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1700                 WAR OF 27 YEARS ...   (1681-1707)                   Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR +   (1700-1721)

                                Charles II last Hapsburg King of Spain dies (11/1)

                                Battle of Narva - Russians defeated by Charles XII of Sweden (11/19)      (11/20 Julian?)


                                Charles II of Spain names Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV, as heir - succeeds as Philip V

                                Great Northern War - rivalry between Russia and Sweden for supremacy in the Baltic (-1721)

                                Philip V of Spain crowned (-1746)

                                Innocent XII -                (Patriarchate of Rome)                              (1691-1700)

                                Clement XI +                 (Patriarchate of Rome)                              (1700-1721)

                                J. S. Bach at Luneburg

                                Baal Shem Tov                                                                     1700-1760

                                Bernoulli, Daniel                                                                   1700-1782

                                Blavet, Michel                                                                      1700-1748               Composer

                                Teedyuscung                                                                       1700-1763

                                Dryden, John                                                                        1631-1700               Poet (Northamptonshire, England)

1701                 WAR OF 27 YEARS ...   (1681-1707)                   Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION +   (1701-1714)  HRE, England, DR vs.  Spain, France, Bavaria

                                Treaty of Den Haag - League of Augsberg goes into second phase as Alliance of the War of Span. Succession (9/7)


                                Act of Settlement - in Britain establishes Protestant Hanoverian succession in Britain

                                Charles II dies in exile

                                Grand Alliance - England, the Netherlands, Holy Roman Empire, and the German states against France

                                Frederick I Elector Brandenburg (1688-) is crowned 1st King of Prussia

                                Prussia as a unified political entity begins (Brandenburg, East Prussia, and Cleves)

                                War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Anne's War) begins (-1714) (-1713)

                                Charles XII of Sweden invades Poland

                                Iroquois sign neutrality treaties with British and French - persists for over fifty years

                                Yale College founded

                                Frederick I of Prussia +    (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                   (1701-1713)Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Charles II -                           (Spain)                                                   House of Austria

                                Philip V +                              (Spain)                                                   (1701-1746)H.  Bourbon (gs Louis XIV)

                                Domenico Scarlatti appointed organist and composer at the Royal Chapel in Naples

                                12 Concerti Grossi                                              G. Muffat

                                Pieces de Violes, 2de livre                                 Marais

                                Angrell, Johan Joachim                                                       1701-1765               Composer

                                Celcius, Anders                                                                    1701-1744

                                Neruda, Johann Baptist Georg                                           1701-1780               Composer

                                Sammartini, Giovanni Battista                                            1701-1775               Composer (Milan, Italy)

                                Harquart, Carolus                                                                 1640-1701               Composer

1702                        WAR OF 27 YEARS ...   (1681-1707)                   Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION ...   (1701-1714)  HRE, England, DR vs.  Spain, France, Bavaria

                                QUEEN ANNE'S WAR +   (1702-1713)

                                War of the Camisards begins (Fr.)

                                Dutch Republic without a stadholder (-1747)

                                St. Petersburg founded

                                Queen Anne’s War begins (-1713)

                                New Jersey becomes a crown colony

                                William III -                          (England)(Scotland)

                                Anne +                                   (England)(Scotland)                            Queen (-1714)

                                William III -                          (Dutch Republic)                 Stadholder (of Orange)

                                William III -                          (Netherlands)                                       stadholder (of Orange) (hereditary)

                                Handel goes to Hamburg and plays at the opera house

                                Liotard, Jean-Etienne                                                           1702-1789

                                William III of Orange                                                           1650-1702               Stadtholder/King (b. Hague)

1703                        La Belle Strasbourgeoise (Nicolas de Largilliere)

                                WAR OF 27 YEARS ...   (1681-1707)                   Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION ...   (1701-1714)  HRE, England, DR vs.  Spain, France, Bavaria

                                QUEEN ANNE'S WAR ...   (1702-1713)

                                Methuen Agreement - trade treaty between England and Portugal

                                Vauban made a marshal of France

                                Hungarian revolt lead by Francis II Rakoczi begins against Austria (-1711)

                                Mustafa II -                           (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Ahmed III +                           (Ottoman Empire)

                                Bach becomes church organist in Arnstadt

                                Georg Telemann founds Collegium musicum at Leipzig

                                St. John Passion                                                  Handel

                                al-Wahab, Mohammed ibn Abd                                        1703-1791

                                Boucher, Francois                                                                1703-1770               Painter (France)

                                Edwards, Jonathan                                                              1703-1758

                                Fiocco, Joseph-Hector                                                        1703-1741               Composer

                                Graun, Johann Gottlieb                                                       1703-1771               Composer

                                Travers, John                                                                        1703-1758               Composer

                                Wesley, John                                                                        1703-1791

                                Hooke, Robert                                                                      1635-1703

                                Pepys, Samuel                                                                      1633-1703

                                Perrault, Charles                                                                   1628-1703

                                Viviani,                                                                                   1622-1703

                                Wallis, John                                                                          1616-1703

1704                        Tale of a Tub  (Jonathan Swift)

                                Opticks (Newton)

                                WAR OF 27 YEARS ...   (1681-1707)                   Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION ...   (1701-1714)  HRE, England, DR vs.  Spain, France, Bavaria

                                QUEEN ANNE'S WAR ...   (1702-1713)

                                Deerfield Massacre - English colonists killed by French and Indians (2/28-29)

                                Battle of Blenheim - allies under Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene defeat French (8/13)


                                British fleet captures Gibraltar from Spain

                                Boston News Letter begins publication - first newsletter in America

                                Francis Rakoczy +              (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Devaraja Wodeyar -            (Mysore)                                                Chikka

                                Narasaraja Wodeyar II +   (Mysore)                                                Kantheerava

                                J.S. Bach's first cantata

                                Almira                                                                    Handel

                                Graun, Carl Heinrich                                                            1704-1759               Composer

                                Seixas, Jose Antonio Carlos De                                         1704-1742               Composer

                                Tuma, Frantisek Antonin Ignac                                         1704-1774               Composer

                                Biber, Heinrich Ignaz Franz                                                1644-1704               Composer

                                Bossuet, Jacques Benigne                                                 1627-1704               Prelate/Orator (France)

                                Charpentier, Marc Antoine                                                1644-1704               Composer

                                L’Estrange, Roger                                                                1616-1704

                                L’Hopital, Guillaume de                                                       1661-1704

                                Locke, John                                                                           1632-1704               Philosopher

                                Muffat, Georg                                                                       1653-1704

1705                        WAR OF 27 YEARS ...   (1681-1707)                   Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION ...   (1701-1714)  HRE, England, DR vs.  Spain, France, Bavaria

                                QUEEN ANNE'S WAR ...   (1702-1713)

                                Turkish authority overthrown in Tunis

                                Virginia Black Code of 1705 - slaves considered real estate

                                Eusebio Kino’s map shows California part of North America - not an island

                                Leopold I -                             (Holy Roman Empire)                         (1658-)   Emperor

                                Joseph I +                              (Holy Roman Empire)                         Emperor

                                Domenico Scarlatti moves to Venice at the insistence of his father  - studies with Gasparini

                                Barriere, Jean                                                                        1705-1747               Composer

                                Hartley, David                                                                      1705-1757               Philosopher

                                Royer, Joseph Nicholas Pancrace                                     1705-1755               Composer

                                Gilles, Jean                                                                            1668-1705               Composer

                                Noordt Jr., Sybrant van                                                       1660-1705               Composer

                                Ray, John                                                                              1627-1705

1706                        WAR OF 27 YEARS ...   (1681-1707)                 Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION ...   (1701-1714)                               HRE, England, DR vs.  Spain, France, Bavaria

                                QUEEN ANNE'S WAR ...   (1702-1713)

                                Battle of Ramillies - Duke of Marlborough defeats French forces (5/23)


                                Battle of Turin - Prince Eugene defeats French in Italy

                                Treaty of Altranstadt - between Augustus II of Poland and Charles XII of Sweden - Augustus  II abdicates

                                South Carolina adopts Anglicanism as official church

                                Augustus II the Strong -    (Poland)                                                 Wettin

                                Stanislaus Leszczynski +    (Poland)

                                Pedro II -                                (Portugal)                                              House of Braganza             

                                John V +                                (Portugal)                                              House of Braganza                             

                                Handel travels to Italy for three years

                                Premiere Livre de Pieces de Clavecin                             Rameau

                                Cecere, Carlo                                                                         1706-1761               Composer

                                Franklin, Benjamin                                                               1706-1790

                                Galuppi, Baldassare                                                             1706-1785               Composer

                                Bayle, Pierre                                                                          1647-1706

                                Pachelbel, Johann                                                                1653-1706               Composer

1707                        Le Diable boiteux (Le Sage) (Eng. tr. 1708)

                                WAR OF 27 YEARS -   (1681-1707)                    Mughal Empire vs. Maratha Empire

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION ...   (1701-1714)                  HRE, England, DR vs.  Spain, France, Bavaria

                                QUEEN ANNE'S WAR ...   (1702-1713)

                                Death of Aurangzeb leads to dissolution of Mughal Empire (3/3)


                                Act of Union - Parliament unites England, Wales,  and Scotland under the name of Great Britain

                                Battle of Almanza - Spain defeats allies forces

                                Aurangzeb Alamgir -         (Mughal Empire)                                 (1658-)   Grand Mogul

                                Azam Shah +-                       (Mughal Empire)

                                Kambaksh +-                        (Mughal Empire)

                                Bahadur Shah I +                (Mughal Empire)

                                Murshid Quli Jafar Khan +              (Bengal)                                                                Nawab

                                Mitridate eupatore                                             Alessandro Scarlatti

                                Cantatas,  first series                                          J. S. Bach

                                Euler, Leonhard                                                                    1707-1783               Mathematician (Switzerland)

                                Fielding, Henry                                                                     1707-1754               Novelist (England)

                                Linnaeus, Carolus                                                                1707-1778

                                Paradisi, Pietro Domenico                                                   1707-1791               Composer

                                Buxtehude, Dietrich                                                             1637-1707               Composer (Sweden)

                                Clarke, Jeremiah                                                                    1674-1707               Composer

                                Vauban, Sebastien le Prestre                                              1633-1707

1708                        Ceiling of Painted Hall, Greenwich Hospital (James Thornhill) (1708-1727)

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION ...   (1701-1714)                  HRE, England, DR vs.  Spain, France, Bavaria

                                QUEEN ANNE'S WAR ...   (1702-1713)

                                Battle of Oudenarde - Allied forces under Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene defeat French

                                Charles XII of Sweden invades Russia

                                Death of Guru Govind Singh

                                Govind Singh -                     (Sikh)                                                      (1666-)    10th and final guru

                                Bach becomes court organist in Weimar (1708-1717)

                                Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de                         1708-1788               Naturalist (France)

                                Scheibe, Johann Adolph                                                    1708-1776               Composer

                                von Haller, Albrecht                                                            1708-1777

                                Blow, John                                                                            1648-1708               Composer

                                Mansart, Jules Hardouin                                                    1646-1708

                                Walsh, William                                                                     1663-1708

1709                        Turcaret (Alain Rene Le Sage)

                                The Tatler founded

                                The Spectator founded

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION ...   (1701-1714)                  HRE, England, DR vs.  Spain, France, Bavaria

                                QUEEN ANNE'S WAR ...   (1702-1713)

                                Battle of Malplaquert - Allies defeat France in pyrrhic victory - 20,000 Allied troops killed

                                Battle of Poltava - Peter I of Russia defeats Charles XII of Sweden (decisive)

                                Berlin incorporated by Frederick I

                                Port Royal, NS French Fort captured by British

                                Stanislaus Leszczynski -  (Poland)

                                Augustus II the Strong +   (Poland)

                                Pianoforte built

                                Domenico Scarlatti moves to Rome - joins the musical establishment of Queen Maria Casimira of Poland

                                Opera buffa in Italy

                                Organ Fugue in G Minor                                   J. S. Bach

                                Avison, Charles                                                                   1709-1770               Composer

                                Benda, Frantisek                                                                  1709-1786               Composer

                                Corrette, Michel                                                                   1709-1795               Composer

                                Hamal, Jean Noel                                                                  1709-1778               Composer

                                Johnson, Samuel                                                                  1709-1784

                                de La Mettrie, Julien                                                            1709-1751

                                Mably, Gabrielle Bonnot de                                               1709-1783

                                Richter, Franz Xaver                                                            1709-1789               Composer (Bohemia)

                                Schaffrath, Christoph                                                          1709-1763               Composer

                                Torelli, Giuseppe                                                                  1658-1709               Composer

1710                        A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (Berkeley)

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION ...   (1701-1714)                               HRE, England, DR vs.  Spain, France, Bavaria

                                QUEEN ANNE'S WAR ...   (1702-1713)

                                War of the Camisards ends (Fr.)

                                Handel takes position as music director for Elector Georg Ludwig of Hanover

                                Handel in England

                                Academy of Ancient Music founded in London

                                Fetes Venitiennes                                                Campra

                                Rinaldo                                                                  Handel (1711)

                                Arne, Thomas Augustin                                                     1710-1778               Composer

                                Bach, Wilhelm Friedmann                                                    1710-1784               Composer

                                Hopken, Arvid Niclas von                                                  1710-1778               Composer

                                Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista                                               1710-1736               Composer

                                Reid, Thomas                                                                        1710-1796

                                Rollig, Johann Georg                                                           1710-1790               Composer

                                Mouton, Charles                                                                  1626-1710               Composer

                                Pasquini, Bernardo                                                              1637-1710               Composer

                                Roemer, Olaus                                                                      1644-1710

                                Sanz, Gaspar                                                                         1650-1710               Composer

1711                        Wang Ch'uan Villa (Wang Yuan-Ch'i) (China)

                                Essay on Criticism (Alexander Pope)

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                QUEEN ANNE'S WAR ...   (1702-1713)

                                WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION ...   (1701-1714)                               HRE, England, DR vs.  Spain, France, Bavaria

                                TUSCARORA WAR +-   (1711)

                                Duke of Marlborough dismissed as Allied Commander

                                Peace of Szatmar between Austria and Hungary - Hungary under Austrian rule (-1918)

                                Phanariot Regime controls Moldavia

                                Tuscarora War in North Carolina

                                Joseph I -                               (Holy Roman Empire)                          (1705-1711)    Emperor

                                Charles VI +                          (Holy Roman Empire)                          (1711-1740)    Emperor

                                Nicholas Mavrocordat +     (Moldavia)                                            Prince

                                Francis Rakoczy -                  (Transylvania)                                   Prince

                                Pieces de Violes, 3rd livre                                   Marais

                                Croesus                                                                 Keiser

                                Boyce, William                                                                     1711-1779               Composer

                                Holzbauer, Ignaz Jakob                                                       1711-1783               Composer

                                Hume, David                                                                         1711-1766               Philosopher

                                Lomonosov, Mikhail                                                           1711-1765

                                Boileau-Despreaux, Nicolas                                               1636-1711               Literary Critic/Poet (France)

                                Grew, Nehemiah                                                                   1641-1711

1712                        Rape of the Locke (Alexander Pope)

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION ...   (1701-1714)                               HRE, England, DR vs.  Spain, France, Bavaria

                                QUEEN ANNE'S WAR ...   (1702-1713)

                                Toleration Act in London

                                Carolina colony divided into North and South (5)

                                Pennsylvania bans importation of slaves

                                New York Slave Rebellion

                                John Adam -                         (Liechtenstein)                                     Prince

                                Joseph Wenzel +                  (Liechtenstein)                                     Prince

                                Bahadur Shah I -                  (Mughal Empire)

                                Azim ush Shah +-                 (Mughal Empire)

                                Jahandar Shah +                   (Mughal Empire)

                                Handel permanently resides in London

                                Charles VI reconstitutes the Chapel Royal in Vienna

                                Concerto Grosso in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 8       Vivaldi

                                Teseo                                                                     Handel

                                Frederick the Great                                                               1712-1786               King (Prussia)

                                Hebden, John                                                                       1712-1765               Composer

                                Rousseau, Jean Jacques                                                     1712-1778               Philosopher

                                Stanley, John                                                                        1712-1786               Composer

                                Cabanilles, Juan Bautista Jose                                           1644-1712               Composer

                                Heyden, Jan van der                                                            1637-1712               Painter (Dutch)

                                Zachow, Friederich Wilhelm                                              1663-1712               Composer

1713                        Unigenitus (Papal Bull)

                                LaSalle's Last Journey (Joutel) Fr.

                                Vanbrugh's Blenheim Palace construction completed (-1715)

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION ...   (1701-1714)                               HRE, England, DR vs.  Spain, France, Bavaria

                                QUEEN ANNE'S WAR -   (1702-1713)  ...

                                Pragmatic Sanction - issued by Emperor Charles VI to guarantee the succession of daughter Maria Theresa

                                Asiento Treaty -  starts most active period of British slave trade

                                Treaty of Utrecht  - ends War of Spanish Succession - Dutch power declines        (4/11)

                                Great Britain gains the asiento - contract to supply slaves to Spanish America

                                Great Britain gains Gibraltar and Minorca

                                Spanish Netherlands becomes Austrian Netherlands

                                Papal Bull Unigenitus - condemns Jansenists

                                Frederick William I King of Prussia (-1740) establishes a standing army of more than 80,000 men

                                Frederick I of Prussia -        (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1688-)    Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Frederick William I +            (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (-1740)    Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Jahandar Shah -                    (Mughal Empire)

                                Farrukh Siyar +                     (Mughal Empire)                                  (-1719)

                                Domenico Scarlatti bemones maestro di capella  of the Basilica Giulia at St. Peter's in Rome

                                Ich hatte viel Bekummernis                                J. S. Bach

                                Pieces de Clavecin, I                                            Couperin

                                Diderot, Denis                                                                      1713-1784

                                Krebs, Johann Lugwig                                                        1713-1780               Composer

                                Serra, Junipero                                                                      1713-1784

                                Sterne, Laurence                                                                  1713-1768

                                Wilson, Richard                                                                   1713-1782

                                Corelli, Arcangelo                                                                1653-1713

                                Hohenzollern, Frederick I                                                    1657-1713               1st King of Prussia

                                Shaftsbury                                                                            1671-1713

1714                        Monadologie (Leibnitz)

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION ...   (1701-1714)                  HRE, England, DR vs.  Spain, France, Bavaria

                                Peace of Utrecht - Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Hudson Bay region to England ends Queen Anne's War (4/11)

Elector of Hanover is crowned King George I of England (8/1)

                                Treaty of Rastatt and Baden - between Austria and France - cedes Spanish Netherlands to Austria

                                Etienne Veniard ventures up Missouri River to the Platte

                                Anne -                                    (England)                                               (1702-1714)

                                George I +                             (England)                                               (1714-1727)         King (H.  Hanover)

                                Nicholas Mavrocordat -      (Moldavia)                                             Prince

                                Stephan Cantacuzino +      (Moldavia)                                             Prince

                                Constantine -                        (Walachia)                                            Prince (Brancoveeanu )

                                Narasaraja Wodeyar II -    (Mysore)                                                Kantheerava

                                Krishnaraja Wodeyar +     (Mysore)                                                Dodda    

                                Silbermann's organ at Freiburg

                                Domenico Scarlatti employed by the Portuguese ambassador in Rome, after Maria Casimira of Poland leaves

                                Bach, Carl Phillip Emmanual                                               1714-1788               Composer

                                Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb                                        1714-1762

                                Brant, Per                                                                               1714-1767               Composer

                                Gluck, Christoph Willibald                                                  1714-1787               Composer

                                Homilius, Gottfried August                                                1714-1785               Composer

                                Whitefield, George                                                               1714-1770

1715                        Standing figure of Oiran (Kaigetsudo)

                                L'Histoire de Gil Blas de Santillane (Le Sage) (-1735) (Eng. tr. 1749)

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                YAMASEE WAR +   (1715-1718)

                                Louis XIV’s dies - Duke of Orleans becomes regent for Louis XV (-1727)                (9/1)


                                First Jacobite uprising in Scotland in support of James Edward (the Old Pretender) (-1716)

                                French take Mauritius

                                Yamasee War (-1718)

                                Earliest land grants in Rockaway, NJ between William Penn and Delaware

                                George I ...                             (England)                                               (1714-1727) King (House of Hanover)

                                Louis XIV -                           (France)                                 (1643-1715) King "The Great"

                                Louis XV +                           (France)                                 (1715-1774) King

                                First Opera Comique founded

                                F Major Water Music Suite (#1)                      Handel

                                Tigrane                                                                  Scarlatti

                                Condillac, Etienne Bonnot de                                            1715-1780

                                Duphly, Jacques                                                                  1715-1789               Composer

                                Helvetius, Jean Claude                                                        1715-1780

                                Wagenseil, Georg Christoph                                              1715-1777               Composer

                                Burnet, Thomas                                                                    1635-1715               Philosopher (Yorkshire,England)

                                Dampier, William                                                                  1651-1715

                                Louis XIV of France                                                            1638-1715               King of France

                                Malebranche, Nicolas                                                         1638-1715               Philosopher (France)

                                Tate, Nahum                                                                         1652-1715

1716                        GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                YAMASEE WAR ...   (1715-1718)

                                Phanariot Regime in Walachia

                                First group of slaves brought to Louisiana territory

                                First theatre in colonies at Williamsburg

                                George I ...                             (England)                                               (1714-1727) King (House of Hanover)

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Stephan Cantacuzino -       (Moldavia)                                             Prince

                                Nicholas Mavrocordat +     (Walachia)                                            (-1717)   Prince

                                Passion                                                                  Handel

                                L'Art de Toucher le Clavecin                            Couperin

                                Pieces de Clavecin                                              Couperin

                                Gray, Thomas                                                                       1716-1771               Poet (England)

                                Johnsen, Hinrich Philip                                                       1716-1779               Composer

                                Duron, Sebastian                                                                 1660-1716               Composer

                                Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm                                                1646-1716               Philosopher

                                Sauveur, Joseph                                                                   1653-1716

1717                        Pilgrimage to Cythera (Jean-Antoine Watteau)

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                YAMASEE WAR ...   (1715-1718)

                                Spain seizes Sardinia from Austria

                                Triple Alliance

                                George I ...                             (England)                                               (1714-1727) King (House of Hanover)

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Michael Racovita +              (Moldavia)                                             Prince

                                Nicholas Mavrocordat -      (Walachia)                                            (1716-)   Prince

                                Bach becomes court conductor for the prince of Cothen

                                Orgelbuchlein                                                      J. S. Bach

                                Water Music Suite (#2)                                      Handel

                                d’Alembert, Jean le Rond                                                   1717-1783

                                Garrick, David                                                                       1717-1779

                                Giardini, Felice de                                                                 1717-1796               Composer

                                Monn, Georg Matthias                                                       1717-1750               Composer

                                Stamitz, Johann Wenzel Anton                                         1717-1757               Composer

                                Straube, Rudolf                                                                    1717-1785               Composer

                                Walpole, Horace                                                                  1717-1797

                                Winckelmann, Johann Joachim                                         1717-1768               Historian (German)

                                Walther, Johann Jacob                                                       1650-1717               Composer

1718                        GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                YAMASEE WAR -   (1715-1718)

                                WAR OF THE QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE +   (1718-1720)

                                Spain seizes Sicily from Savoy

                                Quadruple Alliance - Austria, Britain, France, and Netherlands against Spain

                                Treaty of Passarowitz  - ends war between Turkey and Austria (Ottoman - Austria, Venice)

                                New Orleans founded by French

                                Perth Amboy incorporated

                                San Antonio & Alamo established

                                George I ...                             (England)                                               (1714-1727) King (House of Hanover)

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Charles XII -                          (Sweden)                                               (1697-)    House of Palatinate

                                Ulrica Eleonora +                  (Sweden)                                               House of Palatinate

                                Joseph Wenzel -                   (Liechtenstein)                                     Prince

                                Antony Florian +                 (Liechtenstein)                                     Prince

                                Biber, Carl Heinrich                                                              1718-1749               Composer

                                Cumberland, Richard                                                           1632-1718

                                Penn, William                                                                        1644-1718

1719                        Robinson Crusoe (Defoe)

                                Vernunftige Gedanken von Gott, der Welt, und der Seele der Menschen (Christian Wolff)

                                Pompeii and Herculaneum rediscovered

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                WAR OF THE QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE ...   (1718-1720)

                                George I ...                             (England)                                               (1714-1727) King (House of Hanover)

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Nicholas Mavrocordat +     (Walachia)                                             (-1730)    Prince

                                Farrukh Siyar -                      (Mughal Empire)                                  (1713-)

                                Rafi ud Darajat +-                 (Mughal Empire)                                  *****

                                Rafi ud Daulah +-                 (Mughal Empire)                                  *****

                                Nikusiyar +-                          (Mughal Empire)                                  *****

                                Muhammad Shah +              (Mughal Empire)                                  (-1720)

                                Handel becomes music director of the Royal Academy of Music

                                Domenico Scarlatti leaves Rome and moves to Palermo, the Scarlatti's hometown

                                Altnikol, Johann Christoph                                                1719-1759               Composer

                                Hawkins, John                                                                      1719-1789               Composer

                                Mozart, Johann Georg Leopold                                         1719-1787               Composer

                                Addison, Joseph                                                                  1672-1719

1720                        Fortitude (Giacomo Serpotta)

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR ...   (1700-1721)

                                WAR OF THE QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE -   (1718-1720)

                                Treaty of the Hague - between Quadruple Alliance and Spain (2/17)

                                Collapse of John Law's Mississippi Company (Scheme) in France

                                South Sea Bubble - South Sea Company fails in England - causes financial panic

                                Treaties of Stockholm - between Sweden, Prussia, Hanover, Denmark, Savoy, and Poland (-1721)

                                Residenz of the Elector Palatinate transferred from Heidelberg to Mannheim

                                South Sea and Mississippi bubbles

                                George I ...                             (England)                                               (1714-1727) King (House of Hanover)

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Ulrica Eleonora -                   (Sweden)                                               House of Palatinate

                                Frederick I of Hesse +         (Sweden)                                               House of Palatinate

                                Muhammad Shah -               (Mughal Empire)                                  (1719-)

                                Muhammad Ibrahim +-        (Mughal Empire)                                  *****

                                Muhammad Shah +              (Mughal Empire)                                  restored

                                Il Teatro alla moda    (satirical pamphlet)         Benedetto Marcello

                                Agricola, Johann Friedrich                                                 1720-1774               Composer

                                Bonnet, Charles                                                                    1720-1793

                                Gerbert, Martin                                                                     1720-1793               Composer

                                Hagen, Bernhard Joachim                                                   1720-1787               Composer

                                Piranesi, Giovanni Battista                                                 1720-1778

                                Vincent, Thomas                                                                  1720-1783               Composer

                                Wesstrom, Anders                                                              1720-1781               Composer

1721                        Le Joli Gilles (Jean-Antoine Watteau)

                                St. George and the Dragon (Asam Brothers)

                                Lettres Persanes (Montesquieu)

                                GREAT NORTHERN WAR -   (1700-1721)      

                                Treaty of Nystadt - between Russia and Sweden - confirms Russia as a great power -  foothold in Baltic (9/10)


                                Robert Walpole becomes Great Britain's first Prime Minister

                                Peter Alexeevich I (the Great) proclaimed emperor in Russia

                                George I ...                             (England)                                               (1714-1727) King (House of Hanover)

                                Robert Walpole +                (Great Britain)                                     Prime Minister (-1742)

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Antony Florian -                  (Liechtenstein)                                    Prince

                                John Joseph +                      (Liechtenstein)                                    Prince

                                Clement XI -                                                                                         (1700-)

                                Innocent XIII +                                                                                     (-1724)

                                J.S. Bach dedicates his six Brandenburg Concertos to Christian Ludwig, margrave of B-burg-Schwedt (3/24)

                                Six Brandenburg Concertos                             J. S. Bach                               (BWV 1046-51)

                                French Suites                                                       J. S. Bach

                                English Suites                                                      J. S. Bach

                                Bellotto, Bernardo                                                                1721-1780

                                Hellendaal, Pieter                                                                 1721-1799               Composer

                                Kirnberger, Johann Philipp                                                 1721-1783               Composer

                                Robertson, William                                                              1721-1793

                                Smollett, Tobias                                                                   1721-1771

                                Prior, Matthew                                                                      1664-1721

                                Watteau, Jean-Antoine                                                       1684-1721

1722                        Rocks and bamboo in snow (Kao Feng-Han - Eight Eccentrics of Yangchow)

                                Jacob Roggeveen discovers Samoa and Easter Island for the Dutch

                                Treaty of Albany with Iroquois Confederacy

                                George I ...                             (England)                                               (1714-1727) King (House of Hanover)

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Husain I -                              (Safavid Persia)                                   (1694-) 9th

                                Mahmoud +                           (Safavid Persia)                                   (-1725) 10th        

                                Shengzu Ren -                     (China)                                                  (1661-)   2nd Qing Dynasty (Kangxi Era)

                                Well Tempered Clavier Vol. 1                           J. S. Bach

                                Traite de 'Harmonie                                            Rameau

                                Adams, Samuel                                                                     1722-1803

                                Auenbrugger, Leopold                                                       1722-1809

                                Bach, Johann Ernst                                                              1722-1777               Composer

                                Benda, Jiri Antonin                                                              1722-1795               Composer

                                Forbonnais, Francois Veron Duverger de                        1722-1800

                                Garth, John                                                                            1722-1810               Composer

                                Nardini, Pietro                                                                       1722-1793               Composer

                                Kuhnau, Johann                                                                   1660-1722               Composer

                                Reincken, Jan Adam                                                            1623-1722               Composer

                                Varignon, Pierre                                                                    1654-1722

1723                        Portrait of Cardinal Dubois (Rigaud)

                                Dc Fide et Officiis Christianorum (Burnet) (posthumous)

                                Dc Statu Mortuorum et Resurgentium Tractatus (Burnet) (posthumous)

                                Henriade (Voltaire)

                                Tuscaroras admitted to Iroquois Confederation

                                George I ...                             (England)                                               (1714-1727) King (House of Hanover)

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Shizong Xian (Yung Cheng) +                           (China)                   (-1735)    3rd Qing Dynasty (Yongzheng Era)

                                Bach becomes cantor of St. Thomas Church in Leipzig until his death

                                Domenico Scarlatti moves to Lisbon - assumes duties at the patriarchal chapel and teaches the king's children

                                La Gamme et Autres Morceaux de Symph.      Marais

                                Abel, Carl Friedrich                                                              1723-1787               Composer

                                D’Holbach, Paul Henri Thiri                                               1723-1789

                                Price, Richard                                                                        1723-1791

                                Smith, Adam                                                                         1723-1790

                                Tung Yuan Tai                                                                     1723-1777

                                Backus, Isaac                                                                        1723-1806

                                Babell, William                                                                      1690-1723               Composer

                                D’Urfey, Thomas                                                                 1653-1723

                                Gunther, Johann Christian                                                  1695-1723

                                Leeuwenhoek, Anton van                                                  1632-1723

                                Lopez, Miguel                                                                       1669-1723               Composer

1724                        State of Hyderabad gains independence from Mughals

                                Victories of Nadir Shah in Transcaucasia (-1730)

                                George I ...                             (England)                                               (1714-1727) King (House of Hanover)

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Philip V -                                (Spain)                                                   House of Bourbon

                                Luis I +-                                 (Spain)                                                   House of Bourbon

                                Philip V +                               (Spain)                                                   House of Bourbon (rethroned)

                                Qamar ud din Nizal +           (Hyderabad)                                          Nizam (ul Mulk)

                                Innocent XIII -                       (Patriarchate of Rome)                       (1721-1724)

                                Benedict XIII +                     (Patriarchate of Rome)                       (1724-1730)

                                Fahrenheit develops his thermometer

                                Pieces de clavecin                                                Rameau

                                St. John Passion                                                   J. S. Bach

                                Ein feste Burg cantata                                         J. S. Bach

                                Giulio Cesare                                                        Handel

                                Tamerlano                                                             Handel

                                Basedow, Johann Bernhard                                               1724-1790

                                Cirri, Giovanni, Battista                                                       1724-1808               Composer

                                Kant, Immanuel                                                                    1724-1804               Philosopher

                                Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb                                             1724-1803               Poet (Germany)

                                Mitchell, John                                                                       1724-1793

1725                        Treaty of Vienna - between Spain and Austria

                                Treaty of Hanover - alliance between Britain, France, Prussia, Sweden, Denmark, and the Netherlands

                                George I ...                             (England)                                               (1714-1727) King (House of Hanover)

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Peter I the Great -               (Russia)                                                 (1688-1725) Emperor

                                Catherine I +                        (Russia)                                                 Empress (widow of Peter the Great)

                                Mahmoud -                            (Safavid Persia)                                   (1722-1725) 10th

                                Ashraff +                               (Safavid Persia)                                   (1725-1727) 11th

                                Concerts spirituels at Paris

                                Gradus ad Parnassum                                        Fux

                                Rodelinda                                                             Handel

                                Musicall Grammarion                                        Roger North

                                Casanova, Giacomo                                                             1725-1798

                                Kippis, Andrew                                                                    1725-1795

                                Stalder, Joseph Franz Xaver Dominik                               1725-1765               Composer

                                Walond, William                                                                  1725-1770               Composer

                                Hoffman, Johann                                                                  1660-1725               Composer

                                Scarlatti, Pietro Alessandro Gaspare                                1660-1725               Composer

                                Visee, Robert de                                                                   1650-1725               Composer

1726                        Gulliver’s Travels (Swift)

                                Historical Account of the Small-Pox Inoculated in New England (Zabdiel Boylston)

                                Administration of Cardinal Fleury, chief minister of France (-1743)

                                Opening and closing of first Turkish press (-1742)        (1727?)

                                Philadelphia Poor Riots

                                George I ...                             (England)                                               (1714-1727) King (House of Hanover)

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                  (1715-1774) King

                                Cardinal Fleury +                (France)                                                 Prime Minister

                                Gregory Ghica +                  (Moldavia)                                             Prince

                                Nouveau system de musique theorique (Rameau)

                                Le Quattro Stagioni (The Four Seasons)       Vivaldi

                                Burney, Charles                                                                    1726-1814               Composer

                                Hutton, James                                                                       1726-1797               Geologist (Scotland)

                                Starzer, Josef                                                                         1726-1787               Composer

                                Delalande, Michel Richard                                                 1657-1726               Composer

1727                        Spain at war with Britain and France (-1729)

                                Shawnee band migrates from Upper Delaware Valley to Ohio country

                                George I -                              (England)                                               (1714-1727) King (Hanover)

                                George II +                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Catherine I -                         (Russia)                                                 (1724 cr)(1725-1727 sr) Empress

                                Peter II +                               (Russia)                                                 (1727-1730) Emperor

                                Ashraff -                                (Safavid Persia)                                   (1725-1727) 11th

                                Tahmasp II +                         (Safavid Persia)                                   (1727-1731) 12th

                                Murshid Quli Jafar Khan - (Bengal)                                                Nawab

                                Siraj ud din +                        (Bengal)                                                Nawab

                                Coronation Anthem                                            Handel

                                Balbastre, Claude Benigne                                                 1727-1799               Composer

                                Couperin, Armand Louis                                                    1727-1789               Composer

                                Gainsborough, Thomas                                                      1727-1788

                                Goldberg, Johann Gottlieb                                                  1727-1756               Composer

                                Hertel, Johann Wilhelm                                                       1727-1789               Composer

                                Morellet, Andre                                                                    1727-1819

                                Tiepolo, Giovanni, Domenico                                            1727-1804

                                Turgot, Anne Robert Jaqcues                                           1727-1781

                                Wilkes, John                                                                         1727-1797

                                Newton, Isaac                                                                       1642-1727               Mathemetician

1728                        Bacchus and Ariadne (Sebastiano Ricci)

                                The Skate (Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin)

                                Vitus Bering explores Bering Strait (Den.)

                                First synagogue built in NYC

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Beggar's Opera                                                     Gay

                                Adam, Robert                                                                       1728-1792               Architecht (Kirkcaldy, Scotland) (7/3)

                                Cook, James                                                                          1728-1779               Explorer

                                Goldsmith, Oliver                                                                  1728-1774               Author (Ireland)

                                Le Trosne, Guillaime Francois                                            1728-1780               Political/Economic Theorist (France)

                                Muthel, Johann Gottfried                                                   1728-1788               Composer

                                Pokorny, Franz Xaver                                                          1728-1794               Composer

                                Marais, Marin                                                                       1656-1728               Composer

                                Steffani, Agostino                                                               1654-1728               Composer

1729                        Bishop Berkeley and his Family (John Smibert)

                                Franklin’s Pennsylvania Gazette begins publication

                                North and South Carolina become separate, royal colonies

                                Chinese government bans the smoking and trading of opium

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Domenico Scarlatti accompanies Maria Barbara to Spain where she marries the Ferdinand VI of Spain, heir

                                St. Matthew Passion                                           J. S. Bach

                                Isaac Newton's Principia translated from Latin to English

                                Burke, Edmund                                                                     1729-1797

                                Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim                                                 1729-1781               Philosopher (Germany)

                                Mendelsohn, Moses                                                           1729-1786

                                Percy, Thomas                                                                      1729-1811

                                Soler, Padre Antonio Francisco Javier Jose                    1729-1783               Composer

                                Spallanzani, Lazzaro                                                             1729-1799

                                Congreve, William                                                               1670-1729

                                Heinichen, Johann David                                                   1683-1729               Composer

                                Law, John                                                                              1671-1729

                                Steele, Richard                                                                      1672-1729

1730                        The Diversion of the Jamuna (Basohli School of the Panjab Hills)

                                Maratha government in India (-1735)

                                Constantine Mavrocordat rules alternatively between Moldavia and Walachia (-1769)

                                Job Allen constructs early iron forge (Stephen Jackson Forge) in Rockaway Village, NJ

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Frederik IV -                         (Denmark)(Norway)                             (1699-)

                                Christian VI +                       (Denmark)(Norway)                             (-1746)

                                Nicholas Mavrocordat -       (Walachia)                                             (1719-)    Prince

                                Peter II -                                 (Russia)                                                 Emperor

                                Anna Ivanovna +                   (Russia)                                                 Empress (Duchess of Courland)

                                Ahmed III -                            (Ottoman Empire)                                  Sultan

                                Mahmut I +                           (Ottoman Empire)                                  Sultan

                                Benedict XIII -                     (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (1724-1730)

                                Clement XII +                      (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (1730-1740)

                                Artaserse                                                               Hasse

                                Baudeau, Abbe Nicholas                                                    1730-1792

                                Bond, Capel                                                                          1730-1790               Composer

                                Burton, John                                                                         1730-1785               Composer

                                Hamann, Johann Georg                                                       1730-1788

                                Messier, Charles                                                                  1730-1817               Astronomer (Badonviller, France) (6/26)

                                Loeillet, Jean Baptiste                                                         1680-1730               Composer

                                Nassarre, Pablo                                                                    1654-1730               Composer

1731                        Mademoiselle Camargo Dancing (Nicolas Lancret)

                                Manon Lescaut (Abbé Prevost)

                                Treaty of Vienna (1738)?

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Tahmasp II -                          (Safavid Persia)                                    (1727-1731) 12th

                                John Bevis observes Crab Nebula

                                Klavierubung I                                                     J. S. Bach

                                Wachet Auf, ruft uns die Stimme (140)              J. S. Bach

                                Cannabich, Christian                                                           1731-1798               Composer (Mannheim)

                                Cavendish, Henry                                                                1731-1810

                                Dusek, Frantisek Xaver                                                       1731-1799               Composer

                                Defoe, Daniel                                                                        1660-1731

                                Taylor, Brook                                                                        1685-1731

1732                        A Harlot's Progress (Hogarth)

                                System of Nature (Linnaeus) (1735)

                                Zaire (Voltaire)

                                Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanac begins publication

                                First Catholic Mass performed in Philadelphia

                                James Oglethorpe et al founds Georgia colony  by royal charter (6)

                                Vincennes fortified - first permanent settlement in Indiana

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                John Joseph -                       (Liechtenstein)                                     Prince

                                John Charles +                      (Liechtenstein)                                     Prince

                                Abbas III +                            (Safavid Persia)                                     (1732-1736) 13th

                                Krishnaraja Wodeyar -        (Mysore)                                               Dodda   

                                Chamaraja Wodeyar VI +    (Mysore)

                                Salustia  (opera)                                                   Pergolesi

                                Lo Frate ‘nnamorato                                            Pergolesi

                                Memet                                                                    Sammartini

                                Bach, Johann Christoph Friedrich                                     1732-1795               Composer

                                Beaumarchais, Pierre Augustin Caron de                        1732-1799               Dramatist (France)

                                Brixi, Franz Xavier                                                                1732-1771               Composer

                                Dickinson, John                                                                   1732-1808

                                Fragonard, Jean-Honore                                                     1732-1806               Painter (France)

                                Haydn, Joseph                                                                     1732-1809               Composer              3/31

                                North, Frederick, 2nd Earl Guilford, 8th Baron                1732-1792               Statesman (England)

                                Washington, George                                                           1732-1799               Politician (United States)

                                Gay, John                                                                              1685-1732

1733                        Rake’s Progress III (Hogarth) (1735)

                                WAR OF THE POLISH SUCCESSION +   (1733-1738)

                                James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, GA (1)


                                First Family Pact  between Bourbons of France and Spain

                                Molasses Act

                                War of Polish Succession - between France, Spain, Austria, and Russia (-1735)

                                Colony of Georgia founded (US)

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Augustus II the Strong -    (Poland)                                                 (1697-1733)

                                Stanislaus Leszczynski + (Poland)

                                Gregory Ghica -                   (Moldavia)                                             Prince

                                James Kay invents the flying shuttle

                                Mass in B Minor begun                                                      J.S. Bach

                                La Serva padrona                                                               Giovanni Battista Pergolesi                1st performance (8/28)

                                Fischer, Johann Christian                                                   1733-1800               Composer

                                Priestly, Joseph                                                                    1733-1804

                                Schulze, Johann Philipp Christian                                     1733-1827               Composer

                                Bohm, Georg                                                                         1661-1733               Composer

                                Couperin, Francois                                                              1668-1733

                                Mandeville                                                                            1670-1733

1734                        Rinaldo and Armida (Francois Boucher)

                                Philosophical Letters on the English (Voltaire)

                                Essays on Man (Pope) (-1734)

                                WAR OF THE POLISH SUCCESSION ...   (1733-1738)

                                Marie-Joseph Angélique is executed by hanging in New France for setting the fire that ravaged Montreal (6/21)


                                France invades Lorraine

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Augustus III Wettin +        (Poland)

                                Chamaraja Wodeyar VI -  (Mysore)

                                Krishnaraja Wodeyar II +  (Mysore)                                                  Immadi

                                Christmas Oratorio                                             J. S. Bach

                                Sonatas, op. 1                                                      Tartini

                                Altenburg, Johann Ernst                                                    1734-1801               Composer

                                Gossec, Francois-Joseph                                                    1734-1829               Composer

                                Mesmer, Franz Anton                                                         1734-1815

                                Romney, George                                                                   1734-1802

1735                        Marquis Gaspard de Gueiden playing the Bagpipes (Hyacinthe Rigaud)

                                The Finding of Moses (Giovanni Battista Tiepolo)

                                Systema Naturae (Linnaeus)

                                CHICKASAW WARS ... (1721-1763)

                                WAR OF THE POLISH SUCCESSION ...   (1733-1738)

                                RUSSO-TURKISH WAR IV +   (1735-1739)

                                Preliminary Treaty of Vienna ends War of Polish Succession

                                John Peter Zenger, New York editor, acquitted to libel in New York, establishes freedom of the press

                                Ariodante                                                              Handel

                                Alcina                                                                    Handel

                                Water Music Suite (#3)                                      Handel

                                L’Olimpiade                                                         Pergolesi

                                Flaminio                                                               Pergolesi

                                Les Indes Galantes                                              Rameau

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Constantine +                       (Walachia)                                            Prince  (Mavrocordat)

                                Shizong Xian -                     (China)                                                  (1723-)   3rd Qing Dynasty (Yongzheng Era)

                                Adams, John                                                                         1735-1826

                                Bach, Johann Christian                                                       1735-1782               Composer

                                Beattie, James                                                                       1735-1803

                                Rollig, Karl Leopold                                                             1735-1804               Composer

                                Kauffmann, Georg Friedrich                                               1679-1735               Composer

1736                        Analogy of Religion (Butler)

                                Le Bachelier de Salamanque (Le Sage) (Eng. tr. 1737)

                                Method of Fluxions (Isaac Newton)

                                CHICKASAW WARS ... (1721-1763)

                                WAR OF THE POLISH SUCCESSION ...   (1733-1738)

                                RUSSO-TURKISH WAR IV ...   (1735-1739)

                                Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates the throne (1/26)

                                Francis I HRE marries Maria Theresa (2/12)

                                Battle of Ackia - British with Chickasaw assistance defeat the French near Tupelo, Mississippi (5/26)


                                John Wesley begins to establish Methodist Societies

                                Russia and Austria battle Turkey (Russo Turkish War) (-1739)

                                Nadir Shah of Persia conquers Ahghanistan and invades northern India (-1738)

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Stanislaus Leszczynski -  (Poland)                                                  (1704-1709)(1733-1736)

                                Abbas III -                              (Safavid Persia)                                   (1732-1736) 13th

                                Nadir Shah +                        (Ashfar Persia)                                    (1736-1747) 1st Ashfar Dynasy (Sunni Turk)

                                Gaozong Chun +  (China)                                                                   (1736-1795)   4th Qing Dynasty (Qienlong Era)

                                Alexander's Feast                                                Handel

                                Albrechtsberger, Johann Georg                                        1736-1809               Composer

                                Coulomb, Charles Augustin de                                         1736-1806

                                Henry, Patrick                                                                       1736-1799 (5/29)

                                Lagrange, Joseph Louis                                                      1736-1813

                                MacPherson, James                                                             1736-1796               Author (Scotland)

                                Watt, James                                                                          1736-1819

                                Caldara, Antonio                                                                  1670-1736               Composer

                                Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista                                               1710-1736               Composer

1737                        The Institution of the Rosary (Giovanni Battista Tiepolo) (-1739)

                                WAR OF THE POLISH SUCCESSION ...   (1733-1738)

                                RUSSO-TURKISH WAR IV ...   (1735-1739)

                                First lodge of Freemasons in Germany

                                Nadir Shah takes Afghanistan

                                Walking Purchase of 1737

                                First colonial copper coins minted

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Danilo Petrovic -                  (Montenegro)                                       Prince-Bishop

                                Sava +                                    (Montenegro)                                       Prince-Bishop

                                Gluck studies under GB Sammartini (-1741)

                                San Carlo Opera, Naples opens

                                Giustino                                                                Handel

                                Castor et Pollux                                                  Rameau

                                Sonatas (1st ed.)                                                 D. Scarlatti

                                Allen, Ethan                                                                          1737-1789

                                Galvani, Luigi                                                                        1737-1798

                                Gibbon, Edward                                                                    1737-1794

                                Haydn, Johann Michael                                                      1737-1806               Composer

                                Myslivecek, Josef                                                                1737-1781               Composer

                                Nollekens, Joseph                                                                1737-1823

                                Paine, Thomas                                                                      1737-1809

                                Mancini, Francesco                                                             1672-1737               Composer

                                Monteclair, Michel Pignolet de                                         1667-1737               Composer

1738                        Portrait of Handel (Louis-Francois Roubiliac)

                                WAR OF THE POLISH SUCCESSION -   (1733-1738)

                                RUSSO-TURKISH WAR IV ...   (1735-1739)

                                Treaty of Vienna - formally resolves War of Polish succession  (11/18)


                                Methodist church fouded by Wesley and Whitefield

                                Lorrain to be ceded to France on death of Stanislaus I, defeated claimant to Polish throne

                                Peace Treaty of 1738 -signed by many tribes, dictated by English

                                New Jersey separates from New York under Lewis Morris

                                William Johnson settles in the Mohawk Valley

                                Pierre de la Verendrye arrives among Mandan in upper Missouri River

                                Pierre and Paul Mallet trek into interior, Missouri, Platte, Santa Fe, discover Rockies

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Vivaldi conducts GB Sammartini's Symphony in A Major, JC 73 for the centennial of the Amsterdam theatre

                                Domenico Scarlatti becomes a Knight of the Order of Santiago under the sponsorship of the king of Portugal

                                Mass in B minor                                                   J. S. Bach

                                Saul                                                                        Handel

                                Israel in Egypt                                                     Handel

                                Serse                                                                      Handel

                                Essercizi per gravicembalo                               Domenico Scarlatti

                                Abbt, Thomas                                                                      1738-1766

                                Beccaria, Cesare Bonesana                                                1738-1794

                                Copley, John Singleton                                                       1738-1815

                                Herschel, Sir William                                                           1738-1822               Astronomer/Musician (Hanover, Ger.)

                                Reindl, Constantin                                                               1738-1799               Composer

                                West, Benjamin                                                                    1738-1820

                                Dandrieu, Jean Francois                                                     1682-1738               Composer

                                Mouret, Jean Joseph                                                           1682-1738               Composer

1739                        Back from the market (Chardin)

                                A Treatise of Human Nature (Hume)

                                RUSSO-TURKISH WAR IV -   (1735-1739)

                                WAR OF JENKIN'S EAR +   (1739-1741)

                                Jemmy and twenty slaves plan a revolt/ march to Florida (9/9)


                                Treaty of Nissa - ends Russo-Turkish War IV

                                War of Jenkin's Ear begins between Britain and Spain (-1748)     (-1741)

                                British Admiral Edward Vernon captures and demolishes Puerto Bello in the West Indies from Spain

                                Treaty of Belgrade - ends Austro-Russian war against Ottoman Empire

                                John Wesley founds Methodists

                                Nadir Shah sacks Delhi

                                Nadir Shah assassinated    (1747)

                                George Whitefield first visits America

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Siraj ud din -                        (Bengal)                                                                Nawab

                                Sarfaz Khan +                      (Bengal)                                                                Nawab

                                Concerti grossi, op. 6                                         Handel

                                Der vollkommene Capellmeister                      Mattheson

                                Dardanus                                                              Rameau

                                Boulogne, Joseph (Chevalier d Saint George)                 1739-1799               Composer

                                Dittersdorf, Karl Ditters von                                              1739-1799               Composer

                                Dumouriez, Charles Francois                                             1739-1823               Military General (France)

                                Eberhard, J.A.                                                                       1739-1809

                                Golabek, Jakub                                                                     1739-1789               Composer

                                Nemours, Pierre Samuel DuPont de                                  1739-1817

                                Vanhal, Jan Krtitel                                                                1739-1813               Composer

                                Du Fay, Charles Francois de Cisternay                            1698-1739

                                Keiser, Reinhard                                                                   1674-1739               Composer

                                Marcello, Benedetto                                                            1686-1739               Composer

1740                        Triumph of Amphitrite (Tiepolo)

                                Venice: A Regatta on the Grand Canal (Canaletto)

                                Grace (Chardin)

                                Mr. And Mrs. William Atherton (Arthur Devis)

                                Pamela (Richardson)

                                WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION +   (1740-1748)

                                FIRST SILESIAN WAR +     (1740-1742)            Prussia vs.

                                WAR OF JENKIN'S EAR ...   (1739-1741)

                                First Silesian War - Frederick II the Great of Prussia invades and seizes Silesia (2)              (-1742)

                                Death of Charles VI ends male line of Hapsburgs (10)


                                Age of Enlightened Despots (-1796)

                                Interregnum in Holy Roman Empire (-1742)

                                War of Austrian Succession - caused by rival claims of Bavaria, Spain, and Saxony to Austrian throne  (-1748)

                                King George’s War begins (-1748)

                                Oglethorpe leads Georgia, Carolina, and Virginia troops on failed attack against St. Augustine

                                Capt. Vitus Bering, a Dane employed by Russia, discovers Alaska

                                Prussians capture Glogau

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                  (1715-1774) King

                                Frederick William I -         (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                   (1713-)   Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Frederick II the Great +     (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                   (1740-1786)         Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Anna Ivanovna -                    (Russia)                                                 Empress (Duchess of Courland)

                                Ivan VI +                                (Russia)                                                 Emperor

                                Anna Leopoldovna +

                                Charles VI -                          (Holy Roman Empire)                         (1711-1740)   Hapsburg

                                Maria Theresa +                  (Aust.)(Bohemia)(Hungary)(HRE)   (1740-1780)      Archduch. House of Leopold (regent)

                                Francis Stephen +               (HRE)                                                     (co-regent)

                                Sarfaz Khan -                       (Bengal)                                                Nawab

                                Illahi Vardi Khan +             (Bengal)                                                Nawab

                                Clement XII -                        (Patriarchate of Rome)                       (1730-1740)

                                Benedict XIV +                    (Patriarchate of Rome)                        (1740-1758)

                                Bahrt, Carl Friedrich                                                             1740-1792

                                Bodoni, Giambattista                                                           1740-1813

                                Boswell, James                                                                     1740-1795

                                De Sade, Marquis                Donatian Alphonse F.        1740-1814

                                Paisiello, Giovanni                                                               1740-1816               Composer

                                Schobert, Johann                                                                 1740-1767               Composer

                                Hohenzollern, Frederick William I                                     1688-1740               King of Prussia

                                Lubeck, Vincenz                                                                   1654-1740               Composer

                                Valentini, Giuseppe                                                              1680-1740               Composer

1741                        Mahomet (on Toleration) (Voltaire)

                                Voltaire's Mahomet (On toleration) praised and rewarded by Pope Benedict XIV

                                WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION ...   (1740-1748)

                                FIRST SILESIAN WAR ...    (1740-1742)            Prussia vs.

                                WAR OF JENKIN'S EAR -   (1739-1741)

                                Battle of Mollwitz - Prussians win (4/10)

                                Secret Alliance of Nymphenburg - between France, Bavaria, Spain, Saxony, and Prussia angainst Austria (5)

                                Frederick II makes an alliance with France - pledging to vote for the election of Charles Albert of Bavaria (6)


                                Empress Maria Theresa rallies Hungarian nobles to fight the Prussians

                                Sweden and Russia at war (-1743)

                                Vitus Bering explores Alaskan coast for Peter the Great

                                French and Bavarians occupy Austrian city of Linz

                                Diet of Pressburg

                                Bristish unsuccessful in attack on Santiago, Cuba

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Ivan VI -                                  (Russia)                                                 Emperor

                                Anna Leopoldovna -

                                Elizabeth Petrovna +           (Russia)                                                 Empress

                                Constantine +                       (Moldavia)                                             Prince  (Mavrocordat)

                                Constantine -                        (Walachia)                                            Prince  (Mavrocordat)

                                Michael Racovita +              (Walachia)                                            Prince 

                                Johann Stamitz joins the Mannheim court orchestra as a cellist

                                Artaserse                                                               Gluck

                                Messiah                                                                 Handel

                                Fussli, Johann Heinrich (Henry Fuseli)                            1741-1825

                                Gretry, Andre Ernest Modeste                                          1741-1813               Composer

                                Houdon, Jean                                                                       1741-1828

                                Naumann, Johann Gottlieb                                                 1741-1801               Composer

                                Peale, Charles Willson                                                        1741-1827

                                Pichl, Vaclav                                                                         1741-1805               Composer

                                Zimmermann, Anton                                                            1741-1781               Composer

                                Fiocco, Joseph-Hector                                                        1703-1741               Composer

                                Fux, Johann                                                                           1660-1741               Composer

                                Vivaldi, Antonio                                                                   1678-1741               Composer

1742                        Diana Bathing (Boucher)

                                WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION ...   (1740-1748)

                                FIRST SILESIAN WAR -     (1740-1742)            Prussia vs.

                                Charles Albert becomes HR Emperor Charles VII by eight electors (1)

                                Battle of Czaslau - Prussians under Frederick II win (5/17)

                                Battle of Chotusitz - Prussians under Frederick II win (5)

                                Treaty of Breslau - between Austria and Prussia (6)

                                Treaty of Berlin - between Prussia and Austria (7)


                                Marathas raids Delhi

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Robert Walpole -                 (Great Britain)                                     (1721-1742) Prime Minister

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Charles VII +                       (Holy Roman Empire)                         (1742-1745) Emperor (Charles Albert)

                                Handel's Messiah performed in Dublin

                                Charles Nicolas Le Clerc publishes first printed editions of GB Sammartini's work in Paris

                                Goldberg Variations                                          J. S. Bach

                                Prussian Sonatas                                                                C. P. E. Bach

                                Brant, Joseph                                                                        1742-1807               Mohawk Chief

                                Krumpholtz, Johann Baptist                                               1742-1790               Composer

                                Halley, Edmund                                                                    1665-1742

                                Seixas, Jose Antonio Carlos De                                         1704-1742               Composer

1743                        Merope (Voltaire)

                                WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION ...   (1740-1748)

                                RUSSO-SWEDISHWAR -    (1741-1743)

                                Battle of Dettingen - British army under George II defeats France (6/13)

                                Treaty of Abo - between Sweden and Russia, ends Russo-Swedish War (signed in Turku)  (8/7)


                                Second Silesian War - Frederick II vs. Maria Theresa (-1745)

                                France claims South Dakota at Fort Pierre - Francois and Louis Joseph Verendrye

                                1st abortive uprising against Louis XV

                                American Philosophical Society founded

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Constantine -                        (Moldavia)                                             Prince  (Mavrocordat)

                                Samson                                                                  Handel

                                Banks, Joseph                                                                      1743-1820

                                Boccherini, Luigi                                                                  1743-1805               Composer

                                Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas                          1743-1794

                                Lavosier, Antoine                                                                1743-1794

                                Jabobi                                                                                    1743-1819

                                Jefferson, Thomas                                                               1743-1826

                                Paley, William                                                                       1743-1805

1744                        Members of the Beaufort Hunt (John Wootton)

                                Marriage a la Mode: Shortly after the Marriage (William Hogarth)

                                WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION ...   (1740-1748)

                                KING GEORGE'S WAR +   (1744-1748)

                                King George's War begins - between Britain and France in North America(-1748)

                                War between French and British in India (-1748)

                                Frederick II the Great invades Bohemia - Austrian and Saxon forces drive him out

                                Oxford-Hazen Church founded  (Oxford, NJ)

                                Treaty of Lancaster with Six Nations

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Michael Racovita -               (Walachia)                                            Prince 

                                Constantine +                       (Walachia)                                            Prince  (Mavrocordat)

                                Prints of GB Sammartini's compositions published in London

                                Well Tempered Clavier Vol II                            J. S. Bach

                                Wurttemberg Sonatas                                         C. P. E. Bach

                                Adams, Abigail                                                                    1744-1818

                                Herder, Johann Gottfried von                                            1744-1803

                                Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste                                                       1744-1829

                                Petrini, Francesco                                                                1744-1819               Composer

                                Campra, Andre                                                                     1660-1744               Composer

                                Celcius, Anders                                                                    1701-1744

                                Pope, Alexander                                                                   1688-1744

                                Vico, Giambattista                                                                1668-1744

1745                        Pamela and Mr. B in the Summer-house (Joseph Highmore)

                                The Painter and his Pug (William Hogarth)

                                The Dancing Master (Pietro Longhi)

                                Girl with a Kitten (Jean-Baptiste Perroneau)

                                WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION ...   (1740-1748)

                                KING GEORGE'S WAR ...   (1744-1748)

                                Battle of Fontenoy - French defeat British forces in War of Austrian Succession (5/11)

                                Battle of Hohenfriedberg - Austrians defeated (6/4)

                                Battle of Soor - Prussians under Frederick the Great defeat Austro-Saxon army under Charles Alexander (9/30)

                                Treaty of Fontainebleau - between Louis XV and pretender Charles Edward Stewart against George II (10/24)

                                Treaty of Dresden - between Prussia and Austria - confirms Austrian possession of Silesia  (12/25)


                                "The Forty-five" - Jacobite rebellion in England and Scotland led by Charles Edward Stuart "Young Pretender"

                                Alliance among Austria, Saxony, Britain, and the Netherlands against Prussia

                                Bavaria, defeated, withdraws claims to Austrian throne

                                British colonists under Governor William Shirley capture Louisburg, French fortress in Canada

                                Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab calls for the reformation and purification of Islam - Wahhabi movement spreads

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV ...                           (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Charles VII -                        (Holy Roman Empire)                         (1742-1745) Emperor

                                Francis I +                            (Holy Roman Empire)                         (1745-1765) Emperor

                                Pieter van Musschenbroek makes the “Leyden Jar” – becoming the first popular electric  capacitor (11)

                                Christoph Gluck in England

                                Johann Stamitz becomes Kapellmeister of court orchestra at Mannheim

                                Le Temple de la Gloire                                       Rameau

                                Jay, John                                                                               1745-1829

                                More, Hannah                                                                      1745-1833

                                Saloman, Johann Peter                                                        1745-1815               Composer

                                Stamitz, Carl Philipp                                                             1745-1801               Composer

                                Volta, Allesandro                                                                 1745-1827

                                Forqueray, Antoine                                                             1672-1745               Composer

                                Forster, Christoph                                                                1693-1745               Composer

                                Swift, Jonathan                                                                     1667-1745

                                Zelenka, Jan Dismas                                                            1679-1745               Composer

1746                        Eternity's Throne (Johann Zimmerman) (1746-1749)

                                Toilet of Venus (Francois Boucher)

                                WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION ...   (1740-1748)

                                KING GEORGE'S WAR ...   (1744-1748)

                                Battle of Culloden Moor - Jacobites defeated - British defeat Scots under Stuart pretender Prince Charles (4/16)

                                Battle of Culloden Moor - last battle fought on British soil (4/16)


                                Dupleix captures Madras from the British and defeats the Indian nawab of the Carnatic

                                British lay siege to French post at Pondicherry

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Christian VI -                       (Denmark)(Norway)                            (1730-)

                                Frederik V +                        (Denmark)(Norway)                            (-1766)

                                Philip V -                               (Spain)                                                   House of Bourbon (rethroned) (gsn Louis XIV)

                                Ferdinand VI +                     (Spain)                                                   King (House of Bourbon)

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Judas Maccabaeus                                             Handel

                                Billings, William                                                                   1746-1800               Composer (American)

                                Cambini, Giuseppe Maria Gioacchino                               1746-1825               Composer

                                Goya, Francisco                                                                   1746-1828               Painter

                                Jones, William                                                                      1746-1794

                                Livingston, Robert R.                                                          1746-1813

                                Monge, Gaspard                                                                  1746-1818

                                Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich                                                1746-1827

                                Piazzi, Giuseppi                                                                     1746-1826

                                Fischer, Johann Caspar Ferdinand                                    1665-1746               Composer

                                Hutcheson, Francis                                                             1694-1746

1747                        Sans Souci castle at Potsdam constructed

                                Man a Machine (La Mettrie)

                                WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION ...   (1740-1748)

                                KING GEORGE'S WAR ...   (1744-1748)

                                Nadir Shah assassinated - his general Ahmad Shah becomes ruler in Afghanistan (6/19)


                                New York Bar Association founded

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Louis XV …                          (France)                                                 (1715-1774) King

                                William IV Friso +              (Dutch Republic)                 Stadholder

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Nadir Shah -                         (Persia)                                                 (1736-1747)

                                Ahmad Shah +                      (Persia)

                                Musical Offering                                                  J. S. Bach

                                Joshua                                                                   Handel

                                Bode, Johann Elert                                                               1747-1826

                                Kozeluh, Leopold Jan Antonin                                          1747-1818               Composer

                                Schulz, Johann Abraham Peter                                          1747-1800               Composer

                                Barriere, Jean                                                                        1705-1747               Composer

                                Bononcini, Giovanni                                                            1670-1747               Composer

                                Le Sage, Alain Rene                                                            1668-1747               Novelist (France)

                                Rebel, Jean Fery                                                                   1661-1747               Composer

1748                        Dog and Pheasants (Jean-Baptiste Oudry)

                                Cornard Wood (Thomas Gainsborough)

                                Robert Andrews and his wife (Thomas Gainsborough)  begun (-1750)

                                Ruins of Pompeii discovered

                                Der Messias (Friedrich Klopstock)

                                Essay on Miracles  (Hume)

                                Espirit des Lois (Montesqieu)

                                Zadig (Voltaire)

                                Introductio in analysin infinitorum (Leonard Euler)

                                WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION -   (1740-1748)

                                KING GEORGE'S WAR -   (1744-1748)

                                Fire in London - damages amount to £1,000,000 (3/28)

                                Maurice de Saxe conquers Maastricht  (4)

                                Congress convenes at Aix la Chapelle with intent of ending War of Spanish succession, signed in October  (4/24)

                                Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) - ends war of Austrian Succession - Prussia keeps Silesia (10/18)

                                Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle - ends King George’s War - France regains Louisburg (10/18)

                                Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle - British regain Madras (10/18)



                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                John Charles -                     (Liechtenstein)                                    Prince   

                                Joseph Wenzel +                 (Liechtenstein)                                    Prince

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Constantine -                        (Walachia)                                            Prince  (Mavrocordat)

                                Muhammad Shah -              (Mughal Empire)                                 restored

                                Ahmad Shah +                      (Mughal Empire)

                                Shah Rukh +                        (Persia)1                                               (1748-1749)  Afsharid Dynasty

                                Qamar ud din Nizal +         (Hyderabad)                                          Nizam (ul Mulk)

                                Muhammad Nasir Jang +  (Hyderabad)                                             Nizam

                                Bentham, Jeremy                                                                  1748-1832

                                Fiala, Joseph                                                                         1748-1816               Composer

                                David, Jacques Jouis                                           (8/30)      1748-1825               Painter   

                                Bernoulli, Johann (John)                                                     1667-1748               Mathematician (Switzerland)

                                Blavet, Michel                                                                      1700-1748               Composer

                                Bonporti, Francesco Antonio                                            1672-1748               Composer

                                Kellner, David                                                                       1670-1748               Composer

1749                        Tom Jones (Fielding)

                                Halifax established

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Suleiman II +-                        (Persia)                                                   *****                                                   

                                Benjamin Franklin experiments with electricity (-1752)

                                Handel's Fireworks Suite first performed for celebration of the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle in Aachen (4/27)

                                Sammartini's symphonies performed in Milan at the open air concerts at Castello Sforsceco

                                Royal Fireworks Suite (HWV351)                    George Frideric Handel

                                Die Kunst der Fuge                                             J. S. Bach

                                Zoroastre                                                              Rameau

                                Cimarosa, Domenico                                                            1749-1801               Composer

                                Goethe, Wolfgang von                                                       1749-1832              

                                Jenner, Edward                                                                     1749-1823

                                Laplace, Pierre Simon                                                          1749-1827

                                Mirabeau, Comte de                                                            1749-1791               Orator/Statesman (France)

                                Vogler, Abbe                                                                        1749-1814               Composer (Wurzburg)

                                Biber, Carl Heinrich                                                              1718-1749               Composer

                                Destouches, Andre Cardinal                                              1672-1749               Composer

                                Lisle, Samuel                                                                         1683-1749

                                Philips, Ambrose                                                                  1675-1749

                                Stolzel, Gottfried Heinrich                                                   1690-1749               Composer

1750                        Self-portrait (Maurice de La Tour) (-1760)

                                Mrs. Samuel Gouverneur (John Wollaston)

                                Sporting Contest on the Tiber (Emile Jean Horace Vernet)

                                Raja Ram Singh of Jodhpur (Jodhpur School)

                                Histoire Naturelle (Buffon) ff.

                                Plan for Two Discourses on Universal History (Turgot)

                                Encyclopedie 1st vol. (Diderot/D'Alembert) (-1772)

                                Iron Act passed in Britain, limiting American iron production

                                Lenni Lenape no longer in Morris County

                                Voltaire begins his visit at the court of Frederick the Great

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Ismail III +                            (Persia)                                                 (1750-1751)

                                Muhammad Nasir Jang -   (Hyderabad)                                          Nizam

                                Muzaffar Jang +                 (Hyderabad)                                          Nizam

                                John V -                                (Portugal)                                             House of Braganza

                                Joseph Emanuel +               (Portugal)                                             House of Braganza

                                Buffon's Histoire Naturelle espouses theory of evolution

                                Flute Concertos                                                    Quantz

                                Rosetti, Francesco Antonio                                               1750-1792               Composer

                                Salieri, Anonio                                                                      1750-1825               Composer

                                Sperger, Johann Matthias                                                  1750-1812               Composer

                                Stamitz, Anton Thadaus Johann Nepomuk                     1750-1796               Composer

                                Albinoni, Tomaso                                                                1671-1750               Composer

                                Bach, Johann Sebastian                                                      1685-1750               Composer

                                Monn, Georg Matthias                                                       1717-1750               Composer

                                Sammartini, Guiseppe                                                          1695-1750               Composer

                                Weiss, Sylvius Leopold                                                      1686-1750               Composer

1751                        Ceiling fresco of the kaisersaal (Giovanni Battista Tiepolo) (-1752)

                                Sculptural Decoration - Residenz Theatre, Munich (Johann Straub) (-1753)

                                Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard (Gray)

                                Le Siecle de Louis XIV (Voltaire)

                                Encyclopedia, 1st volumes  published

                                Philosophia Botanica (Linnaeus)

                                Experiments and observations on Electricity (Franklin)

                                English soldier Robert Clive takes Arcot in India - ends plans for French supremacy in India

                                Chinese invade and conquer Tibet

                                Currency Act passed, banning issue of paper money in New England

                                First permanent printing house in New Jersey opened by James Parker

                                Philadelphia Academy (University of Pennsylvania) founded

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Frederick I of Hesse -          (Sweden)                                               House of Palatinate

                                Adolphus Frederick +        (Sweden)                                                House of Holstein-Gottorp

                                William IV Friso -               (Dutch Republic)                 Stadholder

                                William V +                          (Dutch Republic)                 Stadholder

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Ismail III -                             (Persia)                                                 (1750-1751)

                                Muzaffar Jang -                   (Hyderabad)                                          Nizam

                                Salabat Jang +                     (Hyderabad)                                          Nizam

                                Jephtha                                                                  Handel

                                Fetonte                                                                  Jomelli

                                Belcher, Supply                                                                    1751-1836               Composer

                                Knechtl, Justin Heinrich                                                     1751-1817               Composer

                                Madison, James                                                                   1751-1836

                                Murray, Judith Sargent                                                       1751-1820               Feminist Theorist

                                Sheridan, Richard Brinsley                                                 1751-1816               Dramatist/Politician (Dublin, Ireland)

                                Alberti, Giuseppe Matteo                                                   1685-1751               Composer

                                Bolingbroke, Henry St. John                                              1678-1751

                                de La Mettrie, Julien                                                            1709-1751

1752                        Britain and British colonies switch from Julian to Gregorian calendar (9/2)


                                Treaty of Lancaster -  with Delaware and Shawnee

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Husain II +-                           (Persia)                                                   *****

                                Benjamin Franklin invents lightning conductor - shows that lightning is electricity

                                War of the Buffons in Paris

                                First German Singspiele

                                Le devin du village (Rousseau) premiers before Louis XV at Fountainebleau to rave reviews (10/18)

                                Versuch einer Anweisung de Flote...               Quantz (...traversiere zu spielen)  major flute treatise

                                Le devin du village                                             Jean Jacques Rousseau   (opera)

                                Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich                                          1752-1840

                                Clementi, Muzio                                                                   1752-1832               Composer

                                Lebrun, Ludwig August                                                     1752-1790               Composer

                                Legendre, Adrien Marie                                                      1752-1833

                                Little Turtle                                                                           1752-1812

                                Marsh, John                                                                          1752-1828               Composer

                                Nash, John                                                                            1752-1835

                                Reichardt, Johann Friedrich                                               1752-1814               Composer

                                Schroeter, Johann Samuel                                                  1752-1788               Composer

                                Butler, Joseph                                                                       1692-1752

1753                        2nd abortive uprising against Louis XV

                                French begin to push southward from Lake Erie into the Ohio country

                                Marquis Dusquesne sends an expedition of 1500 men to occupy Ohio country

                                Fort Presqu' Isle is built

                                Fort Le Boeuf is built

                                Governor Dinwiddie sends George Washington to Fort Le Boeuf to demand the French withdrawal

                                John Jenkins explores Wyoming Valley for proposed Susquehanna Company

                                Ben Franklin and William Hunter are named postmaster generals of the colonies

                                Bishop Berkeley: “Westward the course of empire takes its way.”

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Charles Messier observes the Mercury transit (5/6)

                                Versuch uber die Waher Art                              C. P. E. Bach

                                Lettre sur la musique francaise                        Rousseau

                                Breval, Jean Baptiste Sebastian                                         1753-1823               Composer

                                Carnot, Lazare Nicolas Marguerite                                    1753-1823               Military Engineer (France)

                                Garnier, Michel                                                                     1753-1819

                                Solere, Etienne                                                                      1753-1817               Composer

                                Stewart, Dugald                                                                    1753-1828

                                Berkeley, George                                                                  1685-1753               Philosopher

1754                        Milo of Croton (Falconet)

                                Thomas Chippendale manufacturing furniture

                                Dictionary (Samuel Johnson)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR +   (1754-1814)                                                Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR + (1754-1763)

                                Albany Congress - intercolonial conference between seven northern and middle colonies and the Iroquois (6/19)

                                Albany Congress - Iroquois remain neutral (6/19)

                                Albany Congress - adopts Plan of Union designed to coordinate the defenses of the colonies (6/19)

                                Albany Congress - Susquehanna Company purchases land in Wyoming Valley (6/19)


                                Lord North enters Parliament

                                George Washington's clash with French soldiers signals start of French and Indian War

                                French and Indian War begins

                                Fort Duquesne is built at the  forks of the Ohio

                                Washington builds Fort Necessity

                                Shippen Manor built, Oxford, NJ

                                Sixty Years War - Struggle for control of the Great Lakes region (-1814)

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Mahmut I -                            (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Osman III +                           (Ottoman Empire)                                (-1757)   Sultan

                                Ahmad Shah -                       (Mughal Empire)

                                Alamgir II +                          (Mughal Empire)

                                Observations sur notre instict pour la musique (Rameau)

                                Bohdanowicz, Bazvli                                                           1754-1819               Composer

                                Bonald, Louis de                                                                  1754-1840

                                Hoffmeister, Franz Anton                                                   1754-1812               Composer

                                Maistre, Joseph de                                                              1754-1821               Writer/Diplomat (Savoy)

                                Talleyrand-Perigord, Charles Maurice de                        1754-1838               Statesman/Diplomat (France)

                                Utamaro, Kitagama                                                              1754-1806               Painter (Japan)

                                Fielding, Henry                                                                     1707-1754               Novelist (England)

                                Wolff, Christian von                                                            1679-1754

1755                        The Painter's Wife (Allan Ramsay)

                                View of windsor Castle (Puul Sandby)

                                Miss Sara Sampson (Lessing)

                                Dictionary (Samuel Johnson)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                 Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR ... (1754-1763)

                                Battle of Fort Duquesne - French and Indian force defeat British - General Edward Braddock killed (7/9)

                                Battle of Lake George - British defeat French in Crown Point campaign (9/8)

                                Lisbon Earthquake - kills approximately 30,000-60,000 people (11/1)


                                French build Fort Carillon (Ticonderoga)

                                Postal Service established in British colonies

                                British form northern and southern departments for Indian Affairs

                                William Johnson made superintendent of Iroquois Affairs

                                Treaty of Gyanti - Mataram Kingdom in Java splits

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786) Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Moscow University founded

                                Der Tod Jesu                                                        Karl Graun

                                String Quartets                                                    Haydn

                                Adams, Hannah                                                                   1755-1831

                                Fiorillo, Federigo                                                                  1755-1823               Composer

                                Flaxman, John                                                                       1755-1826

                                Marie Antoinette                                                                 1755-1793               Queen of France (Austria)

                                Marshall, John                                                                      1755-1835

                                Reinhold                                                                                1755-1823

                                Stuart, Gilbert                                                                        1755-1828

                                Viotti, Giovanni Battista                                                      1755-1824               Composer

                                Boismortier, Joseph Bodin de                                            1689-1755               Composer

                                Durante, Francesco                                                             1684-1755               Composer

                                Hesselius, Gustavus                                                            1682-1755

                                Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat                                  1689-1755

                                Pisendel, Johann Georg                                                      1678-1755               Composer

                                Royer, Joseph Nicholas Pancrace                                     1705-1755               Composer

                                Saint Simon, Louis de Rouvroy                                         1675-1755

1756                        Portrait of a Lady as Diana (Jean-Marc Nattier)

                                Essai sur les moeurs (Essay on the Customs and Manners of Nations) (Voltaire)

                                Piranesi's engravings of ancient Roman ruins

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR ... (1754-1763)

                                SEVEN YEAR'S WAR +   (1756-1763)

                                Treaty of Westminster - alliance between Britain and Prussia - neutrality treaty (1/16)

                                Battle of Great Capacon River (Mercer's Massacre) West VA - Mercer and 15 soldiers ambushed (4/18)

                                First Treaty of Versailles - Neutrality Alliance between France and Austria (5/1)

                                'Black Hole of Calcutta' - Siraj-ud-Daula, Nawab of Bengal, captures Calcutta and kills 146 British  (6/20)

                                Easton Treaty with Delaware (7)

                                Frederick of Prussia invades Saxony - Seven Years War officially begins (8/29)

                                Easton Treaty with Delaware (11)


                                Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 - France/Prussia v. England/Austria becomes France/Austria v. England/Prussia

                                Seven Year's War - caused by colonial rivalry between Britain and France and Austro-Prussian rivalry (-1763)

                                Lt. General John Campbell takes over as Commander of British forces in North America

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Sava -                                     (Montenegro)                                       Prince-Bishop

                                Vasili +                                  (Montenegro)                                       Prince-Bishop

                                Illahi Vardi Khan -              (Bengal)                                                Nawab

                                Siraj Ud Daulah +                (Bengal)                                                (1756-1757)         Nawab

                                Chladni, Ernst E. F.                                                              1756-1824

                                Gifford, William                                                                    1756-1826

                                Godwin, William                                                                   1756-1836

                                Laromiguiere, Pierre                                                             1756-1837

                                Kraus, Joseph Martin                                                          1756-1792               Composer (Sweden)

                                Mozart, Wolgang Amadeus                                               1756-1791               Composer

                                Raebern, Henry                                                                    1756-1823

                                Vranicky, Pavel                                                                     1756-1808               Composer

                                Dornel, Louis Antoine                                                        1680-1756               Composer

                                Goldberg, Johann Gottlieb                                                  1727-1756               Composer

1757                        SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR ... (1754-1763)

                                SEVEN YEAR'S WAR ...   (1756-1763)

                                Second Treaty of Versailles - France to get Aust. Netherlands; Austria gets Parma, $$, & 180000 troops (5/1)

                                Battle of Plassey - Robert Clive defeats Nawab of Bengal - beginning of British Empire in India (6/23)

                                Battle of Plassey - sack of Delhi by Afghans  (6/23)

                                Fort William Henry captured and destroyed by French (8/9)

                                Battle of Rossbach - Prussia defeats French and Austrian armies in Prussian Saxony (11/5)

                                Battle of Leuthen - Prussia defeats French and Austrian armies  - gains Silesia (12/5)


                                Easton, PA Treaty with Delaware Indians

                                William Pitt becomes Secretary of State in Great Britain

                                Russia joins alliance with France and Austria

                                British rule established in India - Robert Clive captures Calcutta

                                American crowds resist forced recruitment into British army in New York City

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Osman III -                            (Ottoman Empire)                 (1754-)    Sultan

                                Mustafa III +                         (Ottoman Empire)                 (-1774)    Ayans granted offical status

                                Siraj Ud Daulah -                  (Bengal)                                                 (1756-)    Nawab

                                Mir Jafar +                             (Bengal)                                                 Nawab

                                Haydn “invents” string quartet form

                                Blake, William                                                                       1757-1827

                                Cabanis, Pierre Jean Georges                                             1757-1808

                                Canova, Antonio                                                                 1757-1822               Painter, Sculptor (Possagno, Venice)

                                Charles X, Count of Artois                                                 1757-1836               King (France)

                                Hamilton, Alexander                                                            1757-1804

                                Karl, Freiherr vom Stein                                                      1757-1831               Reformer (Prussia)

                                Pleyel, Ignaz Joseph                                                            1757-1831               Composer

                                Read, Daniel                                                                          1757-1836               Composer

                                Hartley, David                                                                      1705-1757               Philosopher

                                Scarlatti, Giuseppe Domenico                                            1685-1757               Composer (Naples) (Madrid)

                                Stamitz, Johann Wenzel Anton                                         1717-1757               Composer

1758                        SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR ... (1754-1763)

                                SEVEN YEAR'S WAR ...   (1756-1763)

                                British recapture Fort  Louisbourg (7)

                                British capture Fort Duquesne (11)


                                Battle of Zorndorf - Prussians defeat Russians

                                Easton Treaty

                                Mary Jemison captured by French and Indian war party

                                James Abercrombie invades Canada via Lake George

                                French successfully defend Fort Carillon against James Abercromby

                                Fort Stanwix built

                                “New American Magazine” printed in Woodbridge, NJ- 2nd magazine in colonies

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Benedict XIV -                      (Patriarchate of Rome)                      (1740-1758)

                                Clement XIII +                      (Patriarchate of Rome)                     (1758-1769)

                                Accademia Filarmonica founded

                                Gall, Franz Joseph                                                                1758-1828

                                Hoppner, John                                                                      1758-1810

                                Robespierre, Maximilien                                                      1758-1794               Revolutionary Leader (Arras, France)

                                Vancouver, George                                                              1758-1798

                                Webster, Noah                                                                     1758-1843

                                Edwards, Jonathan                                                              1703-1758

                                Fasch, Johann Friedrich                                                      1688-1758               Composer

                                Roman, Johan Helmich                                                        1694-1758               Composer

                                Travers, John                                                                        1703-1758               Composer

1759                        Tristam Shandy (Sterne)

                                Candide (Voltaire)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR ... (1754-1763)

                                SEVEN YEAR'S WAR ...   (1756-1763)

                                British capture Quebec - French general Marquis de Montcalm and British general James Wolfe killed (9/13)

                                Battle of Quebec - Plains of Abraham - Iroquois become British allies (9/13)


                                British under Jeffrey Amherst capture Fort Carillon and rename it Fort Ticonderoga

                                Battle of Quiberon Bay - French defeated

                                Battle of Kunersdorf - Austrian victory

                                Jesuits expelled from Brazil

                                War erupts between southern colonists and Cherokees

                                Spanish Red River Campaign against Comanche

                                George II ...                            (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                Ferdinand VI -                       (Spain)                                                   House of Bourbon

                                Charles III +                          (Spain)                                                   (-1788)    House of Bourbon

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Alamgir II -                            (Mughal Empire)

                                Josef Haydn employed as Kapellmeister to Count Morzin - his first job

                                Symphony No. 1                                                  Joseph Haydn

                                Burns, Robert                                                                       1759-1796               Poet

                                Devienne, Francois                                                              1759-1803               Composer

                                Krommer, Franz Vincenz                                                     1759-1831               Composer

                                Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich von                         1759-1805               Dramatist (Marbach, Wurttemberg)

                                Altnikol, Johann Christoph                                                1719-1759               Composer

                                Graun, Carl Heinrich                                                            1704-1759               Composer

                                Handel, George Frideric                                                      1685-1759               Composer

                                Falkenhagen, Adam                                                             1697-1759               Composer

1760                        Mary, Countess Howe (Thomas Gainsborough)

                                Evening Bell of the Clock (Harunobu)

                                Krishna and Radha on a terrace at night (Kishangargh School)

                                Decoration at Ottobeuren Parish Church - Bavaria (Feuchtmayer Family)

                                Putti - Abbey Church, Ottobeuren (Johann Michael Feuchtmayer)

                                Ossian (MacPherson)

                                Dictionnaire de Trevoux (Jesuir response to Diderot/D'Alembert Encyclodedie) ff.

                                Park of the Villa d'Este in Tivoli (sculptures?) (paintings?) (Fragonard)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR ... (1754-1763)

                                SEVEN YEAR'S WAR ...   (1756-1763)

                                Boston Fire  destroys  349 buildings (3/20)

                                Montreal surrenders to English (9/8)

                                George II King of England dies (10/25)


                                British take Montreal - last French stronghold - war in America ends - continues in Caribbean, India, Europe

                                George II -                             (England)                                               (1727-1760) King

                                George III +                           (Great Britain)(Ireland)                        King (grandson of George II)

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Mir Jafar -                              (Bengal)                                                 Nawab

                                Mir Qasim +                          (Bengal)                                                 Nawab

                                Orfeo                                                                      Gluck

                                Albeniz, Mateo Antonio Perez                                          1760-1831               Composer

                                Babeuf, Francois Noel (Gracchus)                                    1760-1797               Revolutionist

                                Cherubini, Luigi                                                                    1760-1842               Composer

                                Dussek, Jan Ladislaw                                                          1760-1812               Pianist/Composer

                                Hokusai, Katsushika                                                           1760-1849

                                Saint Simon, Claude Henri de Rouvroy                            1760-1825

                                Baal Shem Tov                                                                     1700-1760

                                Graupner, Johann Christoph                                              1683-1760               Composer

1761                        The Village Betrothal (Jean-Baptiste Greuze)

                                Parnassus with Apollo and the Muses (Anton Mengs)

                                Nouvelle Heloise (Rousseau) (-1762)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR ... (1754-1763)

                                SEVEN YEAR'S WAR ...   (1756-1763)

                                Governor of French Canada surrenders to Lord Jeffrey Amherst, British Commander-in-Chief in America (9/8)


                                Third Family Compact - between Spain and France - Spain enters the war against England

                                William Pitt resigns as Secretary of State

                                Battle of Panipat - Afghans and Mughals defeat Marathas

                                Writs of Assistance - allow search for illegal shipments in the British colonies

                                Haydn enters service of the Esterhazys (Prince Paul Anton) - at Eisenstadt, Burgenland, south of Vienna (5/1)

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Le Cadi dupe                                                         Gluck

                                Don Juan

                                Symphony No. 6  ("Le Matin")                         Haydn

                                Symphony No. 7 ("Le Midi")                            Haydn

                                Symphony No. 8  ("Le Soir")                             Haydn

                                Beck, Jakob Sigismund                                                       1761-1840

                                Galles, Jose                                                                           1761-1836               Composer

                                Vranicky, Antonin                                                               1761-1820               Composer

                                Cecere, Carlo                                                                         1706-1761               Composer

                                Gesner, Johann Mathias                                                     1691-1761

                                Musschenbroek, Pieter van                                               1692-1761

                                Richardson, Samuel                                                             1689-1761               Novelist (Derbyshire, England)

1762                        George III (Alan Ramsay)

                                Le Contrat Social (Rousseau)

                                Emile (Rousseau)

                                Pygmalion (Rousseau)

                                Confession of Faith of a Priest from Savoy (Rousseau)

                                History of the Bulgarian People  (Paisi)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR ... (1754-1763)

                                SEVEN YEAR'S WAR ...   (1756-1763)

                                Great Britain declares war on Spain

                                British seize Cuba

                                Rodney forces the surrender of Martinique, Grenada, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and other French West Indies

                                British seize Philippines

                                Treaty of St. Petersburg - between Russia and Prussia

                                French cede their lands west of Mississippi to Spanish

                                Lancaster Treaty

                                William Johnson founds Johnstown, New York

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Elizabeth Petrovna -             (Russia)                                                 Empress

                                Peter III +-                             (Russia)                                                 *****    Emperor

                                Catherine II the Great +       (Russia)                                                 (-1796)    Empress (Tsarina)

                                Salabat Jang -                       (Hyderabad)                                          Nizam

                                Nizam Ali +                            (Hyderabad)                                          Nizam

                                Sammartini brings 34 players (Boccherini) to Pavia and Cremona on the passing of Archduke Leopold Hapsburg

                                Mozart tours Europe as a six year old prodigy

                                Colman the Younger, George                                             1762-1836

                                Baillie, Joanna                                                                       1762-1851

                                Fichte, Johann Gottlieb                                                       1762-1814

                                Tausch, Franz Wilhelm                                                       1762-1817               Composer

                                Wanski, Jan                                                                          1762-1800               Composer

                                Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb                                        1714-1762

                                Bradley, James                                                                      1693-1762

                                Crebillon                                                                                1674-1762

                                Geminiani, Francesco Xaverio                                           1687-1762               Composer

                                Hotteterre, Jacques                                                              1674-1762               Composer

                                Manfredini, Francesco                                                        1684-1762               Composer

                                Montagu, Mary Wortley                                                    1689-1762

                                Naudot, Jean Jacques Christophe                                     1690-1762               Composer

1763                        Nelly O'Brien (Joshua Reynolds)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR -   (1754-1763)

                                SEVEN YEAR'S WAR -   (1756-1763)

                                Treaty of Paris: between Britain, France, and Spain - ends Seven Years' War (2/10)

                                Treaty of Paris - Canada and most land east of Mississippi ceded to England  (2/10)

                                Treaty of Paris - French Canada and Spanish Florida ceded to Great Britain (2/10)

                                Chief Pontiac of Ottowa tribe leads Indian uprising - attacks on settlements and forts of the frontier (5) -(6)

                                Pontiac Attacks Fort Detroit (5/8)

                                French and Indian War ends (5/9)

                                Battle of Bushy Run (Shawnee, Wyandot vs. British) (8/5)

                                Proclamation of 1763 -  outlaws and recalls trans Appalachian settlement (10/7)

                                Proclamation of 1763 - creates provinces of Quebec, East Florida, West Florida, and Grenada (10/7)

                                Siege of Detroit ends (11)


                                Peace of Hubertsberg - between Prussia, Saxony, and Austria

                                al-Wahab begins conquest of neighboring Arabian tribes - invoking jihad

                                Pontiac forges alliance with Hurons, Chippewas, Potawatomis, Iroquois, Delaware, and Shawnee

                                Seneca Attack Fort LeBoeuf,Venango, Presque Isle, & Pitt

                                Patrick Henry's arguments in the Parson's Cause in Virginia

                                Excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum begin

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Augustus III Wettin -         (Poland)

                                Mir Qasim -                           (Bengal)                                                 Nawab

                                Mir Jafar +                             (Bengal)                                                 Nawab

                                Bulfinch, Charles                                                                  1763-1844

                                Danzi, Franz                                                                          1763-1826               Composer

                                Dragonetti, Domenico                                                         1763-1846               Composer

                                Gyrowetz, Adalbert                                                              1763-1850               Composer

                                Mehul, Etienne Nicolas                                                       1763-1817               Composer

                                Richter, Johann Paul Friedrich                                           1763-1825               Novelist (Germany)

                                Royer-Collard, Pierre Paul                                                   1763-1845

                                Prevost d'Exiles, Antoine Francois (Abbe)                      1697-1763               Novelist (France)

                                Schaffrath, Christoph                                                          1709-1763               Composer

                                Teedyuscung                                                                       1700-1763

1764                        On Crimes and Punishments (Beccaria)

                                Candide (Voltaire) (-1765)

                                Dictionnaire philisophique (Voltaire) (-1765)

                                Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums (Winckelmann)

                                The Rights of British Colonies Asserted and Proved (James Otis) (7)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                Sugar Act passed by British Parliament

                                Lord Hillsborough draws up plan for the management of Indians and the fur trade

                                Currency Act passed by British Parliament

                                Trade court set up in Halifax, Nova Scotia

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Stanislaus Augustus +       (Poland)                                                 Poniatowski

                                Charles Messier discovers the M9 globular cluster approximately 25,000 light years away towards the  galactic center

                                Spinning jenny invented by James Hargreaves - Englishman

                                Mozart in London

                                La Rencontre imprevue                                       Gluck

                                Baggesen, Jens Immanuel                                                  1764-1826

                                Radcliffe, Ann Ward                                                           1764-1823               Novelist (London, England)

                                Hogarth, William                                                                  1697-1764

                                LeClair, Jean Marie I’aine                                                   1697-1764               Composer

                                Locatelli, Pietro Antonio                                                     1695-1764               Composer

                                Mattheson, Johann                                                             1681-1764               Composer

                                Rameau, Jean Philippe                                                         1683-1764               Composer

                                Reading, John                                                                       1685-1764               Composer

1765                        Bathers (Fragonard)

                                Self-Portrait (Singleton Copley)

                                Radha Arresting Krishna (Bilaspur School) (-1770)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                Quartering Act passed by British Parliament (3)

                                Parliament passes  Stamp Act in American colonies - imposes tax on publications and legal documents (3)

                                Patrick Henry presents Virginia Resolutions: “If this be treason, make the most of it.” (5)

                                Sons of Liberty (7)

                                Mob burns effigy of royal governor in NYC, harass British troops and loot houses (11/1)

                                Boston mob attacks home of Thomas Hutchinson, chief justice of Massachusetts (8/26)

                                Enlightened despots in Austria, Germany, Spain, Portugal and France (-1790)

                                Grant of diwani to East India Company by Mughal emperor

                                Resolves of Virginia House of Burgesses denounces Stamp Act

                                Stamp Act Congress meets in New York and adopts Declaration of Rights and Grievances

                                First medical school founded in Philadelphia

                                James Watt invents the steam engine

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Francis I -                              (Holy Roman Empire)                          (1745-1765)

                                Joseph II +                            (Holy Roman Empire)                          (1765-1790)    son of Maria Theresa (coregent -1780)

                                Mir Jafar -                              (Bengal)                                                 Nawab

                                Najm ud Daulah +                (Bengal)                                                 Nawab

                                Baader, Franz Xavier von                                                   1765-1841

                                MacKintosh, James                                                             1765-1832

                                Angrell, Johan Joachim                                                       1701-1765               Composer

                                Hebden, John                                                                       1712-1765               Composer

                                Lomonosov, Mikhail                                                           1711-1765

                                Molter, Johann Melchior                                                    1696-1765               Composer

                                Stalder, Joseph Franz Xaver Dominik                               1725-1765               Composer

                                Young, Edward                                                                     1683-1765

                                Zellbell, Ferdinand                                                               1689-1765               Composer

1766                        General Gordon (Batoni)

                                Queen Charlotte with her two eldest sons (Zoffany)

                                Vicar of Wakefield (Goldsmith)

                                Laokoon (Lessing)

                                The Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalato (Adam)(arch.)

                                Petit Trianon built

                                Christie's Art Auction House founded by James Christie

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                English Parliament repeals Stamp Act -  accompanied by Declaratory Act (3/17)

                                Lord north admitted to the Privy Council as a Tory

                                Frederik V -                            (Denmark)(Norway)                          (1746-1766)

                                Christian VII +                      (Denmark)(Norway)            

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Vasili -                                    (Montenegro)                                       Prince-Bishop

                                Stephen the Little +             (Montenegro)                                       Prince-Bishop

                                Najm ud Daulah -                 (Bengal)                                                 Nawab

                                Saif ud Daulah +                   (Bengal)                                                 Nawab

                                Krishnaraja Wodeyar II -    (Mysore)                                               Immadi

                                Nanajaraja Wodeyar +        (Mysore)

                                String Quartets, Op. 9                                          Haydn

                                Sonata No. 10 in C major     Hob XVI / 1           Haydn

                                Dalton, John                                                                         1766-1844

                                D’Israeli, Isaac                                                                      1766-1848

                                Biran, Maine de                                                                    1766-1824

                                Kreutzer, Rodolphe                                                              1766-1831               Composer

                                Necker, Anne Louise Germaine (de Stael)                        1766-1817

                                Sussmayr, Franz Xaver                                                       1766-1803               Composer

                                Weber, Bedrich Dionys                                                      1766-1842               Composer

                                Welsey, Samuel                                                                    1766-1837               Composer

                                Abbt, Thomas                                                                      1738-1766

                                Boylston, Zabdiel                                                                1679-1766

                                Hume, David                                                                         1711-1766               Philosopher

                                Roseingrave, Thomas                                                         1690-1766               Composer

                                Wassenaer, Unico Wilhelm van                                        1692-1766               Composer

1767                        Hamburgische Dramaturgie (Lessing) (-1769)

                                Farmer's Letters (John Dickinson)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                Lord North becomes Chancellor of the Exchequer

                                Townshend Revenue Acts impose tax on imports into North America - revival of nonimportation agreements (6)

                                Confederation of Bar - Poland forms anti-Russian association

                                Russia and Ottoman Empire at war (-1774)

                                Duty Act passed by British Parliament

                                Mason-Dixon Line established between Maryland and Pennsylvania - separates free states from slave states

                                Jesuits expelled from Spanish America

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Alceste                                                                  Gluck

                                Symphony # 35                                                    Haydn

                                Symphony # 36                                                    Haydn

                                Symphony # 37                                                    Haydn

                                Symphony # 38                                                    Haydn

                                Dictionnaire de musique                                     Rousseau

                                Adams, John Quincy                                                           1767-1848

                                Call, Leonhard von                                                              1767-                       Composer

                                Girodet, Anne-Louis                                                            1767-1824

                                Gragnani, Filippo                                                                  1767-1812               Composer

                                Possinger, Franz Alexander                                                1767-1827               Composer

                                Romberg, Andreas Jacob                                                   1767-1821               Composer

                                Brant, Per                                                                               1714-1767               Composer

                                Schobert, Johann                                                                 1740-1767               Composer

                                Telemann, Georg Philipp                                                     1681-1767               Composer

1768                        The Swing (Jean-Honore Fragonard)

                                Experiment on a bird with the Air Pump (Joseph Wright)

                                Charles III  at Luncheon attended by his Court (Luis Paret y Alcazar) (-1772)

                                Adelphi buidings constucted in London (Robert Adam) (-1772)

                                Sentimental Journey through France and Italy (Laurence Sterne)  travel-writing landmark

                                Lettres a une princesse d'Allemagne (Leonhard Euler)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FIFTH RUSSO-TURKISH WAR +   (1768-1774)

                                Treaty of Fort Stanwix  - Iroqious relinquish claims to land s. & e. of Ohio R (Kentucky) to British (11/5)


                                France takes Corsica

                                James Cook's first voyage - discovers and explores east coast of New South Wales (Australia) (-1771)

                                First War of Catherine the Great against the Turks (-1774)

                                Massachusetts House of Representatives adopts Circular Letter

                                Treaties with Creeks

                                Treaties with Cherokees

                                Benjamin Franklin organizes the Vandalia company - to establish a colony in West Virginia

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Sammartini named maestro di cappella to the Milanese court

                                Bastien und Bastienne  (K. 50=46b)                 Mozart

                                Backofen, Johann Georg Heinrich                                     1768-1839               Composer

                                Baguer, Carlos                                                                      1768-1847               Composer

                                Chateaubriand, Francois Rene, vicomte de                     1768-1848               Writer (Saint-Malo, France)

                                Fourier, Jean Baptiste Joseph                            3/21         1768-1830               Mathematician (France)

                                Molino, Francesco                                                               1768-1847               Composer

                                Schliermacher, Friedrich Ernst Daniel               11/21       1768-1830               Theologian/Philosopher

                                Baldassare, Pietro                                                                1690-1768               Composer

                                Canaletto, Giovanni Antonio Canal                  4/19         1697-1768               Painter (Venice)

                                Lardner, Nathaniel                                                               1684-1768               Theologian (Kent, England)

                                Porpora, Nicola Antonio                                                     1686-1768               Composer

                                Sterne, Laurence                                                  3/18         1713-1768               Writer

                                Veracini, Francesco Maria Veracini                                   1690-1768               Composer

                                Winckelmann, Johann Joachim                                         1717-1768               Historian (German)

1769                        SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                 Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FIFTH RUSSO-TURKISH WAR ...   (1768-1774)

                                FIRST PENNAMITE WAR +   (1769-1771)

                                James Cook observes transit of Venus from Tahiti (6/3)               Saturday

                                James Cook lands in New Zealand (10/6)


                                Josiah Wedgewood opens pottery factory at Etruria, near Stoke-upon-Trent

                                First Pennamite War between Pennsylvania and Connecticut settlers in the Wyoming Valley (-1771)

                                Vandalia Company purchases land in what would become West Virginia

                                Watauga settlement in eastern Tennessee

                                Mozart in Italy

                                Watt’s steam engine patented after years of experimentation

                                Richard Arkwright invents the water-powered spinning frame - early step in the Industrial Revolution

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Clement XIII -                      (Patriarchate of Rome)                      (1758-1769)

                                Clement XIV +                     (Patriarchate of Rome)                      (1769-)

                                Bonaparte, Napoleon                                                          1769-1821               Emperor (Ajaccio, Corsica)

                                Cuvier, Georges Leopole Chretien Frederic                     1769-1832

                                Humboldt, Alexander von                                                  1769-1859               Naturalist/Traveler (Germany)

                                Jadin, Hyacinthe                                                                  1769-1800               Composer

                                Mohammed Ali                                                                     1769-1849               Pasha of Egypt

                                Annet, Peter                                                                          1693-1769

1770                        The Blue Boy (Thomas Gainsborough)

                                Lion Attacking a Horse (George Stubbs)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                 Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FIFTH RUSSO-TURKISH WAR ...   (1768-1774)

                                FIRST PENNAMITE WAR ...   (1769-1771)

                                Boston Massacre - British troops fire on mob in Boston, killing five citizens (3/5)

                                James Cook discovers Botany Bay, first European to reach Australia (4/19)

                                Marie Antoinette (d. Maria Theresa) leaves Vienna for Versailles to become Dauphine of France (4/21)

                                Samuel Hearne begins his third and finally successful expedition of the northwest arctic territories with HBC (12)


                                Beginning of factory system

                                British Parliament repeals Townshend Acts but keeps tax on tea imports - Lord North attempts conciliation

                                Spinning jenny patented by James Hargreaves

                                Lord North +                        (England)                                               (1770-1782) Prime Minister

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786) Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Saif ud Daulah -                    (Bengal)                                                 Nawab

                                Nanajaraja Wodeyar -         (Mysore)

                                Chamaraja Wodeyar VII +  (Mysore)                                               Bettada

                                String Quartets (first)                                                         Mozart

                                The New England Psalm Singer                                         Billings

                                Beethoven, Lugwig von                                                     1770-1827               Composer              (12/16)

                                Canning, George                                                                  1770-1827

                                Carulli, Ferdinando                                                              1770-1841               Composer             

                                Forberg, Friedrich                                                                1770-1848

                                Gerard, Francois Pascal Simon, Baron                              1770-1837               Painter (French, b. Rome)

                                Hansel, Peter                                                                         1770-1831               Composer

                                Hassler, Ferdinand Rudolf                                                  1770-1843

                                Hegel, George Wilhelm Friedrich                                       1770-1831               Philosopher

                                Holderlin, Johann Christian Friedrich                               1770-1843               Poet (Germany)

                                Reicha, Anton                                                                      1770-1836               Composer (Prague)

                                Seebeck, Thomas Johann                                                   1770-1831               Physicist (German)

                                Witt, Friedrich                                                                      1770-1836               Composer

                                Wordsworth, William                                                          1770-1850

                                Wyeth, John                                                                         1770-1858               Composer

                                Avison, Charles                                                                   1709-1770               Composer

                                Boucher, Francois                                                                1703-1770               Painter (France)

                                Muffat, Gottlieb Theophil                                                   1690-1770               Composer

                                Tartini, Giuseppe                                                                  1692-1770

                                Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista                                                  1696-1770               Painter (Venice)

                                Walond, William                                                                  1725-1770               Composer

                                Whitefield, George                                                               1714-1770

1771                        Arch of Janus with the Arch of the Money Changers (Giovanni B. Piranesi)

                                John, 14th Lord Willoughby and his Family (Johann Zoffany)

                                The Death of Wolfe (Benjamin West)

                                Encyclopedia Brittanica, 1st ed.

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                 Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FIFTH RUSSO-TURKISH WAR ...   (1768-1774)

                                FIRST PENNAMITE WAR -   (1769-1771)

                                Johann Friedrich Struensee and Queen Caroline Matilda of Denmark are arrested (1/17)

                                Governor Tyron of North Carolina marches his men out of Hillsborough toward Alamance Creek (5/11)

                                Battle of Alamance - Governor Tyron's forces crush Regulators in North Carolina  (5/16)

                                Massacre at Bloody Falls - Chipewyan Chief Matonabbee murders Inuit during Hearne Arctic expedition (7/17)

                                Mission San Gabriel Arcangel is founded in Los Angeles by Pedro Cambon and Angel Somera (9/8)


                                Parlements abolished by Louis XV

                                3rd abortive uprising against Louis XV

                                Russia conquers Crimea

                                Plague Riot in Moscow

                                Carl Scheele discovers oxygen

                                Adolphus Frederick -          (Sweden)                                               House of Holstein-Gottorp

                                Gustavus III +                       (Sweden)                                               House of Holstein-Gottorp

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Cramer, John Baptist                                                           1771-1858               Composer

                                Gros, Antoine Jean                                                              1771-1835

                                Jordan, Camille                                                                     1771-1821

                                Lichnowsky, Reichsgrof Moritz von                                1771-1837               Composer

                                Scott, Sir Walter                                                                   1771-1832

                                Brixi, Franz Xavier                                                                1732-1771               Composer

                                Graun, Johann Gottlieb                                                       1703-1771               Composer

                                Gray, Thomas                                                                       1716-1771               Poet (England)

                                Smollett, Tobias                                                                   1721-1771

1772                        Young Man in a Fawn Coat (Tilly Kettle) (-1773)

                                On Man (Claude Helvetius)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FIFTH RUSSO-TURKISH WAR ...   (1768-1774)

                                Burning of the Gaspee - Committees of Corresopondence organized by Samuel Adams (6/10)

                                First Partition of Poland -  by Russia, Prussia and Austria

                                James Cook's second voyage (-1775) crosses Antarctic Circle and circumnavigates Antarctica

                                Watauga Association forms from the compact theory in eastern Tennessee

                                Joseph Wenzel -                   (Liechtenstein)                                     Prince

                                Francis Joseph I +                (Liechtenstein)                                     Prince

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Joseph Priestly amd Daniel Rutherford independently discover Nitrogen

                                Johann Georg Albrechtsberger becomes court organist in Vienna

                                Iphigenie en Aulide                                             Gluck

                                Sun quartets, Op. 20                                            Haydn

                                Bystrom, Thomas                                                                 1772-1839               Composer

                                Coleridge, Samuel Taylor                                                    1772-1834

                                Fourier, F. M. (Charles)                                                       1772-1837

                                Preussen, Louis Ferdinand Christian Prinz von              1772-1806               Composer

                                Ricardo, David                                                                      1772-1823

                                Schlegel, Friedrich                                                               1772-1829

                                Barsanti, Francesco                                                             1690-1772               Composer

                                Daquin, Louis Claude                                                          1694-1772               Composer

                                Swedenborg, Emanuel von                                                 1688-1772

1773                        Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Mifflin (Singleton Copley)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                 Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FIFTH RUSSO-TURKISH WAR ...   (1768-1774)

                                Boston Tea Party - citizens disguised as Native Americans dump tea into Boston Harbour (12/16) Thursday


                                Pope Clement XIV suppresses Jesuits

                                Peasant uprising in Russia led by Cossack Pugachev  (-1775)

                                Tea Act passed by Paliament

                                Earthquake destroys Guatemala city

                                Diderot visits Catherine the Great in Russia

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Symphony No. 25 in G minor K 183  Mozart

                                Symphony K. 201                                                 Mozart

                                Fries, Jakob Friedrich                                                          1773-1843

                                Harrison, William Henry                                                     1773-1841

                                Lithander, Carl Ludwig                                                        1773-1843               Composer

                                Mill, James                                                                            1773-1836

                                Orleans, Louis Philippe, duc de                                         1773-1850               King (France)

                                Wackenroder, Wilhelm                                                       1773-1798               Writer (Germany)

                                Quantz, Johann Joachim                                                     1697-1773               Composer

1774                        Die Leiden des jungen Werthers (Goethe)       fiction

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FIFTH RUSSO-TURKISH WAR ...   (1768-1774)

                                LORD DUNMORE'S WAR

                                11 Mingoes (including relatives of Logan, a Mingo chief) killed by settlers near Steubenville OH (5)

                                Massachusetts Government Act passed by British Parliament - one of the Intolerable Acts (5/20)

                                Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca - between Russia and Ottoman Empire - Russia gains Black Sea ports (7/21)

                                Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca - Russia gains right to represent Greek Orthodox Church in Turkey (7/21)

                                First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia to protest "Intolerable Acts" (9/5)

                                Priestly mentions his isolation of oxygen to Lavoisier

                                Battle of Point Pleasant - Lord Dunmore’s War - v. Shawnee forced north across Ohio R. (10/10)

                                First Continental Congress concludes in Philadelphia (10/26)


                                END OF AGE OF KINGS

                                Louis XVI recalls the Parlements      

                                Ottoman domination in Walachia

                                Ottoman domination in Moldavia

                                Warren Hastings, Governor of Bengal, is appointed first Governor-General of India

                                British Parliament passes "Intolerable Acts" (with Quebec Act) - a series of repressive acts against colonies

                                First Continental Congress defeats Galloway's Plan of Union

                                First Continental Congress adopts Declaration of Rights and Grievances - sends them to George III

                                First Continental Congress adopts Resolves and urges colonies to form Continental Association

                                Rhode Island Abolishes Slavery

                                Louis XV -                            (France)                                                (1715-1774) King

                                Louis XVI +                          (France)                                                (1774-1793) King

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Gregory Ghica +                  (Moldavia)                                             Prince 

                                Alexander Ypsilanti +         (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Stephen the Little -             (Montenegro)                                       Prince-Bishop

                                Sava +                                    (Montenegro)                                       Prince-Bishop

                                Mustafa III -                          (Ottoman Empire)                                (1757-1774) Sultan           

                                Abdulhamit I +                     (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan   

                                Warren Hastings +             (India)                                                    Governor-General (Governor of Bengal)

                                Joseph Priestley first isolates oxygen by heating solid mercury (II) oxide HgO (8/7)

                                Clement XIV -

                                Iphigenie en Aulide                                             Gluck

                                Orphee et Euridice                                               Gluck

                                Bassoon Concerto                                               Mozart

                                Biot, Jean Baptiste                                                               1774-1862

                                Friedrich, Caspar David                                                      1774-1840

                                Seton, Elizabeth Ann                                                           1774-1821               Catholic Leader (Saint) (NYC)

                                Tomasek, Vaclav Jan Krtitel                                               1774-1850               Composer

                                Agricola, Johann Friedrich                                                 1720-1774               Composer

                                Goldsmith, Oliver                                                                  1728-1774               Author (Ireland)

                                Quesnay, Francois                                                               1694-1774

                                Tuma, Frantisek Antonin Ignac                                         1704-1774               Composer

1775                        Self-portrait a l'abat-jour (Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin)

                                Battle of Bunker's Hill (John Trumbull)

                                Le Barbiere de Seville (Beaumarchais)

                                The Rivals (Richard Brinsley Sheridan) comedy

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                AMERICAN REVOLUTION +   (1775-1783)

                                BEGINNING OF AGE OF REVOLUTION

                                Patrick Henry: “Give me liberty or give me death” (3/23)

                                Ride of Paul Revere (and William Dawes) (4/18)

                                Israel Bissell’s Ride from Watertown, MA to CT towns to mobilize against the British (4/19)

                                Battle of Lexington and Concord - British troops retreat to Boston(4/19)

                                Fort Ticonderoga captured by Green Mountain Boys under  Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold (5/10)

                                Second Continental Congress assembles at Philadelphia (5/10)

                                Troops before Boston are adopted as Continental Army  (5/31)

                                Second Continental Congress names George Washington commander-in-chief (6/15)

                                Battle of Bunker Hill - British defeat colonists (take Breed's Hill on third try) at great loss of troops (6/17)

                                Olive Branch Petition - signed and sent to England from Continental Congress (7/8)

                                Proclamation of Rebellion - issued by George III  in response to news of the Battle of Bunker Hill (8/23)

                                Richard Montgomery marches north from Fort Ticonderoga with 1300 men (9/16)

                                First call on New Jersey for Continental troops (10/9)

                                Dunmore's Proclamation - offers American slaves freedom if they join the British Army (11/7)

                                Robert Montgomery's army captures Montreal (11/12)

                                Montgomery is killed before Quebec (12/21)

                                Attck on Quebec City (12/31)


                                Cossack Pugachev's uprising in Russia suppressed

                                Catherine the Great reorganizes local government in Russia

                                Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji - between Russia and Ottoman empire

                                War between British and Marathas in India (-1782)      

                                Treaty of Pittsburgh w/ Shawn., Del. Ming., Sen., Pot. Otta. Ohio boundary & neutrality

                                Congress authorizes issuance of currency to finance war

                                King George III and Council authorizes creation of the Colony of Vandalia (West Virginia)

                                Transylvania settlement in Kentucky established by Richard Henderson

                                British engineers James Watt and Matthew Bolton form partnership to produce first commercial steam engines

                                Volta’s electric battery invented

                                Joseph Priestly discovers hydrochloric and sulfuric acids

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Pius VI +                               (Patriarchate of Rome)                       (1775-1799)

                                Tourte improves bow

                                Mozart in Salzburg composes five violin concertos

                                La finta giardiniera                                                   Mozart          (Written in Munich)  (1st performance 1/13)

                                Violin Concerto in D Major, K 218                         Mozart

                                (Violin Schule- Leopold Mozart When written?)

                                Ampere, Andre Marie                                                         1775-1836

                                Austen, Jane                                                                         1775-1817

                                Boieldieu, Francois Adrien                                                 1775-1834               Composer

                                Busby, Thomas                                                                    1775-1838               Composer

                                Crotch, William                                                                     1775-1847               Composer

                                Crusell, Bernhard Henrik                                                     1775-1838               Composer

                                Fossa, Francois de Paul Jacques Raymond de               1775-1849               Composer

                                Girtin, Thomas                                                                      1775-1802

                                Lamb, Charles                                                                       1775-1834

                                Landor, Walter Savage                                                       1775-1864

                                Schelling, Friedrich von                                                      1775-1854

                                Turner, Joseph Mallord William                                        1775-1851

                                Sammartini, Giovanni Battista                                            1701-1775               Composer (Milan, Italy)

1776                        Snowdon seen from across Llyn Nantil (Richard Wilson)

                                Washerwoman (Fragonard)

                                An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Smith)

                                Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (Edward Gibbon)

                                Common Sense (Paine)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                AMERICAN REVOLUTION ...   (1775-1783)

                                Washington occupies Dorchester Heights (3/4)

                                Siege of Boston ends - British troops evacuate Boston (3/17)

                                2nd C Congress announces that authority of the British crown should be suppressed (5/15)

                                The Virginia Convention - instructs VA delegates in Congress to propose independence (5/15)

                                Resolution of Richard Henry Lee - "That these United Colonies are and of right ought to be free and indep."(6/7)

                                Battle of Trois-Rivieres (6/18)

                                9,000 British troops land on Staten Island under Howe at New Dorp (7/2-3)

                                Declaration of Independence drawn up and approved by Continental Congress (7/4)

                                US Postal Service formed - Benjamin Franklin first postmaster General (7/26)

                                Battle of Long Island - British land 22000 men Washington loses (8/27)

                                British occupy New York - Howe lands 12,000 on L. Manhattan - Washington retreats to Harlem Heights (9/15)

                                Skirmish at Harlem Heights (9/16)

                                Battle of Valcour Island - Carelton defeats Arnold (10)

                                Benedict Arnold defeated in two naval engagements on Lake Champlain (10/11-13)

                                Battle of Pell's Point (Pelham, Bronx) - British win (10/18)

                                Battle of White Plains - Wahington vs. Howe - Washington retreats to a line of heights (10/28)

                                British capture Fort Washington (11/16)

                                British capture Fort Lee (11/20)

                                Washington begins retreat across New Jersey into Pennsylvania (11/28)

                                Battle of Trenton - Washington crosses the Delaware (12/26)

                                Marie Antoinette contributes to the downfall of A.R.J. Turgot

                                Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata formed by Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay

                                Hydrogen discovered

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Chamaraja Wodeyar VII -   (Mysore)                                               Bettada

                                Chamaraja Wodeyar VIII +(Mysore)                                                Khasa

                                Alceste                                                                  Gluck

                                Haffner Serenade                                                 Mozart

                                General History of Music                                   Hawkins

                                General History of Music                                   Burney

                                Avogadro, Amadeo                                                             1776-1856

                                Constable, John                                                                   1776-1837

                                Germaine, Sophie                                                                  1776-1831

                                Herbart, Johann Friedrich                                                   1776-1841

                                Hoffman, Ernst Theodor Amadeus                                   1776-1822               Composer

                                Ritter, Johann Wilhelm                                                        1776-1810

                                Scheibe, Johann Adolph                                                    1708-1776               Composer

1777                        The School for Scandal (Sheridan)

                                De l'ordre social (Le Trosne)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                AMERICAN REVOLUTION ...   (1775-1783)

                                Republic of Vermont declares independence (1)

                                Second Battle of Trenton (1/2)

                                Battle of Princeton - Americans under Wahington defeat British (1/3)

                                Detroit Agreement w/ Chip. Ott., Wyan., Ming. - nullifies Treaty of Pittsburgh (6)

                                Burgoyne begins his march from Canada (6)

                                Continental Congress adopts the stars and stripes design for the US Flag (6/14)

                                Burgoyne reaches vicinity of Fort Ticonderoga (7)

                                Fort Ticonderoga falls to Burgoyne (7/6)

                                Howe sails from New York with the bulk of his forces to attack Philadelphia

                                Battle of Oriskany - British ambush the Americans - British claim victory in one of the bloodiest battles (8/6)

                                Battle of Oriskany - Oneidas and Tuscaroras (two out of three factions) fight against other Iroquois (8/6)

                                Battle of Bennington - Stark defeats Colonel Baum who was sent by Burgoyne to seize stores (8/16)

                                Howe reaches Chesapeake Bay on his way to attack Philadelphia (8/25)

                                Battle of Brandywine - British defeat Americans under Greene (9/11)

                                First Battle of Bemis Heights - Burgoyne holds the field - sustains heavy losses (9/19)

                                Howe occupies Philadelphia (9/27)

                                Battle of Germantown - Washington is defeated (10/4)

                                Second Battle of Bemis Heights - Americans defeat and surround Burgoyne (10/7)

                                Battle of Saratoga - British General John Burgoyne surrenders to American General Horatio Gates (10/17)

                                Articles of Confederation - Perpetual Union - United States of America (11/15)

                                British capture Fort Mifflin (11/16)

                                British capture Fort Mercer - British control of Delaware now complete (11/20)

                                Ben Franklin receives news in Paris about Battle of Saratoga (12/4)

                                Christianity introduced into Korea

                                Battle of Spanktown

                                France recognizes 13 colonies’ independence

                                Vermont ends slavery

                                Washinton County organized (North Carolina)

                                Joseph Emanuel -                 (Portugal)                                              House of Braganza

                                Maria I +                                (Portugal)                                              House of Braganza

                                Pedro III +                             (Portugal)                                              House of Braganza (joint ruler)

                                Frederick II the Great ...       (Brandenburg) (Prussia)                     (1740-1786)            Elector/King (Hohenzollern)

                                Gregory Ghica -                    (Moldavia)                                            Prince 

                                Armide                                                                   Gluck

                                Clay, Henry                                                                           1777-1852

                                Fuss, Johann Evangelist                                                     1777-1819               Composer

                                Gauss, Karl Friedrich                                                           1777-1855

                                Lithander, Fredrik Emanuel                                                 1777-1823               Composer

                                Oersted, Hans Christian                                                      1777-1851

                                Poinsot, Luis        &