1566-1648)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                THIRTY YEARS WAR -   (1618-1648)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                FRONDE +   (1648-1653)                                                     Civil War in France

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA +   (1648-1669)                                   Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                Treaty of Münster is signed - ends the Eight Year's War between Spain and the Netherlands (1/30)

                                Battle of Preston - Cromwell defeats Scots (8/17-19)

                                Treaty of Westphalia - signed by Ferdinand III and Dutch Republic, France, and Sweden (10/24)

                                Treaty of Westphalia - end of Thirty Years War - Republic of the United Provinces of the Netherlands recog.

                                Treaty of Westphalia - Dutch and Swiss republics recognized as independent

                                Pride's Purge - Prebyterians expelled from "Rump Parliament" (12/6)

                                Second Civil War in England

                                Scots invade England

                                German poulation about half what it was in 1618 because of war and pestilence

                                Civil war in France (-1652)

                                Mazarin's financial abuses leads to the revolt of Fronde or parlement faction in Paris against Louis XIV(-1653)

                                Chmielnicki uprisings and massacres in Ukraine and Poland (-1658)

                                Cambridge Platform codifies and defines New England Congregationalism

                                Christian IV -                         (Denmark)(Norway)                             (1588-)

                                Frederik III +                         (Denmark)(Norway)                             (-1670)                                                   

                                George Rakoczy I -               (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                George Rakoczy II +            (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Ladislaus IV Vasa -              (Poland)

                                John II Casimir Vasa +         (Poland)

                                Ibrahim I -                              (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan

                                Mehmet IV +                         (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan (Muhammed)

                                Geistliche Chormusik                                           Schutz

                                Blow, John                                                                            1648-1708               Composer

                                Capelli, Giovanni Maria                                                       1648-                       Composer

                                Ford, Thomas                                                                       1580-1648               Composer

                                Le Nain, Louis                                                                      1603-1648

                                Mersenne, Marin                                                                 1588-1648

1649                        The Dice Players (Georges de la Tour) (1649-1651)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                FRONDE ...   (1648-1653)                                                     Civil War in France

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                Charles II proclaimed King of Scotland (2/5)

                                Commonwealth in England - governed as a republic (-1660)

                                Charles I is beheaded

                                Cromwell harshly supresses Catholic rebellions in Ireland

                                Fronde revolt suppressed by Louis XIV

                                Serfdom established in Russia

                                Cheesebrough settles Stonington, CT

                                Toleration Act

                                Charles I -                              (England)

                                Giasone                                                                  Cavalli

                                Orontea                                                                  Cesti

                                Crashaw, Richard                                                                 1613-1649

1650                        St. Peter Denying Christ (Georges de la Tour)

                                Pope innocent X (Diego Velasquez)

                                Dutch Yacht firing a Salute (Jan Van de Capelle)

                                The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America (Anne Bradstreet)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                FRONDE ...   (1648-1653)                                                     Civil War in France

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                Battle of Carbisdale - invading Royalist Army is defeated by Covenanter army in Orkney Islands (4/27)

                                Charles II lands in Scotland and is proclaimed king  (6/23)

                                Battle of Dunbar - 3rd English Civil War - Cromwell's Parliamentaries defeat Scottish army under Leslie  (9/3)

                                William of Orange is born (11/14)

                                -------------------------------------------------------------

                                Second revolt of Fronde is suppressed in France

                                Muscat recaptured by Imam of Oman from the Portuguese

                                William II -                             (Dutch Republic)                                  Stadholder

                                William III +                          (Dutch Republic)                                  Stadholder

                                Jephtha                                                                  Carissimi

                                Musicae compendium                                         Descartes

                                Musurgia universalis                                          Kircher

                                Chorales for Organ                                              Scheidt

                                Symphoniea sacrae Part III                 Schutz

                                Franceschini, Petronio                                                        1650-1680               Composer

                                Sanz, Gaspar                                                                         1650-1710               Composer

                                Visee, Robert de                                                                   1650-1725               Composer

                                Walther, Johann Jacob                                                       1650-1717               Composer

                                William III of Orange                                                           1650-1702               Stadtholder/King (b. Hague)

                                Descartes, Rene                                                                   1596-1650               Philosopher

                                Varen, Bernhard                                                                   1622-1650

1651                        Leviathan (Hobbes)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                FRONDE ...   (1648-1653)                                                     Civil War in France

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                Battle of Worcester - Charles II defeated and escapes to France (9/3)

                                Charles II invades England

                                First Navigation Act - England gains virtual monopoly of foreign trade (against Dutch)

                                August Herman buys point of land (Perth Amboy) from Lenni Lenape

                                Dampier, William                                                                  1651-1715

                                Albert, Heinrich                                                                    1604-1651               Composer

                                Gaultier, Ennemond                                                             1575-1651               Composer

                                Gentileschi, Artemisia                                                         1593-1651

1652                        The Clubfoot (Jusepe Ribera)

                                An Old Man Seated (Rembrandt)

                                An astronomer (Ferdinand Bol)

                                A View in Delft, with a Musical Instrument Seller's Wall (Carel Fabritius)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                FRONDE ...   (1648-1653)                                                     Civil War in France

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                FIRST ANGLO-DUTCH WAR + (1652-1654)

                                Capetown, South Africa founded by Dutch East India Company (4/6)

                                Period of Anglo-Dutch wars (-1674)

                                Anglo-Dutch War begins (-1654)

                                Spain intervenes in Fronde revolt against Louis XIV (-1653)

                                Barcelona surrenders to Philip IV - end of Catalan revolt

                                Rhode Island declares slavery illegal

                                Tate, Nahum                                                                         1652-1715

                                De la Tour, Georges                                                             1593-1652

1653                        A Peasant Courting an Elderly Woman (Adriaen van Ostade)

                                The Compleat Angler  (Izaak Walton)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                FRONDE ...   (1648-1653)                                                     Civil War in France

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                FIRST ANGLO-DUTCH WAR ... (1652-1654)

                                Land deed of John Winthrop with Massasoit  in Windham, CT (11/2)

                                Oliver Cromwell dissolves the Rump Parliament and becomes Lord Protector of England (12/16)

                                Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell (-1658)

                                Defeat of the Brandenburg Estates

                                Childeric I's grave found with ring that identified his as king of the Franks

                                Oliver Cromwell    +              (England)                                               Lord Protector

                                Vasie Lupu -                          (Moldavia)                                            Prince

                                Francisco de la Cueva +      (New Spain)                                          (-1660)    Viceroy

                                Jean-Baptiste Lully court composer at Paris

                                Corelli, Arcangelo                                                                1653-1713               Composer

                                D’Urfey, Thomas                                                                 1653-1723

                                Muffat, Georg                                                                       1653-1704               Composer

                                Pachelbel, Johann                                                                1653-1706               Composer

                                Sauveur, Joseph                                                                   1653-1716

                                Rossi, Luigi                                                                           1598-1653               Composer

1654                        Family Group (Bartholomeus van der Helst)

                                The Goldfinch (Carel Fabritius)

                                Woman Bathing (Rembrandt)

                                DUTCH-PORTUGUESE WAR ...   (1588-1654)                                Dutch East/West India Companies  vs. Portuguese Empire

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                FIRST ANGLO-DUTCH WAR - (1652-1654)

                                RUSSO-POLISH WAR (WAR FOR UKRAINE) +   (1654-1667)  Russia vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

                                Treaty of Westminster - between England and Dutch Republic - Anglo-Dutch War ends (5/8)

                                Charles X Gustavus accedes to the Swedish throne (6/6)

                                Portuguese take Brazil from the Dutch

                                First Jews arrive in New Amsterdam

                                Christina -                              (Sweden)                                               House of Vasa 

                                Charles X Gustavus +         (Sweden)                                               House of Palatinate

                                Louis XIV ...                          (France)                                                 (1643-1715)

                                Matei Basarab -                    (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                Constantine Serban +          (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                Lubeck, Vincenz                                                                   1654-1740               Composer

                                Nassarre, Pablo                                                                    1654-1730               Composer

                                Steffani, Agostino                                                               1654-1728               Composer

                                Varignon, Pierre                                                                    1654-1722

                                Correa de Arauxo, Francisco                                              1576-1654               Composer

                                Scheidt, Samuel                                                                    1587-1654               Composer

1655                        An Extensive Landscape with a Road by a Ruin (Philips de Koninck)

                                Woman at Prayer (Nicolaes Maes)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                RUSSO-POLISH WAR (WAR FOR UKRAINE) ... (1654-1667) Russia vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

                                SECOND NORTHERN WAR +   (1655-1661)                   Poland vs. Russia; Poland vs. Sweden

                                Cromwell divides England into twelve military districts

                                Northern War - Brandenburg gains sovereignty of Prussia (-1660)

                                Sweden declares war on Poland

                                England seizes Jamaica from Spain

                                Peter Stuyvesant seizes New Sweden - Fort Trinity and Fort Christina captured

                                Louis XIV ...                          (France)                                                 (1643-1715)

                                Innocent X -                         (Patriarchate of Rome)

                                Alexander VII +                   (Patriarchate of Rome)

                                Christian Huygens discovers Titan, a Saturnian moon larger than Mercury

                                Gassendi, Pierre                                                                    1592-1655

                                Landi, Stefano                                                                      1590-1655               Composer

                                Mazzocchi, Domenico                                                         1592-1655               Composer

1656                        Las Meninas (Velasquez)   

                                Jacob Blessing the Sons of Joseph (Rembrandt)

                                Lettres ecrites a un provincial (Pascal)            

                                The Commonwealth of Oceana (James Harrington)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                RUSSO-POLISH WAR (WAR FOR UKRAINE) ... (1654-1667) Russia vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

                                SECOND NORTHERN WAR    (1655-1661)                     Poland vs. Russia; Poland vs. Sweden

                                RUSSO-SWEDISH WAR +   (1656-1658)                         Russia vs. Sweden

                                England and Spain at war (-1659)

                                Battle of Warsaw - Swedish victory

                                Russia, Denmark, and Holy Roman Empire declare war on Sweden

                                First Villmergen War in Switzerland - between Protestant and Catholic cantons

                                Venetians route Turks off Dardanelles

                                Ottoman revival under Koprulu viziers

                                General Hospital created in Paris

                                Louis XIV ...                          (France)                                                 (1643-1715)

                                John IV -                                (Portugal)                                              House of Braganza

                                Alfonso VI +                         (Portugal)                                              House of Braganza

                                Marais, Marin                                                                       1656-1728               Composer

                                Tomkins, Thomas                                                                1572-1656               Composer

                                Turini, Francesco                                                                 1589-1656               Composer

1657                        Oliver Cromwell (Samuel Cooper)

                                Officer and Laughing Girl (Jan Vermeer)

                                Mosaical Philosophy Grounded on the Essential Truth or Eternal Sapience (Fludd) (posthumous)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                            Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                        France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)  Portugal vs. Spain 

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                   Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                RUSSO-POLISH WAR (WAR FOR UKRAINE) ... (1654-1667) Russia vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth]                                                                            

                                SECOND NORTHERN WAR ...   (1655-1661)                   Poland vs. Russia; Poland vs. Sweden

                                RUSSO-SWEDISH WAR ...   (1656-1658)                           Russia vs. Sweden

                                Dutch Republic and Portugal at war (-1661)

                                Accademia del Cimento founded in Florence

                                Louis XIV ...                          (France)                                                 (1643-1715)

                                Ferdinand III -                      (Holy Roman Empire)

                                Shah Jahan -                        (Mughal Empire)                                 (1628-) (1627-) (1658)

                                Murad Baksh +-                  (Mughal Empire)

                                Shah Shuja +                        (Mughal Empire)

                                Delalande, Michel Richard                                                  1657-1726               Composer

                                Frederick I Hohenzollern                                                     1657-1713               1st King of Prussia

                                Harvey, William                                                                    1578-1657

1658                        The Blind Orion Searching for the Rising Sun (Nicolas Poussin)

                                The Young Mother (Gerrit Dou)

                                A Man and a Youth Ploughing with Oxen (Nicolaes Berchem)

                                Castle of Muiden in Winter (Jan Abrahamsz Beerstraten)

                                An Interior (Pieter de Hooch)

                                View of Delft (Jan Vermeer)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR ...   (1635-1659)                      France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                RUSSO-POLISH WAR (WAR FOR UKRAINE) ... (1654-1667) Russia vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

                                SECOND NORTHERN WAR ...   (1655-1661)                  Poland vs. Russia; Poland vs. Sweden

                                RUSSO-SWEDISH WAR +   (1656-1658)                         Russia vs. Sweden

                                Battle of the Dunes - England and France defeat Spain - England gains Dunkirk (6/14)

                                Oliver Cromwell dies - his son Richard succeeds as Lord Protector (9/3)

                                -------------------------------------------

                                French traders make contact with tribes of norther plains w. &s. of Lake Superior (Chouart…)

                                Jan Swammerdam discovers red blood cells

                                Oliver Cromwell -               (England)                                               (1553-)   Lord Protector

                                Richard Cromwell +           (England)                                               (-1660)   Lord Protector

                                Louis XIV ...                          (France)                                                 (1643-1715)

                                Leopold I +                            (Holy Roman Empire)                         (-1705)   Emperor (Hapsburg)

                                Achatius Bocskai +            (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Constantine Serban -          (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Shah Shuja -                         (Mughal Empire)

                                Aurangzeb Alamgir +        (Mughal Empire)                                 (-1707)

                                Torelli, Giuseppe                                                                  1658-1709               Composer

                                Cleveland, John                                                                    1613-1658

                                Lovelace, Richard                                                                1618-1658

1659                        The Infanta Margarita in Blue (Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velasquez)

                                Shiva - Nrtyeshvara (Nepal)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                FRANCO-SPANISH WAR -   (1635-1659)                       France vs. Spain

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                RUSSO-POLISH WAR (WAR FOR UKRAINE) ... (1654-1667) Russia vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

                                SECOND NORTHERN WAR ...   (1655-1661)                  Poland vs. Russia; Poland vs. Sweden

                                Treaty of the Pyrenees - France and Spain - settles border - confirms supremacy of France over Spain (11/7)

                                Treaty of the Pyrenees - France formally gains Arras, Artois, Rousillon (11/7)

                                Army forces Richard Cromwell to resign - Rump Parliament restored

                                El Paso mission founded - Texas

                                Louis XIV ...                          (France)                                                 (1643-1715)

                                Narasaraja Wodeyar I -      (Mysore)                                                Ranadira Kantheerava

                                Devaraja Wodeyar +           (Mysore)                                                Dodda

                                Purcell, Henry                                                                     1659-1695            Composer

1660                        Still-life with Nautilus Cup (Willem Kalf)

                                Entry of Alexander the Great into Babylon (Charles LeBrun)

                                Skittle Players outside an Inn (Jan Steen)

                                The Sick Child (Gabriel Metsu)

                                The Cannon Shot (Willem van de Velde the Younger)

                                Diary (Pepys)

                                La Nymphe de la Seine (Racine)

                                New Experiments Physico-Mechanical Touching the Spring of the Air (Robert Boyle)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                            Vietnam

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)  Portugal vs. Spain 

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                   Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                RUSSO-POLISH WAR (WAR FOR UKRAINE) ... (1654-1667) Russia vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

                                SECOND NORTHERN WAR ...   (1655-1661)                   Poland vs. Russia; Poland vs. Sweden

                                Mary Dyer (Quaker) hanged in Boston Common for alleged witchcraft (6/1)

                                Louis XIV marries Maria Theresa of Spain in Saint Jean de Luz (6/9)

                                Declaration of Breda - Charles II will not persecute those that rebelled against his father Charles I in 1648 (4/4)

                                ---------------------------------------------------------

                                Age of Reason (1660-1789)

                                Restoration of Charles II in England (-1685)

                                Convention Parliament restores Charles II to the English throne - he returns from exile in France

                                Treaty of Oliva - Poland cedes Livonia to Sweden

                                Treaty of Copenhagen - Denmark surrenders territory to Sweden

                                Rise of Bambara Kingdoms on Upper Niger

                                Navigation Act passed in England regulating colonial commerce

                                Richard Cromwell -            (England)                                               Lord Protector (1658-)

                                Charles II +                          (England) (Scotland)                           King (1660-1685)

                                Louis XIV ...                          (France)                                                 (1643-1715)

                                George Rakoczy II -            (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Achatius Bocskai -             (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Grigore Ghica +                  (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Charles X Gustavus -         (Sweden)                                                House of Palatinate

                                Charles XI +                         (Sweden)                                                House of Palatinate

                                Francisco de la Cueva -      (New Spain)                                          (-1660)   Viceroy

                                Serse                                                       Francesco Cavalli

                                Campra, Andre                                                                     1660-1744               Composer

                                Defoe, Daniel                                                                        1660-1731

                                Duron, Sebastian                                                                 1660-1716               Composer

                                Fux, Johann                                                                           1660-1741               Composer

                                Hoffman, Johann                                                                  1660-1725               Composer

                                Kuhnau, Johann                                                                   1660-1722               Composer

                                Noordt Jr., Sybrant van                                                       1660-1705               Composer

                                Scarlatti, Pietro Alessandro Gaspare                                1660-1725               Composer

                                Schenck, Johannes                                                              1660-                       Composer

                                de Paul, St. Vincent                                                              1575-1660               Chaplain (Paris)

                                Leyster, Judith                                                                      1609-1660

                                Oughtred                                                                               1575-1660              

                                Velasquez, Diego                                                                 1599-1660               Painter

1661                        Versailles construction begins

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                RUSSO-POLISH WAR (WAR FOR UKRAINE) ... (1654-1667) Russia vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

                                SECOND NORTHERN WAR -   (1655-1661)                    Poland vs. Russia; Poland vs. Sweden

                                Cardinal Mazarin dies - Louis XIV becomes "absolute monarch" (3/9)

                                Treaty of Kardis - Russia and Sweden restore all conquests to each other - ends Russo-Swedish War  (6/21)

                                Charles II crowned King of England

                                Clarendon Code - "Cavalier Parliament" of Charles II passes a series of laws against Nonconformists

                                Turkey and Holy Roman Empire at war (-1664)

                                England gains Bombay

                                Chinese general Koxinga takes Formosa

                                John Kemeny +                    (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Michael Apafi +                   (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Shizu Zhang -                       (China)                                                   (1644-)    1st Qing Dynasty (Shunzhi Era)

                                Shengzu Ren +                     (China)                                                   (-1722)    2nd Qing Dynasty (Kangxi Era)

                                Dori                                                                Antonio Cesti

                                Bohm, Georg                                                                         1661-1733               Composer

                                L’Hopital, Guillaume de                                                       1661-1704

                                Rebel, Jean Fery                                                                   1661-1747               Composer

                                Couperin, Louis                                                                    1626-1661               Composer

                                Mazarin, Jules (Giulio)                                                         1602-1661               Prelate/Statesman (b. Italy)

1662                        Ex-voto (Champaigne)

                                Ecole des Femmes (Moliere)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                RRUSSO-POLISH WAR (WAR FOR UKRAINE) ... (1654-1667) Russia vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

                                Connecticut Charter - Connecticut towns and New Haven united  (4/25)

                                Act of Uniformity passed in England

                                Beginning of the "Bartholomew Ejections" - expulsion of ministers creates English Nonconformity

                                Portugese cede Tangier to England

                                Royal Society of London founded

                                John Kemeny -                     (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Ercole amante                                                  Francesco Cavalli

                                Cruger, Johann                                                                     1598-1662               Composer

                                Laws, Henry                                                                          1596-1662               Composer

                                Marazzoli, Marco                                                                 1600-1662               Composer

                                Pascal, Blaise                                                                        1623-1662

1663                        Gardens of Versailles designed (Le Notre)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                RUSSO-POLISH WAR (WAR FOR UKRAINE) ... (1654-1667) Russia vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

                                Louis XIV occupies the Papal State of Avignon (Comtat Venaissin)

                                Rhode Island granted formal charter

                                Charles II grants Carolinas to eight proprietors

                                Knight-Hall Purchase of Indian lands at Chepachet (1/19)

                                Walsh, William                                                                     1663-1708

                                Zachow, Friederich Wilhelm                                              1663-1712               Composer

                                Scheidemann, Heinrich                                                       1595-1663               Composer

                                Strozzi, Barbara                                                                     1619-1663               Composer

1664                        Regentesses of the Alsmhouses at Haarlem (Frans Hals)

                                The Lace-Maker (Jan Vermeer)

                                The Lace Maker (Caspar Netscher)

                                Tartufe (Moliere) banned

                                La Thebaide (Racine)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                RUSSO-POLISH WAR (WAR FOR UKRAINE) ... (1654-1667) Russia vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

                                Anglican Church re-established

                                Naval war between England and Holland (-1665)

                                England siezes New Amsterdam from Dutch - changing the name to New York (9/7)

                                British seize Dutch Possessions (New Netherland) (9/8)

                                Battle of St. Gotthard - Austrians under Count Raimund Montecucculi defeat Turks

                                Treaty of Vasvar - between Holy Roman Empire and Turkey

                                Compagnie des Indies created

                                Elizabethtown Purchase - signed by Matanno of Lenni Lenape, first English settlement in NJ

                                New Jersey established by Royal Charter (3/12)

                                Land of NOVA CAESARA (New Jersey) given to Philip Carteret and John Lord Berkeley (6/23-4)         

                                Philip Carteret becomes governor of New Jersey

                                Grigore Ghica -                      (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                Isaac Newton's experiments with gravity

                                Christmas Oratorio                                               Schutz

                                Prior, Matthew                                                                      1664-1721

                                Sweerts, Michael                                                                  1618-1664

                                Zurbaran, Francisco de                                                       1598-1664

1665                        Self-Portrait - The Painter in Old Age (Rembrandt)

                                The Immaculate Conception (Bartolome Murillo)

                                Comtesse de Gramont (Peter Lely)

                                A Woody Landscape with a Cottage on the Right (Meindert Hobbema)

                                Louis XIV (Bernini)

                                Bernini visits Paris

                                Alexandre le Grand (Racine)

                                Ethics (Spinoza)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                RUSSO-POLISH WAR (WAR FOR UKRAINE) ... (1654-1667) Russia vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

                                SECOND ANGLO-DUTCH WAR +   (1665-1667)

                                The Great Pague in London kills 75000

                                Philip IV -                               (Spain)                                                   House of Austria

                                Charles II +                            (Spain)                                                   House of Austria

                                St. John's Passion                                                Schutz

                                Bruhns, Nikolaus                                                                 1665-1697               Composer

                                Fischer, Johann Caspar Ferdinand                                    1665-1746               Composer

                                Halley, Edmund                                                                    1665-1742

                                Marini, Biagio                                                                       1595-1665               Composer

                                Mercula, Tarquinio                                                              1594-1665               Composer

1666                        Winter Landscape (Kun-Ts'an)

                                Les Misanthrope (Moliere)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                            Vietnam

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)  Portugal vs. Spain 

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                   Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                RUSSO-POLISH WAR (WAR FOR UKRAINE) ... (1654-1667) Russia vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

                                SECOND ANGLO-DUTCH WAR ...   (1665-1667)

                                Robert Hook presents lecture “On Gravity” expounding Universal Gravitation Principle in London, Royal Society  (3/21)

Great Fire in London (9/2)

                                -----------------------------------------------------------

                                Sabbetai Zevi's abortive messianic movement collapses

                                French Academy of Science founded

                                Govind Singh                        (Sikh)                                                      (-1708)    10th and final guru

                                St. Matthew Passion                                           Schutz

                                Brome, Alexander                                                                 1620-1666

                                Hals, Frans                                            8/26                         1580-1666               Painter

                                Mansart, Francois                                                                1598-1666

1667                        Leopold I in Theatre Costume Dressed as Acis (Thomas of Ypres)

                                Colonnade of St. Peter's (Bernini)

                                Paradise Lost (Milton)

                                Andromaque (Racine)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR ...    (1640-1668)                Portugal vs. Spain 

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                RUSSO-POLISH WAR (WAR FOR UKRAINE) - (1654-1667) Russia vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

                                SECOND ANGLO-DUTCH WAR -   (1665-1667)

                                WAR OF DEVOLUTION +   (1667-1668)                          France vs. Spain

                                Treaty of Andrusovo - Russia gains Smolensk and eastern Ukraine from Poland (1/30)

                                Battle of Medway River - Dutch fleet defeats the English - worst navy defeat for England ever (6/13)

                                Treaty of Breda - between Netherlands, England, France, and Denmark - ends Second Anglo-Dutch War (7/31)

                                -------------------------------------------------------------

                                War of Devolution - France invades Spanish Netherlands

                                Alfonso VI -                          (Portugal)                                              House of Braganza

                                Pedro II +                               (Portugal)                                              House of Braganza

                                Abbas II -                              (Safavid Persia)                                    (1642-) 7th

                                Suleiman I (Safi) +                (Safavid Persia)                                    (-1694) 8th

                                Il pomo d'oro                                                         Cesti

                                12 Sonote da camera a 5 stromenti                    Rosenmuller

                                Corrente e balli                                                     Cazzati

                                Bernoulli, Johann                                                                 1667-1748

                                Monteclair, Michel Pignolet de                                         1667-1737               Composer

                                Swift, Jonathan                                                                     1667-1745

                                Froberger, Johann Jakob                                                    1616-1667               Composer

                                Taylor, Jeremy                                                                      1613-1667               Clergyman (9/13)

                                Wither, George                                                                     1588-1667               Poet/Satirist (England)  (5/2)

1668                        Fables (La Fontaine)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA ...   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                PORTUGUESE RESTORATION WAR -    (1640-1668)  Portugal vs. Spain 

                                WAR OF DEVOLUTION -   (1667-1668)                           France vs. Spain

                                Treaty of Lisbon - Spain (Charles II)  recognaizes Portugal's (Alfonso VI)  independence (2/13)

                                Treaty of aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) - ends War of Devolution - France keeps most conquests in Flanders (5/2)

                                Bergen Charter - First Assembly of New Jersey (5/26)

                                Triple Alliance of England, Netherlands, and Sweden against France

                                'Alawis Dynasty begins in Morocco (-present)

                                Perth Amboy made capital of East Jersey

                                John II Casimir Vasa -          (Poland)

                                Michael Korybut +              (Poland)                                                 Wisniowiecki

                                Buxtehude succeeds Franz Tunder as organist at Marienkirche, Lubeck, Germany

                                Couperin, Francois                                                              1668-1733               Composer

                                Gilles, Jean                                                                            1668-1705               Composer

                                Le Sage, Alain Rene                                                            1668-1747               Novelist (France)

                                Vico, Giambattista                                                                1668-1744

                                Davenant, William                                                               1606-1668

                                Fermat, Pierre de                                                                   1601-1668               Mathematician

                                Rovetta, Giovanni                                                                1596-1668               Composer

1669                        Egeria (Lorrain)

                                Palace of Versailles begun

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                SIEGE OF CANDIA -   (1648-1669)                                  Venetians vs. Ottomans

                                Woodbridge, NJ granted royal charter (1/1)

                                Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina (3)

                                Mt. Etna erupts - kills 20,000 and destroys town of Nicolosi (3/11)

                                Venice surrenders Candia (Crete) to Turkey

                                Hindu religion prohibited and Hindus persecuted by Aurangzeb

                                Fort Wicaco built on site of present day Philadelphia

                                Clement IX -                        (Patriarchateof Rome)                                (1667-1669)

                                Paris Academy of Music founded

                                Lopez, Miguel                                                                       1669-1723               Composer

                                Cesti, Marc' Antonio                                                           1623-1669               Composer

                                Geulinex, Arnold                                                                  1625-1669

                                Moulinie, Etienne                                                                 1600-1669               Composer

                                Rembrandt, Harmenzoon van Rijn                                     1606-1669               Painter

                                Simpson, Christopher                                                          1615-1669               Composer

1670                        The Windmill at Wijk Bij Duurstede (Jacob van Ruisdael)

                                Stucco decorations in the Church of Gesu, Rome (Antonio Raggi) (1670-1685)

                                Pensees (Pascal)

                                Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (Moliere)

                                Treatise on Theology and Politics (Tractatus Theologico-Politicus) (Spinoza)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                French Highwayman Claude Duval is executed in Tyburn, Middlesex (1/21)

                                Hudson's Bay Company founded (5/2)

                                Second Treaty of Dover - Between Charles II and Louis XIV - to restore Roman Catholicism to England (5/26)

                                Promulgation of a reformed criminal code for France

                                War between France and the Netherlands (Dutch) - assassination of the De Witt brothers

                                Peasant and Cossack uprisings in Russia (-1671)

                                William Sayle expedition founds Charleston, SC

                                Frederik III -                          (Denmark)(Norway)                             (1648-1670)                   

                                Christian V +                         (Denmark)(Norway)                             (1670-1699)

                                Clement X +                            (Patriarchateof Rome)                         (1670-)

                                Clavecin pieces                                                    Chambonnieres

                                Bononcini, Giovanni                                                            1670-1747               Composer

                                Caldara, Antonio                                                                  1670-1736               Composer

                                Congreve, William                                                               1670-1729

                                Kellner, David                                                                       1670-1748               Composer

                                Mandeville                                                                            1670-1733

                                Du Fault, Francois                                                               1604-1670               Composer

                                Ruysdael, Salomon van                                                      1600-1670

                                Vittori, Loreto                                                                       1604-1670               Composer

1671                 The Market and Town Hall, Haarlem (Gerrit Berckheyde)

                                Milo of Crotona (Pierre Puget) (1671-1683)

                                AHOM-MUGHAL CONFLICT... (1615-1682)

                                TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                Battle of Saraighat - between the Mughals and the Ahoms on the Brahmaputra - Ahoms win (4)

                                Thomas Blood attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London (5/9)

                                Ottoman Empire declares war on Poland (6/22)

                                Cooper, Anthony Ashley, 3rd Earl of Shaftsbury          1671-1713               Writer/Art Critic

                                Albinoni, Tomaso                                                                1671-1750               Composer

                                Law, John                                                                              1671-1729

1672                        TRINH-NGUYEN WAR ...   (1627-1673)                           Vietnam

                                THIRD ANGLO-DUTCH WAR +   (1672-1674)

                                Synod of Jerusalem (3)

                                Royal Declaration of Indulgence - Charles I's attempt to extend tolerance to Protestant nonconformists (3/15)

                                John Maitland becomes Duke of Lauderdale and Earl of March (5/2)

                                French (Louis XIV) troops cross the Rhine & invade southern Netherlands - precipitates Dutch revolution (6/14)

                                Third Anglo-Dutch War begins (-1674)

                                "Het Rampjaar" (Disaster Year) - England, France, Cologne and Munster invade United Provinces

                                William III appointed stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, and Utrecht (6/28)

                                Johan de Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland murdered by mob in the Hague (8/20)

                                France at war with Netherlands (-1678)

                                Treaty of Stockholm - between France and Sweden

                                Poland and Ottoman Empire at war for control of the Ukraine (-1676)

                                Iroquois invade Shawonoes territory in Cumberland basin

                                William III +                          (Netherlands)                                        stadholder (of Orange) (hereditary)

                                Isaac Newton presents basic ideas of his optic theory to the Royal Society

                                Addison, Joseph                                                                  1672-1719

                                Bonporti, Francesco Antonio                                            1672-1748               Composer

                                Destouches, Andre Cardinal                                              1672-1749               Composer

                                Forqueray, Antoine                                                             1672-1745               Composer

                                Mancini, Francesco                                                             1672-1737               Composer

                                Steele, Richard                                                                      1672-1729

                                Benevoli, Orazio                                                                   1605-1672               Composer

                                Bradstreet, Anne                                                                  1612-1672

                                Chambonnieres, Jacques Champion de                            1602-1672               Composer

                                Gaultier, Denis                                                                      1600-1672               Composer

                                Schutz, Heinrich                                                                   1585-1672               Composer

1673                        TRINH-NGUYEN WAR -   (1627-1673)                             Vietnam

                                THIRD ANGLO-DUTCH WAR ...   (1672-1674)

                                Dutch Recapture New Amsterdam colony (8/9)

                                Test Act - aims to deprive English Roman Catholics and Nonconformists of public office

                                Trinh-Nguyen War ends - agree to Linh River boundary

                                Missa Christi Resurgentis                                  Heinrich Biber (1674)

                                Michael Korybut -               (Poland)                                                 Wisniowiecki

                                John III Sobieski +               (Poland)

                                Devaraja Wodeyar -            (Mysore)                                               Dodda

                                Devaraja Wodeyar +           (Mysore)                                               Chikka

                                Moliere                                                                                  1622-1673

1674                 The Adoratiom of the Name of Jesus (Giovanni Battista Gaulli) (1674-1679)

                                Virgin of the Annunciation (Ignaz Gunther)

                                L'art Poetique (Boileau-Despreaux)

                                De la recherche de la verite (Malebranche) (Eng. trans. 1690)

                                THIRD ANGLO-DUTCH WAR -  (1672-1674)

                                Treaty of Westminster - ends Third Anglo-Dutch War (2/19)

                                Treaty of Westminster - between England and the Netherlands - division of colonial spheres of influence (2/19)

                                Treaty of Westminster - East Indies controlled by Holland / America controlled by England (2/19)

                                Treaty of Westminster - New Netherland remains British, Suriname remains Dutch (2/19)

                                Shivaji crowned king of Marathas (6/6)

                                Dutch cede New Amsterdam to Britain (11/10)

                                Invasion of the Franche Comte

                                Holy Roman Empire declares war on France in defence of the Dutch

                                French found Pondicherry

                                John Berkeley sells his Jersey holdings to John Fenwick and Edward Byllinge

                                New Jersey splits into East and West

                                Louis Joliet and Jaques Marquette first Europeans to journey down Mississippi

                                Clarke, Jeremiah                                                                    1674-1707               Composer

                                Crebillon                                                                                1674-1762

                                Hotteterre, Jacques                                                              1674-1762               Composer

                                Keiser, Reinhard                                                                   1674-1739               Composer

                                Carissimi, Giamomo                                                              1605-1674               Composer

                                Herrick, Robert                                                                     1594-1674               Poet (England)

                                Hobbes, Thomas                                                                  1588-1674               Political Theorist

                                Milton, John                                                                         1608-1674

1675                 Lalita Ragini (Bundi Painting)

                                Landscape in the style of Wu Chen (Wang Hui)

                                St. Paul's Cathedral begins construction under Sir Christopher Wren

                                KING PHILIP'S WAR +   (1675-1678)

                                SCANIAN WAR +                (1675-1679)                          Denmark/Norwar vs. Sweden

                                Great Swamp Fight - Major Robert attacks Narragansett fort (12/19)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Battle of Fehrbellin - Frederick William (the Great Elector) defeats Swedish forces

                                Ch'ing conquest of south China (-1683)

                                Spanish reprisals against Pueblo at Santa Fe Plaza

                                King Philip’s War begins - New England

                                Battle at Pocasset Swamp

                                Battle of Northern Connecticut River Valley

                                Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia (-1676)

                                Thesee                                                                   Lully

                                Philips, Ambrose                                                                  1675-1749

                                Saint Simon, Louis de Rouvroy                                         1675-1755

                                Hammerschmidt, Andreas                                                  1612-1675               Composer

                                Noordt, Anthoni van                                                           1620-1675               Composer

                                Vermeer, Jan                                                                          1632-1675

1676                 Bishop Copello Rising from his Tomb (Artus Quellin II)

                                Charles le Brun (Antoine Coysevox)

                                KING PHILIP'S WAR ...   (1675-1678)

                                SCANIAN WAR ...   (1675-1679)                       Denmark/Norwar vs. Sweden

                                King Philip’s War ends (8/12)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Treaty of Zuravno - Ottoman Empire gains Polish Ukraine

                                Sikh uprising in India (-1678)

                                King Philip's War in New England - Native Americans vs. settlers (-1682)

                                Bacon’s Rebellion

                                New Jersey splits into East and West Jersey

                                Aleksei -                                (Russia)                                                 (1645-)    Emperor (Alexis)

                                Fedor III +                             (Russia)                                                 (-1683)    Emperor

                                Clement X -

                                Innocent XI +

                                Determination of the finite velocity of light by the Danish astronomer Olaus Roemer

                                Reinhardt, Johann Georg                                                    1676-1742               Composer

                                Cavalli, Pier Francesco                                                        1602-1676               Composer

1677                        Phedre (Racine)

                                KING PHILIP'S WAR ...   (1675-1678)

                                SCANIAN WAR ...   (1675-1679)                       Denmark/Norwar vs. Sweden

                                William III of the Netherlands marries Mary, daughter of James, Duke of York, heir to the English throne

                                Russia and the Ottoman Empire at war (-1681)

                                Anton van Leeuwenhoek discovers the existence of male spermatozoa using a microscope

                                Barrow, Isaac                                                                        1630-1677

                                Locke, Matthew                                                                   1630-1677               Composer

                                Spinoza, Baruch                                                                   1632-1677               Philosopher

1678                        Mystery of the Immaculate Conception (Murillo)

                                Pilgrim’s Progress, pt. 1 (Bunyan)

                                KING PHILIP'S WAR -   (1675-1678)

                                SCANIAN WAR ...   (1675-1679)                       Denmark/Norwar vs. Sweden

                                Popish Plot in England - Titus Oates falsely alleges a Catholic plot to murder Charles II

                                Treaty of Nimwegan - ends Franco-Dutch war

                                Elector of Brandenburg attempts to suppress Wendish speech

                                French explorer Damiel Duluth encounters the Sioux in Minnesota

                                Serban Cantacuzino +         (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                A wave theory of light proposed by Christian Huygens

                                Bolingbroke, Henry St. John                                              1678-1751

                                Pisendel, Johann Georg                                                      1678-1755               Composer

                                Vivaldi, Antonio                                                                   1678-1741               Composer (Venice)

                                Jenkins, John                                                                        1592-1678               English Court Composer

                                Jordaens, Jacob                                                                    1593-1678               Painter (Antwerp)

                                Marvell, Andrew                                                                  1621-1678               Metaphysical Poet (Cambridge)

                                Thomas of Ypres                           --------------------                                       1617-1678               Painter

1679                        Passing the Summer at the Thatched Hall of Ink-well (Wu Li) (China)

                                Discours sur l'histoire universelle (Bossuet) (1681)

                                Politique tiree de l'Ecriture Sainte (Bossuet)

                                Fables, bks 7-11 (La Fontaine)

                                SCANIAN WAR -   (1675-1679)                        Denmark/Norway vs. Sweden

                                Treaty of Fontainebleau - ends Scandian War - Sweden regains all lost territories (8/23)

                                Act of Habeus Corpus passes in England - forbids imprisonment without trial

                                Parliament's Bill of Exclusion against Roman Catholic James, Duke of York blocked by Charles II

                                Charles II dismisses Parliament

                                Charles II rejects petitions to form a new Parliament - Whigs (petitioners) angainst Tories (royalists) (-1680)

                                First fortress built by Vauban

                                Exclusion crisis (-1681)

                                New Hampshire separates from Massachusetts, becomes royal colony

                                Boylston, Zabdiel                                                                 1679-1766               Physician (Brookline, MA)

                                Kauffmann, Georg Friedrich                                               1679-1735               Composer

                                Wolff, Christian von                                                            1679-1754               Philosopher (Germany)

                                Zelenka, Jan Dismas                                                            1679-1745               Composer

                                Becker, Dietrich                                                                    1623-1679               Composer

                                Borelli, Giovanni Alfonso                                                   1608-1679               Physiologist / Polymath (Italian/Spanish)

                                Bruna, Pablo                                                                         1611-1679               Composer

                                Mayow, John                                                                        1640-1679               Chemist/Physiologist (England)

                                Reusner Jr., Esaias                                                               1636-1679               Composer

1680                        Behemoth (Hobbes)

                                Traite de la nature et de la grace (Malebranche)

                                Recopilacion de Leyes de las Indias (Spanish colonial code)

                                PUEBLO REVOLT +   (1680-1692)                     Pueblo vs. New Spain

                                Chambers of Reunion established by Louis XIV to annex territory (-1683)

                                France occupies Strasbourg, Luxemburg, and Lorraine (-1683)

                                Popé leads Pueblo revolt in Santa Fe against Spanish (8/10) (-1692)

                                Father Louis GHennepin encounters Sioux in the Mille Lacs region of Minnesota

                                Dornel, Louis Antoine                                                        1680-1756               Composer

                                Loeillet, Jean Baptiste                                                         1680-1730               Composer

                                Valentini, Giuseppe                                                              1680-1740               Composer

                                Bernini, Gianlorenzo                                                            1598-1680               Sculptor/Architect (Naples, Italy)

                                Butler, Joseph                                                                       1612-1680

                                Colista, Lelio                                                                         1629-1680               Composer

                                Franceschini, Petronio                                                        1650-1680               Composer

                                Kircher, Athanasius                                                            1602-1680               Composer (1601)

                                La Rouchefoucald                                                                1613-1680

                                Schmelzer, Johann Heinrich                                               1623-1680               Composer

                                Swammerdam, Jan                                                                1637-1680

                                Uccellini, Marco                                                                   1603-1680               Composer

1681                        Telluris Theoria Sacra (Burnet)

                                PUEBLO REVOLT ...   (1680-1692)                     Pueblo vs. New Spain

                                WAR OF 27 YEARS +   (1681-1707)                   Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                Pennsylvania granted to William Penn by Charles II (3|4)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Whigs reintroduce Exclusion Bill - Charles II dissolves Parliament

                                Charles II rules without Parliament (-1685)

                                Treaty of Radzin - Russia gains most of Turkish Ukraine

                                Sieur de la Salle explores Mississippi River (-1682)

                                East Jersey

                                Trio Sonatas                                                         Corelli

                                Mattheson, Johann                                                             1681-1764               Composer

                                Telemann, Georg Philipp                                                     1681-1767               Composer

                                Lilly, William                                                                         1602-1681               Astrologer

1682                        Ceiling of the Grand Gallery - Medici Palace (Luca Giordano) (1682-83)

                                PUEBLO REVOLT ...   (1680-1692)                     Pueblo vs. New Spain

                                WAR OF 27 YEARS ...   (1681-1707)                   Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                La Salle claims territory on the w. bank of the Missisippi for France @ Mitchigameas (Helena, Arkansas) (3/14)

                                La Salle discovers mouth of the Mississippi (4/6-7)

                                Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claims “Louisiana” for France - by a proclamation and proces verbal (4/9)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Ottoman Empire and Austria at war (-1699)

                                William Penn founds Pennsylvania

                                Philladelphia founded by William Penn

                                Regime of the Twenty Four proprietors NJ

                                Quaker migration to Pennsylvania

                                Treaty of Shakamaxon - Penn - Delaware

                                La Salle builds Fort Prudhomme at the mouth of the Wabash (Tennessee)

                                Battle of Itakhuli - Ahom Mughal Conflict ends

                                Peter I the Great +              (Russia)                                                 Emperor               

                                Ivan V +                                 (Russia)                                                 Emperor               

                                Sophia +                                (Russia)                                                 Regent

                                Emerich Tokoli +                (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Persee                                                                    Lully

                                Dandrieu, Jean Francois                                                     1682-1738               Composer

                                Fasch, Johann Friedrich                                                      1682-1758               Composer

                                Hesselius, Gustavus                                                            1682-1755

                                Mouret, Jean Joseph                                                           1682-1738               Composer

                                Battiferri, Luigi                                                                      1610-1682               Composer

                                Becher, Johann Joachim                                                     1635-1682

                                Gu Yanwu                                                                              1613-1682               Philosopher (China)

                                Lorrain, Claude Gellee                                                         1600-1682               Painter (Lorraine, France)

                                More, Henry                                                                         1614-1682

                                Murillo, Bartolome, Esteban                                               1617-1682               Painter (Seville, Spain) (1618)

                                Picard, Jean                                                                           1620-1682

                                Ruisdael, Jacob van                                                             1628-1682

                                Stradella, Alessandro                                                          1642-1682               Composer

1683                        Three Ladies looking at Pictures (Moronobu)

                                PUEBLO REVOLT ...   (1680-1692)                     Pueblo vs. New Spain

                                WAR OF 27 YEARS ...   (1681-1707)                 Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                War of the European Powers vs. Ottoman Turks begins (-1699)

                                Second Siege of Vienna by Ottoman Turkish forces - Europe at war with Ottomans for next 41 years

                                Vienna is relieved by German and Polish troops

                                High point of Turkish advance in Europe

                                Cheng Chin, Koxinga's grandson,  surrenders Formosa to the Manchus

                                William Penn Treaty with Delaware made payment for Pennsylvania lands

                                Perth Amboy incorporated

                                Twelve counties of New York formed

                                Middlesex County formed from province of East Jersey

                                Fedor III -                              (Russia)                                                 (1676-)    Emperor

                                Pedro II -                                (Portugal)                                              House of Braganza

                                Phaeton                                                                 Lully

                                Graupner, Johann Christoph                                              1683-1760               Composer

                                Heinichen, Johann David                                                   1683-1729               Composer

                                Lisle, Samuel                                                                         1683-1749

                                Rameau, Jean Philippe                                                         1683-1764               Composer

                                Young, Edward                                                                     1683-1765               Writer/Critic

                                Colbert, Jean-Baptiste                                                         1619-1683

                                Guarini, Guarino                                                                   1624-1683

                                Walton, Izaac                                                                        1593-1683

1684                        Pilgrim’s Progress, pt. 2 (Bunyan)

                                Calculus (Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz)

                                PUEBLO REVOLT ...   (1680-1692)                     Pueblo vs. New Spain

                                WAR OF 27 YEARS ...   (1681-1707)                 Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                La Salle leaves Rochelle France on expedition to Mississippi River  - only to return after damage (7/24)

                                La Salle's expedition leaves a second time (8/1)

                                Truce of Ratisbon - between France and Spain/German Empire - termintated the war of the previous year (8/15)

                                La Salle's fleet arrives at Petit Gouave,  Santo Domingo (8/28) - (10/2)

                                La Salle's fleet leaves Petite Gouave with three ships remaining (11/25)

                                La Salle's fleet sees land (12/28)

                                France occupies Trier in the Rhineland

                                Holy League forms by Pope Innocent XI - Venice, Austria, and Poland against Ottoman Empire

                                Bermuda becomes a British crown colony

                                La Salle builds French forts in Illinois and Texas

                                Confederation of New England dissolves

                                Dominion of New England places several colonies under royal authority (-1689)

                                Durante, Francesco                                                             1684-1755               Composer

                                Lardner, Nathaniel                                                               1684-1768

                                Manfredini, Francesco                                                        1684-1762               Composer

                                Watteau, Jean-Antoine                                                       1684-1721               Painter

                                Du Mont, Henri                                                                    1610-1684               Composer

                                De Hooch, Pieter                                                                  1629-1684

                                Corneille, Pierre                                                                    1606-1684

                                Mariotte, Edme                                                                     1620-1684

                                Rosenmuller, Johann                                                           1620-1684               Composer

1685                        Palace of Versailles completed

                                PUEBLO REVOLT ...   (1680-1692)                     Pueblo vs. New Spain

                                WAR OF 27 YEARS ...   (1681-1707)                 Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                La Salle makes landfall west of Mississippi  (1/1)

                                La Salle's fleet lands again by Chorpus Christi (1/17)

                                La Salle's fleet sailing back eastward land at Matagorda Bay (2/18)

                                Edict of Fontainebleau - Edict of Nantes revocation spurs Protestant migration to America (10)

                                Edict of Fontainebleau - Edict of Nantes revoked  - all religions except Roman Catholicism forbidden (10)

                                Edict of Potsdam - issued by Frederick Wilhelm of Brandenburg (10/29)

                                James II puts down rebellion of Duke of Monmouth, Charles II's illigitemate son

                                More than 50,000 Protestant (Huguenot) families leave France

                                Lasalle builds Fort St. Louis

                                Charles II -                             (England)(Scotland)                            (1660-)    King                                      

                                James II +                              (England)(Scotland)                            King (James VII of Scotland)

                                Constantine Cantemir +      (Moldavia)                                            Prince

                                Giovanni Legrenzi at San Marco

                                The Division Violist

                                Alberti, Giuseppe Matteo                                                   1685-1751               Composer

                                Bach, Johann Sebastian                                                      1685-1750               Composer

                                Berkeley, George                                                                  1685-1753               Philosopher

                                Gay, John                                                                              1685-1732               Composer

                                Handel, George Frideric                                                      1685-1759               Composer                              (2/23)

                                Reading, John                                                                       1685-1764               Composer

                                Scarlatti, Giuseppe Domenico                                            1685-1757               Composer (Naples)              (10/26)

                                Taylor, Brook                                                                        1685-1731

                                Court, Pieter de la                                                                 1618-1685

                                Nicolai, Johann Michael                                                     1629-1685               Composer

                                Ostade, Adraen van                                                            1610-1685

1686                        PUEBLO REVOLT ...   (1680-1692)                     Pueblo vs. New Spain

                                WAR OF 27 YEARS ...   (1681-1707)                 Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                La Salle orders Joutel to join him at Fort St. Louis (7/14)

                                Holy League liberates Buda (in Hungary) from the Ottoman Empire - begins liberation of all Hungary (9/2)

                                Massachusetts Bay Colony denied its right to self-rule - Sir Edmund Andros is appointed Governor (12/20)

                                James II disregards Test Act - appoints Roman Catholics to public office

                                League of Augsburg  formed - HRE, Spain, Sweden, Saxony, Bavaria, and Palatinate against France

                                Austrians advance on Budapest

                                Venetians take Morea

                                Bijapur is conquered by Aurangzeb (-1687)

                                France annexes Madagascar

                                Dominion of New England formed

                                Perth Amboy becomes capital of East Jersey

                                New York City and Albany are granted city charters

                                Hurricane saves Charleston from attack by Spanish ships

                                Armide                                                                     Lully

                                Pieces de Violes, 1re livre                                   Marin Marais

                                Balguy, John                                                                         1686-1748

                                Fahrenheit, D. G.                                                                  1686-1736

                                Law, William                                                                         1686-1761

                                Marcello, Benedetto                                                            1686-1739               Composer

                                Porpora, Nicola Antonio                                                     1686-1768               Composer

                                Weiss, Sylvius Leopold                                                      1686-1750               Composer

                                Guericke, Otto von                                                               1602-1686

                                Playford, John                                                                      1623-1686               Composer

                                Steno, Nicholaus                                                                  1638-1686

1687                        Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (Newton) (pub 7/5)

                                PUEBLO REVOLT ...   (1680-1692)                     Pueblo vs. New Spain

                                WAR OF 27 YEARS ...   (1681-1707)                 Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                La Salle killed in mutiny while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi (3/19)

                                Declaration of Liberty of Conscience (..of Indulgence)- extends toleration of all religions - James II issues  (4/4)

                                Emperor Higashiyama ascends to the Japanese throne (5/6)

                                Battle of Mohacs (1687) - Turks defeated - Hapsburg succession to Hungarian throne confirmed (8/12)

                                Huguenots set sail from France to the Cape of Good Hope (12/31)

                                Eusebio Kino builds 24 missions in Arizona

                                Explosion of the Parthenon (gunpowder stored inside)

                                Mehmet IV -                          (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan (Muhammed)

                                Suleiman II +                         (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan

                                Reigen -                                 (Japan)                                                   (1663-) 112th Emperor

                                Higashiyama +                      (Japan)                                                   (-1709) 113th Emperor

                                Geminiani, Francesco Xaverio                                           1687-1762               Composer

                                Lully, Jean-Baptiste                                                             1632-1687               Composer

                                Petty, William                                                                       1623-1687

                                Waller, Edmund                                                                    1606-1687               Poet (Coleshill, Hertfordshire, Eng.)

1688                        PUEBLO REVOLT ...   (1680-1692)                     Pueblo vs. New Spain

                                WAR OF 27 YEARS ...   (1681-1707)                 Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                GLORIOUS REVOLUTION +-   (1688)                                              England

                                WAR OF THE GRAND ALLIANCE +   (1688-1697)       HRE, UP, England,  et al vs. France, Spain

                                Friederich Wilhelm, the Great Elector of Prussia dies (4/29)

                                Immortal Seven invite William of Orange and Mary to depose James II (6/30)

                                James II fires minister Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland (10/27)

                                William III of Orange lands in England (Brixham) with 15,000 troops at invitation of seImmortal Seven (11/5)

                                1500 Old Believers immolate themselves to avoid capture by the Russian Tzar at Lake Onega Monastery (11/23)

                                James II flees to France (12/11)          (-1689)

                                Glorious Revolution in England -

                                William III's coalition strengthened by most of the important men in England

                                Mutiny Act

                                Toleration Act

                                War of the Grand Alliance War (League of Augsburg) begins (UP, Sweden, Austria, Spain vs. France) (-1697)

                                Austrians capture Belgrade

                                Cultural brilliance during Genroku calendrical era in Japan (-1704)

                                Quakers in Pennsylvania issue formal protest againt slavery in America

                                Pope, Pueblo leader dies

                                Somerset county split from Middlesex county, NJ

                                James II -                               (England)                                               (1685-)

                                Frederick William -               (Brandenburg)                                      Elector (Hohenzollern) (1640-)

                                Frederick I of Prussia +       (Brandenburg)                                      Elector (Hohenzollern) (-1713)

                                Serban Cantacuzino -          (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                Constantine +                       (Walachia)                                             Prince (Brancoveeanu )

                                Peter I the Great +                (Russia)                             &nb