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1800                        Madame Recamier (Jacques-Louis David)

                                The Triumph of Bonaparte (Pierre-Paul Prud'hon)

                                The White House, Chelsea (Thomas Girtin)

                                Vajravahari (Nepal)

                                Die Jungfrau von Orleans (Schiller)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                Convention of El Arish - Napoleon agrees to evacuate French forces (1/24)

                                Austrians advance to Nice, having defeated Massena at Voltri (4)

                                Moreau crosses the Rhine

                                Obstinate defense of Genoa by Massena and Soult

                                Napoleon crosses St. Bernard Pass with 40,000 troops to attack Autrian flank (5)

                                Kleber is assassinated - Menou succeeds him (6)

                                French take Milan and restore the Cisalpine Republic (6/2)

                                Genoa capitulates after a horrible famine (6/4)

                                Battle of Marengo - Napoleon wins by a narrow margin - truce between Napoleon and Melas (6/14)

                                US government moves from Philadelphia to Washington D.C. (6/15)

                                Moreau takes Munich

                                End of US naval war (9/30)

                                Congress meets in D.C. for first time (11/17)

                                Denmark joins Russia, Sweden and Prussia in declaring armed neutrality in the French Revolutionary Wars (12)

                                Battle of Hohenlinden - France defeats Austria - Moreau defeats Archduke John (12/3)


                                Second series of Combination Laws in Britain

                                Robert Owens social reforms in England

                                Northern Convention

                                Russia annexes Georgia

                                Bank of France established

                                Revolution of 1800 in US - Republicans triumph

                                Treaty of San Ildefonso

                                Italian physicist Alessandro Volta produces first electric battery - voltain pile

                                Ultraviolet rays discovered

                                William Herschel discovers infrared rays

                                Pius VII +

                                The Seasons                                                          Haydn

                                Les Deux Jounees                                                Cherubini

                                Alcott, Abigail May                                                            1800-1877

                                Beerhalter, Alois                                                                  1800-1852               Composer

                                Fillmore, Millard                                                                   1800-1874

                                Gale, Leonard Dunnell                                                         1800-1883

                                Macaulay, Thomas Babington                                          1800-1859

                                Talbot, William Henry Fox                                                  1800-1877

                                White, B. F.                                                                           1800-1879               Composer

                                Zani de Ferranti, Marco Aurelio                                        1800-1878               Composer

                                Billings, William                                                                   1746-1800               Composer

                                Fischer, Johann Christian                                                   1733-1800               Composer

                                Forbonnais, Francois Veron Duverger de                        1722-1800              

                                Jadin, Hyacinthe                                                                  1769-1800               Composer

                                Schulz, Johann Abraham Peter                                          1747-1800               Composer

                                Wanski, Jan                                                                          1762-1800               Composer

1801                        Systeme des animaux sans vertebres

                                Manual of Parliamentary Practice (Thomas Jefferson)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                Army of Italy under Brune crosses th Adige and begins the invasion of Austria from the south (1)

                                Treaty of Luneville - betweeen France and Austria - leads to breakup of Holy Roman Empire (2/9)

                                Treaty of Luneville - France gains left bank of the Rhine and keeps most of Italy (2/9)

                                Treaty of Luneville - recognition of Batavian, Helvetian, Cisalpine, and Ligurian Republics (2/9)

                                Treaty of Florence - between France and Naples - harbors closed to British and Turks (3/18)

                                Treaty of Florence - cession of Neapolitan possessions in central Italy and Elba (3/18)

                                Thomas Jefferson inaugurated (3/4)

                                Battle of Alexandria - British defeat Menou (3/21)

                                Battle of Copenhagen - Sir Hyde Parker and Horatio Nelson defeat Danish Fleet in the Baltic (4/2)

                                Tripoli declares war against U.S. (6/10)


                                Act of Union - formally united Great Britain and Ireland as United Kingdom - Catholics excluded from voting

                                France annexes Aachen

                                Concordat between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII

                                Russia annexes Georgia

                                Islamic kingdom of Sokoto founded in West Africa

                                Anglo-Persian Peace Treaty

                                Paul I -                   (Russia)                                                 (1796-1801)         Emperor (murdered)

                                Alexander I Pavlovich +      (Russia)                                                 (1801-)   Emperor (Tsar)

                                John Adams -                       (United States)                                     (1797-1801)         President

                                Thomas Jefferson +            (United States)                                     (1801-1809)         President

                                The Seasons                                                          Haydn

                                Collection complette des quatuors d’Haydn, dédiée au Premier Consul Bonaparte (Pleyel)

                                Bellini, Vincenzo                                                                   1801-1835               Composer (Italy)

                                Fechner, Gustav Theodor                                                   1801-1887

                                Fratin, Christophe                                                                1801-1864

                                Giroux, Andre                                                                       1801-1879

                                Garnier, Adolphe                                                                  1801-1864

                                Kalliwoda, Johann Wenzel                                 1801-1866               Composer

                                Lanner, Joseph Franz Karl                                                  1801-1843               Composer

                                Littre, Maximilien Paul Emile                                               1801-1881              

                                Altenburg, Johann Ernst                                                    1734-1801               Composer

                                Cimarosa, Domenico                                                            1749-1801               Composer

                                Naumann, Johann Gottlieb                                                 1741-1801               Composer

                                Stamitz, Carl Philipp                                                             1745-1801               Composer

1802                        Fath ali Shah (Mirza Baba) (from the Khaqan: Diwan)

                                Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth (John Playfair)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                 Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                Treaty of Amiens - between France and Great Britain - complete pacification of Europe (3/27)

                                Order of the Legion of Honor created (5/19)

                                Napoleon elected First Consul  for life (8/2)


                                Organic Articles - restate the traditional liberties of the Gallican Church

                                Portuguese explorers begin crossing Africa from Angola to Mozambique

                                Matthew Flinders circumnavigates Australia (-1803)

                                Eleuthère Irénée starts gunpowder factory near Wilmington, DE - start of Du Pont factory

                                Talleyrands excommunication is lifted by the pope

                                Constantine Ypsilanti +     (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Nizam Ali -                           (Hyderabad)                                          Nizam

                                Akbar Ali Khan +                (Hyderabad)                                          Nizam

                                Tantalum 73 is discovered by Anders Ekeberg in Sweden

                                Symphony No. 2                                                   Beethoven

                                Abel, Niels Henrik                                                                1802-1829

                                Beriot, Charles                                                                      1802-1870               Composer

                                Dix, Dorothea Lynde                                                           1802-1887

                                Dumas, Alexandre                                                                1802-1870

                                Hugo, Victor                                                                         1802-1885

                                Lacordaire, Henri                                                                  1802-1861

                                Molque, Wilhelm Bernard                                                  1802-1869               Composer

                                Praed, Winthrop Mackworth                                             1802-1839

                                Ripley, George                                                                      1802-1880

                                Trendelenburg, Friedrich Adolf                                         1802-1872

                                Wheatstone, Charles                                                           1802-1875

                                Girtin, Thomas                                                                      1775-1802

                                Romney, George                                                                   1734-1802               Painter (England)

1803                        An Avalanche in the Alps (Philip de Loutherbourg)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                 Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                Enactment of the delegates of the Empire (2)

                                Marbury v. Madison (2/24)

                                Ohio becomes the seventeenth state of the Union (3/1)

                                Louisiana Purchase  (4/30)

                                War breaks out between Great Britain and France (5/16)

                                Battle of Vertières - last major battle of the Second War of Haitian independence - Haitians defeat French (11/18)

                                Louisiana Purchase - France sells Louisiana to the United States for $15 million (12/20)


                                Bank of France founded

                                Wahhabis capture Mecca

                                Settlers begin to arrive in Tasmania

                                String Quartets, Op. 103                                    Haydn

                                Symphony No. 3                                                   Beethoven  (-1804)

                                Kreutzer Sonata                                                  Beethoven

                                Abbott, Jacob                                                                       1803-1879

                                Berlioz, Louis Hector                                                           1803-1869               Composer

                                Brownson, Orestes                                                              1803-1876               Author/Clergyman (Stockbridge, VT)

                                Bulwer-Lytton, Edward                                                       1803-1873               Novelist (

                                Doppler, Christian                                                                1803-1853

                                Dove, Heinrich Wilhelm                                                      1803-1879

                                Emerson, Ralph Waldo                                                       1803-1882

                                Fleming, Marjorie                                                 1803-1811               Diarist/Poet

                                Grandville, Jean Ignace Isidore Gerard                             1803-1847

                                Herz, Henri                                                                            1803-1888               Composer

                                Jerrold, Douglas William                                                     1803-1857

                                Lachner, Franz                                                                      1803-1890               Composer

                                Merimee, Prosper                                                                 1803-1870

                                Sturm, J. C. F.                                                                        1803-1855

                                Adams, Samuel                                                                     1722-1803

                                Beattie, James                                                                       1735-1803

                                Devienne, Francois                                                              1759-1803               Composer

                                Herder, Johann Gottfried von                                            1744-1803

                                Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb                                             1724-1803               Poet (Germany)

                                Sussmayr, Franz Xaver                                                       1766-1803               Composer

1804                        Mme. Riviere (Ingres)

                                Pauline Bonaparte Borghese as Venus Victrix (Canova)

                                William Tell (Schiller)

                                Die Flegeljahre (Richter)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FULANI HOLY WAR +   (1804-1810)                                               Fulani invade Hausa to the north

                                Haiti achieves (proclaims) independence from France - first black nation to gain freedom from European colonial rule (1/1)

                                Seca knezova - beheading of the knezes in Serbia by the Janissaries - incites rebellion (2/4)

                                First Serbian Uprising begins - nationalists under Karadorde Petrovic revolt against Ottoman Turks (2/14)

                                Karadorde Petrovic is elected as the leader of the Serbian uprising (2/14)

                                New Jersey ends slavery - last northern state to do so (2/15)

                                Napoleonic Code promulgated (entered into force) -"Code civil des Francais" (3/21)

                                Lewis and Clark Expedition starts out west from  St. Louis (5/14)

                                Napoleon proclaimed emperor by the Senate and the Tribunate (5/18)

                                Alexander Hamilton shot and killed by Aaron Burr (7/11)

                                Vincennes Treaty - WH Harrison/Delawares cede territory (8/18)

                                Napoleon takes crown from Pope Pius VII and places own it on his own head (12/2)


                                First Empire in France (-1814)

                                Third Coalition formed by Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Sweden against France

                                Fulani conquest of northern Nigeria's walled Hausa city states into Sokoto and Gwandu caliphates (-1810)

                                Persia and Russia at war over annexation of Georgia (-1812)

                                Alta and Baja California form from division of Franciscan (north)  and Dominican (south)  missions

                                English inventor Rishard Trevithick builds first successful steam locomotive

                                Karadjordje +                       (Serbia)                                                 National Leader

                                Beethoven sketches out his triple concerto in C major, op. 56

                                Piano Sonata, Op. 53 (Waldstein)                   Beethoven

                                Bridger, James “Jim”                                                            1804-1881               Mountain Man, Trapper Richmond, VA

                                Fauerbach, Ludwig                                                              1804-1872

                                Glinka, Michael                                                                     1804-1857

                                Hawthorne, Nathaniel                                                         1804-1864

                                Jacobi, Karl Gustav Jakob                                                  1804-1851

                                Luneberg, Johan Ludvig                                                     1804-1877

                                Mechura, Leopold Eugen                                                   1804-1870               Composer

                                Panizza, Giacomo                                                  1804-1860               Composer

                                Peabody, Elizabeth Palmer                                  1804-1894

                                Sainte-Beuve, Charles Augustin                                       1804-1869

                                Sand, George                                                                        1804-1876

                                Strauss, Johann I                                                                 1804-1849               Composer

                                Weber, Wilhelm Eduard                                                      1804-1891

                                Hamilton, Alexander                                                            1757-1804

                                Kant, Immanuel                                                                    1724-1804                               Philosopher

                                Priestly, Joseph                                                                    1733-1804

                                Rollig, Karl Leopold                                                             1735-1804               Composer

                                Tiepolo, Giovanni, Domenico                                            1727-1804

1805                        Greta Bridge (Cotman)

                                Des Knaben Wunderhorn (Arnim / Brentano)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                 Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FULANI HOLY WAR ...   (1804-1810)                                                Fulani invade Hausa to the north

                                Jefferson’s second inauguration (3/4)

                                Tripoli War Peace Treaty - US ships no longer had to pay tribute (6/4)

                                Lewis & Clark Expedition sets off through the Bitterroot Mountains from Montana to Idaho (9/11)

                                William Clark and six hunters set out in advance of the main party in the Bitterroots looking for food (9/18)

                                Clark advance party reaches Nez Perce territory - spend night at native village (9/20)

                                Zebulon Pikes Minnesota River Treaty (9/23)

                                Lewis & Clark Expedition reaches the Columbia River (10/16)

                                Battle of Ulm - 30, 000 French defeat Austrians under Ulm (10/17)

                                Battle of Trafalgar - British navy under Horatio Nelson defeats Franco-Spanish fleet (10/21)

                                Lewis and Clark expedition reaches the Pacific (11/15)

                                Battle of Austerlitz - France defeats Austro-Russian forces (12/2)

                                Treaty between Prussia and France - Prussians cede Cleve, Ansbach, and Neuchatel for Hanover  (12/15)

                                Treaty of Pressburg - between France and Austria (12/26)

                                Proclamation of Schonbrunn - La dynastie de Naples a cesse de regner - Bourbons are dethroned (12)


                                Napoleon I makes Milan the capital of the Kingdom of Italy with himself as King(-1814)

                                Third Coalition against France

                                Selim III, sultan of Turkey, appoints Mohammed Ali governor (pasha) of Egypt who founds a dynasty

                                Egyptian independence

                                Mungo Park explores Niger River

                                Christian literature foridden in China

                                Alois Joseph I -                    (Liechtenstein)                                    Prince

                                John Joseph I +                    (Liechtenstein)                                    Prince

                                Muhammed Ali + (Egypt)                                                   (-1849)   Turkish Pasha

                                Lord Wellesley -                  (India)                                                    (1798-)   Governor General

                                Fidelio                                                                   Beethoven

                                Piano Sonata, Op. 54                                         Beethoven

                                Triple Concerto in C major, Op. 56                 Beethoven

                                Anderson, Hans Christian                                                  1805-1875

                                Blanqui, Louis-Auguste                                                     1805-1881

                                Dirichlet, Gustav Lejeune                                                   1805-1859

                                Hartmann, Johann Peter Emilius                                        1805-1900               Composer

                                Hensel, Fanny Cacilia Mendelssohn                                1805-1847               Composer

                                Martineau, James                                                                 1805-1900

                                Mendelssohn-Bartoldy, Felix                                             1805-1847               Composer

                                Palmer, Samuel                                                                      1805-1881

                                Tocqueville, Alexis de                                                         1805-1859

                                Weld, Angelina Grimke                                                       1805-1879

                                Winterhalter, Franz                                                              1805-1873               Painter (Germany) 

                                Boccherini, Luigi                                                                  1743-1805               Composer

                                Paley, William                                                                       1743-1805

                                Pichl, Vaclav                                                                         1741-1805               Composer

                                Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich von                         1759-1805               Dramatist (Marbach, Wurttemberg)

1806                        Goethe marries Christine Vilpins after 18 years of living together and five children (in Jena?)  (10/19)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                 Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FULANI HOLY WAR ...   (1804-1810)                                                Fulani invade Hausa to the north

                                Arkansas River Expedition begins -  Pike leaves St Louis (7/6)

                                Confederation of the Rhine organizes; all except Austria, Prussia, Brunswick, and Elector of Hesse (7/12)

                                Deposition of the Russophil governors (hospodars) of Moldavia and Wallachia (8)            

                                Holy Roman Empire dissolves - Francis II lays down his crown  (8/6)

                                Lewis & Clark expedition ends (9/23)

                                Battle of Jena - main Prussian armies routed (10/14)

                                Battle of Auerstadt - France defeats Prussia (10/14)

                                Battle of Halle - France defeats Prussian reserve force under Prince of Wurtemberg (10/17)

                                Napoleon occupies Berlin (10/27)

                                Battle of Prenzlau - Prussian force of 12,000 under Prince of Hohenlohe surrender to French (10/28)

                                Battle of Ratkau - Blucher, after defense of Lubeck surrenders to French (11/7)

                                Berlin Decree - issued by Napoleon to attempt economic blockade of Britain (the Continental System) (11/21)

                                Separate Peace between France and Saxony - Elector becomes King and joins Rhine Confederation (12/11)


                                France at war with Prussia and Russia (-1807)

                                Russia occupies Walachia and Moldavia (-1812)

                                Death of William Pitt

                                War between Russia and Turkey

                                Ottoman Empire at war with Russia and Great Britain (-1812)

                                Nonimportation Act (US)

                                Francis II -                            (Holy Roman Empire)                         abdicated  (becomes Francis I of Austria)

                                Francis I +                            (Austria)                                               Emperor (aka HRE Francis I)I

                                Louis Bonaparte +               (Netherlands)                                       King of Holland (Brother of Napoleon)

                                Alexander Moruzi -             (Moldavia)                                             Prince 

                                Constantine Ypsilanti -      (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Faniska                                                                 Cherubini

                                Symphony No. 4 in B-flat Major, Op. 60         Beethoven

                                Violin Concerto, Op. 57                                     Beethoven

                                Arriaga, Juan Crisostomo                                                   1806-1826               Composer

                                Browning, Elizabeth Barrett                                                1806-1861

                                Coste, Napoleon                                                                  1806-1883               Composer

                                Lever, Charles                                                                       1806-1872

                                Mertz, Johann Kaspar                                                         1806-1856               Composer

                                Mill, John Stuart                                                                   1806-1873

                                Backus, Isaac                                                                        1723-1806

                                Coulomb, Charles Augustin de                                         1736-1806

                                Fragonard, Jean-Honore                                                     1732-1806               Painter (France)

                                Haydn, Johann Michael                                                      1737-1806               Composer

                                Pinto, George Frederick                                                       1786-1806               Composer

                                Utamaro, Kitagama                                                              1754-1806               Painter (Japan)

1807                        Phenomenology of the Spirit (Mind) (Hegel)

                                Intimations of Immortality (William Wordsworth)

                                Addresses to the German Nation (J. G. Fichte) (-1808)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                 Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FULANI HOLY WAR ...   (1804-1810)                                                Fulani invade Hausa to the north

                                Battle of Eylau - combined Russian and Prussian force fight French with indecisive outcome (2/7-8)

                                British squadron under Duckworth reaches Constantinople after forced passage of the Dardanelles (2/17)

                                Admiral Duckworth loses two ships and is forced to retire (3/3)

                                British occupy Alexandria  (3/18)

                                Slave Trade Act 1807 - signed- slave trade abolished throughout British Empire - slavery persists (3/25)

                                French capture Danzig (5/26)

                                Battle of Friedland - Russia defeated (6/14)

                                Chesapeake-Leopard Affair - British fourth rate warship Lepard attacks and boards US frigate Chesapeake off VA (6/21)

                                Treaties of Tilsit - between France and Russia / France and Prussia (7/7-9)

                                Treaty of Konigsberg - between France and Prussia - Prussia first to pay all arrears if war indemnities (7/12)

                                Kingdom of Westphalia founded (capital, Cassel) by decree of Napoleon - he takes half (8)

                                Robert Fulton makes first steamboat trip NY-Albany in the Clermont (8/17)

                                High-handed proceedings of the British against Denmark who was called to join the Continental System (9)

                                British evacuate Alexandria after opposition from Turkish forces (9/25)

                                France invades Portugal and captures Lisbon - Portugal had refused to join the Continental System (11)

                                Joseph Brant, Mohawk chief,  dies (11/24)

                                Milan Decree - reitierates on paper the blockade against British trade (12/17)

                                Embargo Act - US (12/18)(12/22)


                                Grand Duchy of Warsaw created by Napoleon (-1814)

                                French capture most of the Hanseatic towns

                                French take Breslau

                                French take most fortresses in Silesia

                                Napoleon forces Ferdinand VII of Spain to abdicate and installs his brother Joseph as king of Spain

                                Revolt of the Janissaries - murder of Selim III

                                Slave trade abolished in British Empire

                                U.S. stops trade with Europe

                                Stonington, CT incorporated

                                Talleyrand resigns

                                Revolutions in Constantinople

                                Fulton builds the first commercial steamboat

                                Gas street lights in London

                                Frederick Augustus I +     (Grand Duchy of Warsaw)                 of Saxony

                                Selim III -                              (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan  (murdered)

                                Mustafa IV +                         (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Beethoven’s 4th  Symphony gets first permormance in Vienna (winter)

                                Coriolanus Overture                                          Beethoven

                                Abdelkader                                                                           1807-1883

                                Dufferin, Lady                                                                      1807-1867

                                Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth                                         1807-1882

                                Servais, Adrien Francois                                                    1807-1866               Composer

                                Brant, Joseph                                                                        1742-1807               Mohawk Chief

1808                        The Entombment of Atala (Anne Louis Girodet de Roucy-Trioson)

                                Le Baigneuse de Valpincon (Jean Auguste Ingres)

                                Allegory of Friendship (Frans Pforr)

                                William Pitt (Joseph Nollekens)

                                Comedy (William Rush)

                                Faust, Pt. I (Goethe)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FULANI HOLY WAR ...   (1804-1810)                                              Fulani invade Hausa to the north

                                France invades and occupies Spain with 100,000 troops under pretext of the Continental System (3)

                                Charles IV and his son Ferdinand, with Godoy renounce the Spanish throne at Bayonne (5)

                                Popular insurrection in Spain (5)

                                French recover Madrid (7/20)

                                French force advancing on Cadiz is defeated by insurgents and forced to capitulate at Baylen (7/20)

                                Battle of Vimeiro - British under Wellesley defeat French under Junot (8/21)

                                Convention of Cintra - French under Junot agree to evacuate Portugal (8/30)

                                Congress of Erfurt - between Napoleon and Alexander I - Talleyrand's secret deal with Russia (9)

                                Napoleon proceeds to Spain with 150,000 and advances upon Madrid (which the French had abandoned)

                                Battle of Burgos - French marshals defeat Spanish (11/10)

                                Battle of Espinosa - French marshals defeat Spanish  (11/11)

                                Capitulation of Madrid (12/13)


                                Peninsular War begins - France opposed by British forces and Spanish and Portuguese guerillas (-1814)

                                Russia and Sweden at war (-1809)

                                Muhammed Ali tries to create Independent kingdom in Egypt but fails

                                African slave trade ends

                                Portuguese Court flees to Brazil

                                Cherokee legal code documented by Chief Charles Hicks

                                Christian VII -                     (Denmark)

                                Frederik VI +                       (Denmark)

                                Christian VII -                     (Norway)

                                Frederik VI +                       (Norway)

                                Charles IV -                          (Spain)                                                   (1788-)   House of Bourbon

                                Ferdinand VII +-  (Spain)                                                   *****    House of Bourbon

                                Joseph Bonaparte +            (Spain)                                                  

                                Mustafa IV -                          (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Mahmud I +                           (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67                Beethoven

                                Fur Elise                                                               Beethoven

                                Bluntschli, Johann Kaspar                                                 1808-1881

                                Bonaparte, Louis Napoleon III                                          1808-1873               President (France)

                                Considerant, Victor Prosper                                               1808-1893

                                Daumier, Honore Victorin                                                   1808-1879               Painter

                                Gallagher, William Davis                                                     1808-1894

                                Nerval, Gerard de                                                                 1808-1855

                                Parish-Alvers, Elias                                                             1808-1849               Composer

                                Russell, John Scott                                                              1808-1882

                                Strauss, Freidrich David                                                     1808-1874               Theologian/Philosopher (Germany)

                                Cabanis, Pierre Jean Georges                                             1757-1808

                                Cirri, Giovanni, Battista                                                       1724-1808               Composer

                                Dickinson, John                                                                   1732-1808

                                Vranicky, Pavel                                                                     1756-1808               Composer

1809                        SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                 Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FULANI HOLY WAR ...   (1804-1810)                                                Fulani invade Hausa to the north

                                French War against Austria

                                Revolution in Sweden

                                Treaty of the  Dandanelles - between England and Ottoman Empire - England withdraws from the war (1/5)

                                Battle of Corunna - British defeated by Marshal Soult -John Moore, British Commander-in-Chief killed (1/16)

                                Battle of Saragossa - Spanish guerillas obliged to capitulate (2/21)

                                James Madison inaugurated (3/4)

                                King Gustavus IV is arrested by Gens. Klingspor and Adlerkreuz (3/13)

                                Gustavus IV of Sweden abdicates under force (3/29)

                                Major Schill's war of liberation in Prussia (4)

                                Archduke Charles begins the invasion of Bavaria with an army of 170,000 (4)

                                Battle of Abensberg - French versus Austria (4/19-23)

                                Battle of Landshut - French versus Austria (4/19-23)

                                Battle of Eckmuhl - French versus Austria (4/19-23)

                                Battle of Regensberg - French versus Austria - Napoleon drives the Archduke across the Danube(4/19-23)

                                French take Vienna (5/13)

                                Battle of Aspern - Archduke Charles victory (5/21)

                                Battle of Essling - Napoleon defeated and forced to recross the Danube unites with Italian viceroy Eugene (5/22)

                                Battle of Stralsund - Major Schill falls (5/31)

                                Battle of Wagram - combined forces of Napoleon and Eugene defeat Austrians under Archduke Charles (7/5-6)

                                Battle of Talavera - indecisive yet protected Portugal from further invasion (7/28)

                                Duke of Brunswick with Bohemian and Silesian volunteers makes his way across Germany to Brunswick (7/31)

                                Daivd Thompson builds the Kullyspell House on Lake Pend'Oreille (9)

                                Treaty of Friedrichsham - between Sweden and Russia (9/17)

                                Treaty of Fort Wayne - Little Turtle sells 10,000 sq.km to the US (9/30)

                                Treaty of Schonbrunn - Austria loses 32,000 square miles and 3,500,000 inhabitants (10/14)

                                Treaty of Schonbrunn - Grand Duchy of Warsaw gains West Galicia (10/14)

                                Treaty of Schonbrunn  - Illyrian provinces are formed (10/14)

                                Hofer is captured and shot by the French at Mantua (11)

                                Battle of Ocana - French defeat Spaniards and then overrun all Andalusia (except Cadiz) (11/12)


                                French take Oporto

                                France controls Croatia (-1813)

                                Afghansitan's first agreement with Great Britain

                                Nonintercourse Act -US

                                Battle of Silistria - Russians win

                                Gustavus IV Adolphus -      (Sweden)                                                (1792-1809)         House of Holstein-Gottorp

                                Charles XIII +                      (Sweden)                                                (1809-1818)         House of Holstein-Gottorp 

                                Thomas Jefferson -             (United States)                                     (1801-1809)         President

                                James Madison + (United States)                                     (1809-1817)         President

                                Mass in F                                                              Cherubini

                                Bauer, Bruno                                                                         1809-1882

                                Cortes, Donoso                                                                    1809-1853

                                Darwin, Charles                                                                    1809-1882

                                Gogol, Nikolai                                                                       1809-1852

                                Haussmann, Georges Eugene                                            1809-1891

                                Holmes, Oliver Wendell                                                      1809-1894

                                Mendelssohn-Bartoldy, Felix                                             1809-1847               Composer

                                Pierce, Benjamin                                                                   1809-1880

                                Poe, Edgar Allen                                                                  1809-1849

                                Tennyson, Alfred Lord                                                       1809-1892               Poet

                                Albrechtsberger, Johann Georg                                        1736-1809               Composer

                                Auenbrugger, Leopold                                                       1722-1809

                                Eberhard, J.A.                                                                       1739-1809

                                Haydn, Joseph                                                                     1732-1809                               Composer

                                Paine, Thomas                                                                      1737-1809

1810                        Interior of a Ruined Church (orig. John Sell Cotman) (study Louis Francia)

                                Meeting of the Eyes (Guler School - Panjab)

                                Lady on a Swing (Kangra School)

                                The Lady of the Lake (Sir Walter Scott)

                                De la defense des places fortes (Lazar Nicolas Marguerite Carnot)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                FULANI HOLY WAR -   (1804-1810)                                                                Fulani invade Hausa to the north

                                David Thompson of the NW Company writes, "Traded a very trifle of provisions from the Nez Perce." (3/11)

                                Napoleon marries Marie Louise of Austria (4)

                                Louis Bonaparte king of Holland, abdicates and flees (7/1)

                                The Netherlands (Holland) annexed to France (7/9)                      (-1813)

                                Tonquin leaves New York City on voyage to establish Fort Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River (9/6)  Thursday

                                Hidalgo, parish priest of Dolores, Mexico, rings the church bell - Mexican War of Independence begins (9/15)


                                Sweden delares war on France

                                British troops in Portugal hold lines of Torres Vedras against the French (-1811)

                                Autonomous governments set up in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, and Venezuela

                                Argentina gains independence

                                U.S. stops trade with British

                                Hamilton, OH incorporated

                                Russia occupies Bessarabia, Moldavia, and Wallachia

                                University of Berlin founded

                                Louis Bonaparte -                (Netherlands)                                       King (Brother of Napoleon)

                                Repository of Sacred Music                              Wyeth

                                Balmes                                                                                   1810-1848

                                Chopin, Frederick                                                 1810-1849               Composer

                                Clarke, James Freeman                                                        1810-1888

                                Colet, Louise                                                                         1810-1876

                                Erkel, Ferenc                                                                         1810-1893               Composer

                                Fuller, Sarah Margaret Ossoli                                            1810-1850

                                Kummer, Ernst Eduard                                                        1810-1893

                                Liberatore                                                                              1810-1892

                                Musset, Louis Charles Alfred de                                      1810-1857

                                Nicolai, Carl Otto Ehrenfried                                              1810-1849               Composer (Austria)

                                Parker, Theodore                                                                  1810-1860

                                Schumann, Robert Alexander                                            1810-1856               Composer

                                Schuncke, Ludwig                                                               1810-1834               Composer

                                Schwann, Theodore                                                            1810-1882

                                Wesley, Samuel Sebastian                                                 1810-1876               Composer

                                Cavendish, Henry                                                                1731-1810

                                Garth, John                                                                            1722-1810               Composer

                                Hoppner, John                                                                      1758-1810

                                Ritter, Johann Wilhelm                                                        1776-1810

1811                        The Cross and the Cathedral in the Mountains (Caspar Freidrich)

                                Gordale Scar, Yorkshire (James Ward) (-1815)

                                Dichtung und Wahrheit (Goethe)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                George III of England declared insane - Prince of Wales rules as regent (2/5)

                                Citadel Massacre - Mamelukes massacred in Cairo by Mohammed Ali who consolidates his rule (3/1)

                                Pacific Fur Company's Overland Party starts up the Missouri River on route to Fort Astoria (3/12)

                                Napoleon's son is born to Archduchess Marie Louise - The King of Rome (3/20)

                                Tonquin crosses the bar of the Columbia River (3/25)

                                Paraguay declares independence from Spain(5/14)

                                Battle of Albuera - Badajoz, Spain Preninsular War- Allied (British, Spanish, Portuguese) victory (5/16)

                                Overland Party confronted by around 600 Sioux warriors concernes they will trade arms with Aricaras, Mandans and Minnetarees to the north (5/31)

                                Tonquin crew massacred after Captain Jonathan Thorn insulted a Tla-o-qui-aht  chief at Woody Point, Clayoquot Sound, Vancouver Island - ship destroyed (6/15)

                                Venezuela declares independence from Spain (7/5)

                                David Thompson arrives at Fort Astoria from upriver on the Columbia - claims Astor gave NWC 1/3 share of trade (7/15)

                                Luddite riots against mechanization in textile industry  in Great Britain (11) (-1813)

                                William Henry Harrison arrives in Prophetstown (11/6)

                                Tippecanoe Battle (11/7)

                                Cumberland Road (Md) begins construction in Cumberland, MD (11/20)


                                French driven out of Portugal

                                Wahhabis rule all Arabia except Yemen, with capital at Ryad

                                Portuguese explorers finally reach Tete, on the Zambezi in Mozambique

                                Stamford Raffles administers Batavia and Java (-1816)

                                Pittburgh's first rolling mill opens

                                First Bank of the United States charter revoked (expires)

                                Russians cross the Danube and advance through Bulgaria

                                Selkirk Concession - forms Red River Colony in Manitoba

                                THE GREAT COMET OF 1811 discovered (3/25)

                                Lieder (first)                                                          Schubert

                                Belinski, Vissarion Grigoryevich                                       1811-1848               Writer/Critic (Russia)         

                                Bingham, George                                                                  1811-1879               Genre Painter/Critic (VA ---> Missouri)

                                Blanc, Louis                                                                          1811-1882               Socialist Politician (Spain)

                                Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm                                                     1811-1899               Scientist (Gottingen)

                                Galois, Evariste                                                                     1811-1832               Mathemetician

                                Gautier, Theophile                                                               1811-1872               Poet/Novelist/Critic (France)

                                Grove, William                                                                      1811-1896              

                                Hiller, Ferdinand                                                                   1811-1885               Composer

                                Kelly, William                                                                       1811-1888

                                Lachner, Vincenz                                                                  1811-1893               Composer

                                Lizt, Franz                                                                              1811-1886               Composer

                                McCosh, James                                                                    1811-1894               Philosopher/Educator (Ayrshire, Scot.)

                                Porter, Noah                                                                          1811-1892               Educator/Philosopher (Farmington, CT)

                                Sanseverino                                                                          1811-1865

                                Stowe, Harriet Beecher                                                        1811-1896               Novelist/Humanitarian (Litchfield, CT)

                                Thackeray, William Makepeace                                         1811-1863               Novelist/Satirist (Calcutta

                                Thomas, Ambroise                                                              1811-1896               Composer

                                Fleming, Marjorie                                                                  1803-1811               Diarist/Poet (Kirkaldy, Scotland)

                                Percy, Thomas                                                                      1729-1811               Antiquary/Churchman (Shropshire, Eng.

1812                        Mounted officer of the imperial guard (Gericault)

                                Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (Lord Byron)

                                Kinderund Hausmarchen (Grimm Brothers)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                Pacific Fur Company's Overland party (first group) arrives at Fort Astoria - led by Donald Mackenzie (1/18)

                                France reoccupies Swedish Pomerania and Rugen (1)e

                                PFC Overland Party (second group) with Wilson Price Hunt and thirty plus men arrives at Fort Astoria (2/15)

                                Treaty of St. Petersburg - between Sweden and Russia - Sweden is promised Norway (4)

                                Treaty of Bucharest - Russia cedes Bessarabia to the Turks - ends Russo-Turkish War  (5/28)

                                Treaty of Orebro - between Great Britain, Sweden, and Russia (6)

                                Napoleon invades Russia with Grande Armee (6)

                                France passes the Niemen River and occupies Vilna (6)

                                Prussia besieges Riga (6)

                                Austria penetrates into Volhynia (6)

                                War of 1812 starts - Great Britain and United States at war over shipping and territory disputes (-1814) (6/18)

                                USS Essex captures Alert (8/13)

                                British capture Detroit (8/16)

                                Battle of Smolensk - France destroys Smolensk (8/17-18)

                                USS Constitution destroys Guerriere (8/19)

                                Battle of Borodino - on the Moskova River - Russians retreat further and abandon Moscow - (9/7)

                                Napoleon enters Moscow - establishes himself in the Kremlin (9/14)

                                Burning of Moscow by the Russians (Rostopchin) (9/15-19)

                                USS Wasp takes  Frolic (10/18)

                                Napoleon begins retreat - 100,000 survive out of 600,000 (10/19)

                                Battle of Jaroslavetz - separate corps of the Grand Army fight (10/24)

                                Battle of Viazma - (11/3)

                                Crossing of the Beresina - Ney & Oudinot force passage of  8500 troops against 25,000 Russians (11/26-28)

                                USS Constitution defeats Java (12/29)

                                Convention of Tuaroggen - Prussia concludes an agreement of neutrality with Russia (12/30)


                                Repressive legislation introduced against Luddites

                                Battle of Salamanca - British victory in Spain

                                Moorcroft and Hearsey explore western Tibet

                                Stuart party (John Astor Company) pioneers the Oregon Trail (Astoria to St. Louis)

                                Frederick Augustus I -      (Grand Duchy of Warsaw)                 of Saxony

                                Scarlat Camilah +               (Moldavia)                                             Prince 

                                John Caragea +                   (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Beethoven meets Goethe

                                Symphony No. 7                                                  Beethoven

                                Symphony No. 8                                                  Beethoven

                                Violin Sonata, Op. 96                                           Beethoven

                                Browning, Robert                                                 1812-1889

                                Cochise                                                                                  1812-1874

                                Conscience, Hendrick                                                         1812-1883

                                Dickens, Charles                                                                  1812-1870

                                Flotow, Friedrich von                                                          1812-1883               Composer

                                Goncharov, Ivan Aleksanrovich                                       1812-1891               Novelist (Simbirsk, Russia)

                                Lear, Edward                                                                         1812-1888

                                Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore                                 1812-1852               Architect/Writer (England)

                                Rietz, Julius                                                                           1812-1877               Composer

                                Rousseau, Theodore                                                           1812-1867

                                Thalberg, Sigismond                                                           1812-1871               Composer

                                Dussek, Jan Ladislaw                                                          1760-1812               Pianist/Composer

                                Gragnani, Filippo                                                                  1767-1812               Composer

                                Hoffmeister, Franz Anton                                                   1754-1812               Composer

                                Little Turtle                                                                           1752-1812

                                Sperger, Johann Matthias                                                  1750-1812               Composer

1813                        Pride and Prejudice (Jane Austen)

                                A New View of Society (Robert Owens)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR ...   (1754-1814)                                               Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                Prussia and Russia declare war on France (2)

                                Soult and a large part of the French army is recalled to Germany from Spain

                                Appeal of Frederick William III - issues from Breslau a call upon his people to form volunteer corps (2/3)

                                Treaty of Kalisch - between Russia & Prussia against France - coalition joined by Britain, Austria, Sweden (2/28)

                                Treaty between England and Sweden - Sw. supplies 30,000 troops and Eng. agrees to union of Nor. & Sw. (3/3)

                                James Madison’s second inauguration (3/4)

                                Appeal of Frederick William III - "to my people" & "to my army" - Landwher/Landsturm established (3/17)

                                Oubreak in Hamburg - Tettenborn and a force of Russians occupy the city (3/18)

                                Dukes of Mecklenburg withdraw from the Confederation of the Rhine (3)

                                Russians and Prussians occupy Dreseden - King of Saxony flees (3/27)

                                Napoleon is at the head of 180,000 men in Germany (4)

                                Battle of Gross-Gorschen (Lutzen) - France wins (5/2)

                                Battle of Bautzen - Napoleon attacks allies - forces a retreat across the Spree (5/20)

                                Battle of Wurschen  - Napoleon wins Pyrrhic victory - Duroc is killed - Allies retreat to Silesia (5/21)

                                Armistice of Poischwitz (6/4-7/26)

                                Battle of Vittoria - Duke of Wellington completely drives French (Joseph Bonaparte) out of Spain (6/21)

                                Laura Secord sets out to warn British of an impending American attack on Queenston, Ontario (6/21)

                                Treaty of Reichenbach - between Prussia and Russia over subsidies (6/15)

                                Congress at Prague - Austria plays the part of mediator - negotiations prove futile (7/5-8/11)

                                Austria declares war on France - (8/12)

                                Allies field three armies: the Bohemian (Schwarzenberg), Silesian (Blucher), and Northern (Bernadotte) (8)

                                Battle of Medina - Spanish royalistsin Mexico defeat "Republican Army of the North" uprising

                                British storm San Sebastian in Spain (8/21)

                                Battle of Grossbeeren - Bulow, crown prince of Saxony defeats Oudinot and Reynier, saving Berlin (8/23)

                                Battle of Katzbach - Blucher defeats Macdonald's army - Blucher made prince of Wahlstatt (8/26)

                                Battle of Dresden - Napoleon defeats allied army from Bohemia - last major Fr. victory in Germany (8/26-27)

                                Battle of Kulm and Nollendorf - Ostermann and Kleist defeat Vandamme's French force (8/30)

                                Battle of Dennewitz - Bulow and Tauenzien defeat Marshal Ney who attempted to take Berlin (9/6)

                                Treaty of Teplitz - between Russia, Prussia and Austria - no separate treaty to be concluded with France (9/9)

                                Battle of Lake Erie - Oliver Hazard Perry defeats British fleet (9/10)

                                Battle of Wartenburg - Silesian and Northern armies force passage across the Elbe (10/3)

                                Battle of the Thames (Ont.) - US victory over British (10/5)

                                Treaty of Ried - between Austria and Bavaria - Bavaria withdraws from Conf. of Rhine & joins Alliance (10/8)

                                Battle of the Nations at Leipzig - combined Austrian, Russian, and Prussian forces defeat France (10/16-19)

                                Americans of the Astoria Company sell all their interests in Columbia country to the Northwest Company (10/16)

                                Pampeluna falls to the British and Spaniards (10/31)

                                Allies offer Napoleon peace - France to retain boundaries at Alps and the Rhine - Napoleon refuses (11/8)

                                Wellington crosses the French Frontier from Spain and defeats Soult (11/10)

                                Dresden falls to the Allies (11/11)

                                Revolt of the Dutch begins - French officials are expelled (11/15)

                                Stettin falls to the Allies (11/21)

                                Napoleon crosses the Rhine at Mainz (11)

                                Wurttemberg, Hesse-Darmstadt, Baden, and the rest of the Confederation of the Rhine join the Alliance (11)

                                Allies adopt resolution to prosecute the war vigorously, pass the Rhine and invade France (12/1)

                                Lubeck falls to the Allies (12/5)

                                Allied armies cross the Rhine into France (12/21-25)

                                Zamosc, Modlin, Torgau fall to the Allies (12/26)

                                Danzig falls to the Allies (12/30)

                                Wellington invests Bayonne (12)


                                War of Liberation from France begins in Prussia led by King Frederick William III

                                Allied forces invade France

                                Austria-Hungary controls Croatia (-1918)

                                Serbian revolt suppressed

                                Treaty of Gulistan - ends Russo-Persian war

                                Wahhabis lose control of Mecca

                                The Great Game begins - British versus Russian hegemony in Central Asia(-1907)

                                William I +                           (Netherlands)

                                Karadjordje -                        (Serbia)                                                 National Leader

                                Poisson’s Potential Theory Equation

                                London Philharmonic Society founded

                                Royal Philharmonic Orchestra forms

                                Wellington's Victory                                           Beethoven

                                Alkan, Charles Henri Valentin                                            1813-1888               Composer

                                Bernard, Claude                                                                    1813-1878

                                Bessemer, Henry                                                                  1813-1898

                                Dargomyzhsky, Alexander                                                 1813-1869               Composer

                                Douglas, Stephen Arnold                                                   1813-1861

                                Garnier, Jean Louis Charles                                                1813-1881

                                Heller, Stephen                                                                     1813-1888               Composer

                                Kierkegaard, Soren Aabye                                                 1813-1855               Philosopher

                                Verdi, Guiseppi Fortunino Frencesco                               1813-1901               Composer

                                Very, Jones                                                                           1813-1880

                                Wagner, Richard                                                                  1813-1883               Composer

                                Bodoni, Giambattista                                                           1740-1813

                                Gretry, Andre Ernest Modeste                                          1741-1813               Composer

                                Lagrange, Joseph Louis                                                      1736-1813

                                Russell, William                                                                    1777-1813               Composer

                                Livingston, Robert R.                                                          1746-1813

                                Vanhal, Jan Krtitel                                                                1739-1813               Composer

1814                        Ariadne Asleep on the Isle of Naxos (John Vanderlyn)

                                Odalisque (Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres)

                                The Third of May (Francisco Goya)

                                King Ferdinand VII (Francisco Goya)

                                John Myers (Thomas Sully)

                                Waverly (Sir Walter Scott)

                                SIXTY YEARS WAR -   (1754-1814)                                 Struggle for the Great Lakes Region

                                ANGLO-NEPALESE WAR +   (1814-1816)

                                Allied forces under Blucher cross the Rhine at Mannheim and Coblenz (1/1)

                                Wittenberg falls to the Allies (1/12)

                                Treaty of Kiel - Sweden gains (unites with) Norway from Denmark (1/14)

                                Treaty of Kiel - Denmark gains Western Pomerania from Sweden (1/14)

                                Napoleon attempts to drive back Blucher at Brienne but Blucher manages to unite with main part of army (1/29)

                                Battle of La Rothiere - United Allied army defeats Napoleon who is forced to retreat behind the Aube River (2/1)

                                Congress of Chatillon (sur-Seine) begins - Allies meet with Napoleons envoy Caulaincourt (2/5-3/19)

                                Battles of Champaubert, Montmirail, Chateau-Thierry and Vauchamps - Napoleon defeats Blucher (2/10-15)

                                Battles of Nangis and Montereau - Napoleon defeats main Allied army advancing toward Paris (2/17-18)

                                Battle of Bar-sur-Aube - Schwarzenberg defeats Oudinot and MacDonald (2/27)

                                Kustrin falls to the Allies (3/7)

                                Treaties of Chaumont - arranged by Casterleagh - Alliance to last for 20 years - no seperate peace - (3/9)

                                Battle of Laon - combined Allied armies defeat Napoleon (3/9-10)

                                British under Wellington capture Bordeaux (3/12)

                                Congress of Chatillon ends - negotiations fail on account of Napoleons confidence in his recent victories (3/19)

                                Battle of Arcis-sur-aube - Allies defeat Napoleon - advance on Paris (3/20-21)

                                Battle of La Fere-Champenoise - Allies defeat Marshals Marmont and Mortier - generals retreat to Paris (3/25)

                                Battle of Horseshoe Bend - (3/27)

                                Storming of the Montmarte - French generals obliged to capitulate (3/27)

                                Paris falls to Allies (3/31)

                                Napoleon abdicatesconditionally in favor of his son - Allies reject this solution (4/6)

                                Battle of Toulouse - Allies defeat Soult - campaign in the south  comes to an end (4/10)

                                Napoleon unconditionally abdicates (4/11)

                                Louis XVIII lands at Calais from exile in London (4/24)

                                Napoleon arrives at Elba off the coast of Italy  (5/4)

                                First Treaty of Paris - ends Napoleonic Wars (5/30)

                                First Treaty of Paris - France retains boundaries of 1792 (5/30)

                                Battle of Stonington, CT (8/14)

                                British Burn Capitol and White House (8/24)

                                Congress of Vienna (9)

                                US wins Battle of Lake Champlain (9/11)

                                Ft. McHenry bombarded - Star Spangled Banner (9/13-14)

                                Congress of Vienna officially opens - heads of state discuss settlement of post-war Europe (-1815) (11/1)

                                Treaty of Ghent - ends War of 1812 (12/24)

                                Peninsular War ends

                                Treaties of Chaumont - establishes the Quadruple Alliance

                                Flanders united with Netherlands (-1830)

                                India and Nepal fight over borders (-1816)

                                Gurkha War (Anglo-Nepalese War) - Nepal vs. British East India Company (-1816)

                                Kurozumui sect founded in Japan - first modern Shinto sect

                                Hartford Convention - US

                                Frederik VI -                        (Norway)                                               

                                Charles XIII +                      (Norway)                                                Carl

                                Napoleon Bonaparte -         (France)                                                 Emperor

                                Louis XVIII +                       (France)                                                 (-1824)   (b. of Louis XVI)

                                Joseph Bonaparte -             (Spain)                                                   House of Bourbon ?

                                Ferdinand VII +                    (Spain)                                                   House of Bourbon  (rethroned)

                                George Stephenson's first locomotive

                                Die Erlking                                                             Schubert (1815)

                                Gretchen am Spinnrad                                         Schubert

                                Bakunin, Michael                                                                 1814-1876

                                Ernst, Heinrich Wilhelm                                                      1814-1865               Composer

                                Hanselt, Adolph von                                                           1814-1889               Composer

                                Lermontov, Mikhail Yuryevich                                          1814-1841

                                Millet, Jean Francois                                                           1814-1875               Painter

                                Mosonyi, Mihaly                                                                 1814-1870               Composer

                                Sylvester, James Joseph                                                     1814-1897

                                Burney, Charles                                                                    1726-1814               Composer

                                De Sade, Marquis Donatian Alphonse F.                        1740-1814

                                Fichte, Johann Gottlieb                                                       1762-1814

                                Reichardt, Johann Friedrich                                               1752-1814               Composer

                                Vogler, Abbe                                                                        1749-1814               Composer (Wurzburg)

1815                        Witch's Sabbath (Francisco Goya)

                                Crossing the Brook (Joseph Mallord William Turner)

                                Berthold Thorwaldsen (Christoffer-Wilhelm Eckersberg)

                                ANGLO-NEPALESE WAR ...   (1814-1816)

                                Battle of New Orleans (1/8)

                                Treaty of Ghent proclaimed - peace between United States and Great Britain (2/18)

                                Napoleon escapes from Elba (2/25)

                                Napoleon lands at Cannes with 1500 men (3/1)

                                Allied monarchs issue a ban against Napoleon from ongress of Vienna - Louis XVIII flees to Ghent (3/13)

                                Napoleon enters Paris - beginning of the Hundred Days (3/20)  (-6/29)

                                Austria, England, Prussia, Russia conclude new alliance against France - Wellington in command of 1mil+ (3/25)

                                Battle of Tolentino - Austrian force defeats Murat, who had declared for Napoleon again (5/3)

                                Allies capture Naples (5/22)  

                                Treaty of Vienna - Conclusion of the Congress of Vienna (6/9)

                                Austrian and Prussian monarchies are restored (Final Act of Congress of Vienna) (6/9)

                                German Confederation replaces Confederation of the Rhine (Final Act of Congress of Vienna) (6/9)

                                Kingdom of the Netherlands formally unites Belgium and Holland (Final Act of Congress of Vienna) (6/9)

                                Battle of Charleroi - Napoleon crosses into Belgium - forces back Prussian advanced guard under Ziethen (6/14)

                                Battle of Ligny - Napoleon forces Blucher to fall back (6/16)

                                Prussians march to Wavre (6/16)

                                Battle of Quatre Bras - Marshal Ney defeats the Prince of Orange (6/16)

                                Battle of Waterloo - Napoleon defeated with late arrival of Blucher (6/18)

                                Second Abdication of Napoleon (6/22)

                                Second Capture of Paris - Louis XVIII returns "in the baggage of the Allies" w/ allied monarchs (7/7)

                                Napoleon surrenders to the British under admiral Hotham at Rochefort, France (7/17)

                                Order for Liberal followers of Napoleon to expatriate themselves - many go to Champ d'Asile, Texas(7/24)

                                US flotilla ends Algerian piracy (8/6)

                                Napoleon exiled to island of St. Helena - sets sail to South Atlantic (8/8)

                                The Holy Alliance - signed by all European powers except England , pope, and Turkey (9/26)

                                Napoleon arrives at St. Helena (10)

                                Murat is captured in Calabria - untimatley court-marshaled and shot (10/13)

                                Second Treaty of Paris - France's boundaries restored to those of 1790 (11/20)

                                Renewal of the Quadruple Alliance (11/20)

                                Sugauli Treaty signed - ends Anglo-Nepalese War (12/2)


                                English Corn Laws - restrict corn imports

                                Milan comes under Austrian control

                                Metternichian system (-1848)

                                Holy Alliance of Russia, Austria, and Prussia

                                Prussia gains Aachen from France

                                Quadruple Alliance of Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia to maintain Congress System

                                Italian Risorgimento (-1848)

                                Serbs revolt against Ottoman Empire in Balkans

                                France prohibits slave trade

                                Brazil declared a kingdom

                                US Treaty with the Sioux

                                Metronome invented

                                Heidenroslein                                                       Schubert

                                Third Symphony                                                  Schubert

                                Bachofen, Johann Jakob                                                     1815-1887

                                Bohtlingk, Otto von                                                             1815-1904

                                Boole, George                                                                       1815-1864

                                Emmett, Dan                                                                          1815-1904               Composer

                                Jenner, William                                                                     1815-1898

                                Lovenskiold, Herman Severin                                            1815-1870               Composer

                                Stanton, Elizabeth Cady                                                      1815-1902

                                Volkmann, Friedrich Robert                                                1815-1883               Composer

                                Weierstrass, Theodore                                                       1815-1897

                                Copley, John Singleton                                                       1738-1815

                                Mesmer, Franz Anton                                                         1734-1815

                                Saloman, Johann Peter                                                        1745-1815               Composer

1816                        A Windmill near Norwich (John "Old" Crome)

                                A Man Galloping over the Sands at Scarborough (Joseph M. W. Turner) (-1818)

                                Alastor, or the Spirit of Solitude

                                ANGLO-NEPALESE WAR -   (1814-1816)

                                Sugauli Treaty ratified- ends Anglo-Nepalese War (3/4)

                                Battle of Seven Oaks - Northwest Company/Métis defeat Hudson's Bay Company near Winnepeg (6/19)

                                United Provinces of the Plate River forms - Argentina declares independence from Spain (7/9)

                                Regular transatlantic service in sailing ships between Liverpool and New York

                                Bolivar issues a decree against slavery

                                Second Bank of US chartered

                                Dallas Tariff - US Tariff of 1816 passed - engineered by Henry Clay

                                Fort Crawford built at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin - US

                                Joseph Nicephore Niepce produces first photographic negative by placing a piece of sensitized paper in a camera

                                Maria I -                                (Portugal)                                             House of Braganza

                                John -                                     (Portugal)                                             House of Braganza (Regent)

                                John VI +                              (Portugal)                                             House of Braganza

                                Jose Rodriguez de Francia + (Paraguay)                                       (-1840)   Perpetual Dictator "El Supremo"

                                Fourth Symphony                                                                Schubert

                                Fifth Symphony                                                   Schubert

                                Third Piano Sonata                                              Schubert

                                Mass in C                                                              Schubert

                                Barber of Seville                                                   Rossini

                                Otello                                                                     Rossini

                                Bennett, William Sterndale                                                 1816-1875               Composer

                                Bronte, Charlotte                                                                  1816-1855

                                Gobineau, Joseph Arthur                                                   1816-1882               France

                                Kensett, John Frederick                                                      1816-1872

                                Fiala, Joseph                                                                         1748-1816               Composer

                                Sheridan, Richard Brinsley                                 1751-1816               Dramatist/Politician (Dublin, Ireland)

                                Paisiello, Giovanni                                                               1740-1816               Composer

1817                        The First Sight of Clara (Thomas Rowlandson)

                                Journal of Sentimental Travels in the Southern Provinces of France (Rowlandson)

                                Endymion (Keats)

                                Manfred (Byron)

                                Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (Ricardo)            definitive statement of classical political economy

                                FIRST SEMINOLE WAR +   (1817-1818)

                                Battle of Chacabuco - Jose de San Martin crosses the Andes to defeat Spanish  (2/12)

                                James Monroe inaugurated (3/4)

                                Rush-Bagot Treaty - demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain - betw. GB and US (4/28-29)

                                Ottoman Empire recognizes Milosh Obrenovich as Prince of Serbia

                                Final war against the Marathas in India (-1819)

                                Cherokee Old Settlers move to lands given them in Arkansas

                                American Colonization Society established

                                First Seminole War started- 3000 troops attack the  Mikasuki tribe

                                Gradus ad Parnassum                                          Clementi

                                Requiem in C minor                                              Cherubini

                                Milos Obrenovic +               (Serbia)                                                 Prince

                                James Madison -  (United States)                                     (1809-)   President

                                James Monroe +                  (United States)                                     (-1825)   President

                                Bahaullah                                                                              1817-1892

                                Gade, Niels Wilhelm                                                            1817-1890               Composer

                                Daubigny, Charles Francois                                               1817-1878

                                Douglass, Frederick                                                             1817-1895

                                Haupt, Herman                                                                     1817-1905

                                Mommsen, Christian Matthias Theodor                          1817-1903               Historian (Germany)

                                Lotze, Rudolf Hermann                                                       1817-1881

                                Saumell, Manuel                                                                   1817-1870               Composer

                                Storm, Theodor                                                                    1817-1888

                                Thoreau, Henry David                                                        1817-1862

                                Vogt, Karl                                                                              1817-1895

                                Austen, Jane                                                                         1775-1817

                                Knechtl, Justin Heinrich                                                     1751-1817               Composer

                                Mehul, Etienne Nicolas                                                       1763-1817               Composer

                                Messier, Charles                                                                  1730-1817               Astronomer (Badonviller, France) (4/12)

                                Necker, Anne Louise Germaine (de Stael)                        1766-1817

                                Nemours, Pierre Samuel DuPont de                                  1739-1817

                                Solere, Etienne                                                                      1753-1817               Composer

                                Tausch, Franz Wilhelm                                                       1762-1817               Composer

1818                        The Archduke Charles (Thomas Lawrence)

                                The Raft of the “Medusa” (Gericault)  (-1819)

                                Mercury (Berthold Thorwaldsen)

                                Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (Schopenhauer)

                                FIRST SEMINOLE WAR -  (1817-1818)

                                British sign treaty at Jodhpur  - tribute now to be paid to UK not the Maharajas (1/6)

                                French exiles set up Champ d'Asile colony on the Trinity River in Spanish Texas, under Lallemond (3)

                                Treaty with the Wyandot, etc. -  cede land in Ohio to the US (9/17)

                                Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle - France joins the four Great Powers (Br., Ru, Au, Pr.)  in the Quintuple Alliance (10/18)


                                Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) - Alexander I unsuccessul in trying to tighten Holy Alliance

                                Zulu Empire founded in southern Africa by military chieftan Chaka

                                Border between Canada and United States fixed along 49th parallel - both occupy Oregon

                                Chile becomes independent from Spain

                                Charles XIII -                       (Sweden)                                                (1809-)   House of Holstein-Gottorp 

                                Charles XIV +                      (Sweden)                                                House of Bernadotte (John)

                                Charles XIII -                       (Norway)                                                Carl

                                Charles XIV +                      (Norway)                                                House of Bernadotte (John)

                                John Caragea -                    (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Alexander Sutu +                (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Chaka +                 (Zulu Empire)                                       Emperor

                                Piano Sonata, Op. 106                                       Beethoven

                                Sixth Symphony                                                   Schubert

                                String Quartet in E                                             Schubert

                                Bain, Alexander                                                                    1818-1903

                                Bronte, Emily                                                                        1818-1848

                                Froude, J. A.                                                                         1818-1894               Historian (England)

                                Godefroid, Felix                                                                    1818-1897               Composer

                                Gounod, Charles Francois                                                  1818-1893               Composer

                                Joule, James Prescott                                                          1818-1889

                                Litolff, Henry Charles                                                          1818-1891               Composer

                                Marx, Karl                                                                              1818-1883               Political Philosopher (Trier, Rhineland)

                                Stone, Lucy Blackwell                                                         1818-1893

                                Topelius, Zacharias                                                             1818-1898

                                Turgenev, Ivan Sergeyevich                                              1818-1883

                                Adams, Abigail                                                                    1744-1818

                                Kozeluh, Leopold Jan Antonin                                          1747-1818               Composer

                                Monge, Gaspard                                                                  1746-1818

1819                        Duel (Francisco Goya)

                                Ivanhoe (Scott)

                                Singapore founded by British administrator Sir Stamford Raffles (2/6)

                                Adams-Onis Treaty - Transcontinental Treaty of 1819 - between US and Spain - boundary excludes Texas (2/22)

                                Adams-Onis Treaty - Spain cedes Florida to the United States (2/22)

                                McCulloch v. Maryland - Congress has right to establish national bank (3/6)

                                Carlsbad Decrees in Germany suppress political activity of liberal youth and intellectuals (7)

                                Peterloo Massacre - soldiers fire on political meeting in Manchester, England - several people killed (8/16)

                                Congress of Angostura - declares creation of Republic of Gran Colombia with Bolivar as President (12/17)

                                Zollverein (customs union) begins in Germany under influence of Prussia (-1844)

                                Sikh leader Ranjit Singh conquers Kashmir

                                Steamship Savannah makes first trans Atlantic voyage mostly on steam (Savannah-Liverpool)

                                Henry Atkinson leads his first expedition to the Yellowstone River - only reaches Nebraska

                                Panic of 1819

                                Scarlat Camilah -                                (Moldavia)                                             Prince 

                                Piano Quintet in A Major “Trout”                    Schubert

                                Forellen Quintet                                                   Schubert

                                Piano Sonata No. 13                                            Schubert

                                Abt, Franz                                                                             1819-

                                Bab, Ali Mohammed of Shiraz                                           1819-1850

                                Clough, Arthur Hugh                                                          1819-1861

                                Courbet, Gustave                                                                 1819-1877

                                Evans, Mary Ann (George Eliot)                                       1819-1880

                                Field, Cyrus West                                                                1819-1892

                                Fizeau, Armand Hyppolyte Louis                                     1819-1896

                                Foucalt, Jean Bernard Leon                                                1819-1868

                                Halle, Charles                                                                        1819-1895

                                Heade, Martin Johnson                                                      1819-1904

                                Kinglsley, Charles                                                                1819-1875

                                Melville, Herman                                                                  1819-1882

                                Moniuszko, Stanislaw                                                         1819-1872               Composer (Poland)

                                Offenbach, Jacques                                                             1819-1880               Composer

                                Ruskin, John                                                                         1819-1900

                                Schumann, Clara Weick                                                      1819-1896               Composer

                                Stokes, George Gabriel                                                        1819-1903

                                Suppe, Franz Suppe                                                             1819-1895               Composer

                                Whitman, Walt                                                                     1819-1892

                                Bohdanowicz, Bazvli                                                           1754-1819               Composer

                                Fuss, Johann Evangelist                                                     1777-1819               Composer

                                Garnier, Michel                                                                     1753-1819

                                Harlow, George                                                                     1787-1819

                                Jabobi                                                                                    1743-1819

                                Morellet, Andre                                                                    1727-1819

                                Petrini, Francesco                                                                1744-1819               Composer

                                Watt, James                                                                          1736-1819

1820                        Prometheus Unbound (Shelley)

                                Jerusalem (Blake)

                                Meditations Poetiques (Lamartine)

                                SPANISH CIVIL WAR +   (1820-1823)

                                Cato Street conspiracy in England to assassinate cabinet minister fails

                                Liberal revolutions in Spain, Portugal, and Italy (Naples, Piedmont)

                                The Carbonari revolutionists in France and Italy (-1830)

                                Congress of Troppau - considers Naples revolt

                                Egyptian (Muhammed Ali) conquest of Eastern Sudan (-1822)

                                Missouri Compromise - Missouri enters Union as slave state - 36 degrees 30’ (3/3)

                                Maine separated from Massachusetts; admitted as state

                                5,000,000 acres in central Mississippi ceded to U.S.

                                American missionaries reach Hawaii

                                Faraday's electric motor and generator

                                George III -                           (England)                                               King

                                George IV +                          (England)                                               (-1830)   King

                                Renzong Jui -                       (China)                                                  (1796-)   5th Qing Dynasty (Jiaqing Era)

                                Dawning of Music in Kentucky                        Heinrich

                                Anthony, Susan Brownell                                                  1820-1906

                                Bronte, Anne                                                                        1820-1849

                                Caird, John                                                                            1820-1898

                                Chancourtois, Alexandre-Emile Beguyer de                    1820-1886

                                Engels, Friedrich                                                                  1820-1895

                                Grove, Sir George                                                 1820-1900               Composer

                                Heinze, Gustaf Adolf                                                           1820-1904               Composer

                                Libert, George Emil                                                               1820-1908

                                Sadlier, Mary Anne Madden                                             1820-1903

                                Spencer, Herbert                                                                  1820-1903               Philosopher

                                Tubman, Harriet                                                                   1820-1913              

                                Vieuxtemps, Henri                                                                1820-1881               Composer

                                Banks, Joseph                                                                      1743-1820

                                Brown, Thomas                                                                    1778-1820

                                Murray, Judith Sargent                                                       1751-1820               Feminist Theorist

                                West, Benjamin                                                                    1738-1820

1821                        The Hay Wain (Constable)

                                SPANISH CIVIL WAR ...   (1820-1823)

                                GREEK WAR OF INDEPENDENCE +   (1821-1831)

                                Congress of Laibach convenes- authorizes Austria to put down Neapolitan revolt (1/26)

                                Napoleon dies after six years of house arrest on St. Helena island in Atlantic (5/5)

                                Congress of Laibach ends (5/12)

                                Battle of Carabobo - Bolivar defeats Spanish - last major engagement of the war in Venezuela (6/24)

                                Peru proclaims independence from Spain - San Martin decrees from Lima (7/28)

                                Mexico proclaims independence from Spain (9/27)


                                Great Britain adopts the gold standard

                                Revolutionary period in Transylvania (-1848)

                                Greek War of Independence against Ottoman Empire (-1829) (-1830)

                                Persia and Ottoman Empire at war (-1823)

                                Troy Female Seminary founded (1st U.S. womens college)

                                Thomas Seebeck discovers the thermoelectric effect

                                Alexander Sutu - (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Xuanzong Cheng +             (China)                                                  (-1850)   6th Qing Dynasty (Daoguang Era)

                                Der Freischutz                                                     von Weber

                                Piano Sonata, Op. 110                                       Beethoven

                                Piano Sonata, Op. 111                                       Beethoven

                                Baudelaire, Charles Pierre                                                   1821-1867               Writer

                                Bottesini, Giovanni                                                              1821-1889               Composer

                                Broglie, Jaques Victor Albert                                             1821-1901               Historian/Politian (France)

                                Brown, Ford Madox                                                             1821-1893               Painter (Calais, France)

                                Chebyshev, Pafnuty Lvovich                                            1821-1894               Mathemetician (Russia)

                                Doppler, Albert Franz                                                          1821-1883               Composer

                                Dostoevsky, Fyodor Mikhailovich         o.s.    10/30       1821-1881               Writer  (11/11 n.s.)

                                Flaubert, Gustav                                                                   1821-1880               Writer

                                Barton, Clara                                                         12/25       1821-1912               Nurse/Teacher/Humanitarian (Oxford, MA)

                                Helmholtz, Ludwig Ferdinand von                                    1821-1894               Physicist

                                Kiel, Friedrich                                                                       1821-1885               Composer

                                Locker-Lampson, Frederick                                                1821-1895               Writer (England)

                                Loschmidt, Johann Joseph                                 3/15         1821-1895               Chemist, Physicist (Bohemia)

                                Red Cloud                                                                             1821-1909               Oglala Chief

                                Bonaparte, Napoleon                                          5/5           1769-1821               Emperor (Corsica)

                                Jordan, Camille                                                                     1771-1821

                                Keats, John                                                                           1795-1821

                                Romberg, Andreas Jacob                                                   1767-1821               Composer

                                Vranicky, Antonin                                                               1761-1820               Composer

1822                        Hamptstead - Evening (Sir John Constable)

                                Chelsea Pensioners Reading the Gazette of the Battle of Waterloo (D. Wilkie)

                                Ruins of Holyrood Chapel (Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre)

                                The Primitive City (Calvert)

                                Landscape on the oise (Daubigny)

                                Racine et Shakespeare (Stendhal)

                                SPANISH CIVIL WAR ...   (1820-1823)

                                GREEK WAR OF INDEPENDENCE ...   (1821-1831)

                                Lord Castlereagh commits suicide (8/12)

                                Rutherford B. Hayes is Born (10/4)


                                Congress of Verona - breaks down over Great Britain's refusal to intervene in Spain - ends Congress System

                                Spanish revolution put down by France

                                Egypt completes conquest of Sudan

                                Liberia founded as a colony for freed American slaves

                                Brazil completes independence from Portugal under Pedro I

                                Colombia and Equador liberated

                                Denmark Vesey Conspiracy

                                First textile mills in Lowell, Massachusetts

                                Delaware New Purchase: Marion County, IN created

                                Augustin Iturbide +            (Mexico)                                                Emperor (-1823)

                                Pedro I +                                (Brazil)

                                Charles babbage proposes the difference engine in a paper to the Royal Astronomical society (6/14)

                                Missa Solemnis                                                    Beethoven

                                Unfinished Symphony                                        Schubert

                                Cherubini appointed director of Paris Conservatory    

                                Adams, William Taylor                                                       1822-1897

                                Arnold, Matthew                                                                 1822-1888

                                Bertrand, Joseph Louis Francois                                       1822-1900

                                Cornoldi, Giovanni Mari                                                     1822-1892

                                Franck, Cesar Auguste Jean Guillaume Hub.                  1822-1890               Composer

                                Frothingham, Octavius Brooks                                          1822-1895

                                Hayes, Rutheford B.                                                            1822-1893

                                Hermite, Charles                                                                   1822-1901

                                Moleschott, Jakob                                                               1822-1893

                                Olmsted, Frederick Law                                                       1822-1903

                                Passy, Frederic                                                                     1822-1912

                                Pasteur, Louis                                                                       1822-1895

                                Raff, Joseph Joachim                                                           1822-1882               Composer

                                Schliemann, Heinrich                                                           1822-1890

                                Canova, Antonio                                                                 1757-1822               Painter, Sculptor (Possagno, Venice)

                                Herschel, Sir William                                                           1738-1822               Astronomer/Musician (Hanover, Ger.)

                                Hoffman, Ernst Theodor Amadeus                                   1776-1822               Composer

                                Shelley, Percy Blythe                                                          1792-1822

1823                        SPANISH CIVIL WAR -   (1820-1823)

                                GREEK WAR OF INDEPENDENCE ...   (1821-1831)

                                Plan de Casa Mata - Santa Anna and Guadelupe Victoria sign to overthrow Mexican monarchy (2/1)

                                Louis XVIII, Monsieur, and the Duc de Angouleme watch armies triumphant return from Spain (12/2)

                                Monroe Doctrine - warns European powers not to interfere in American politics  (12/2)

                                Allen County, IN established (12/17)

                                Mexican Empire collapses

                                US Land Office opens

                                Spanish revolution crushed by French forces

                                Treaty of Erzerum

                                Arikawa War

                                Augustin Iturbide -             (Mexico)                                                Emperor (1822-)

                                Pius VII -

                                Leo XII +

                                Euryanthe                                                              von Weber

                                Symphony No. 9                                                  Beethoven

                                Diabelli Variations                                                Beethoven

                                Die schone Mullerin                                            Schubert

                                Baird, Spencer Fullerton                                                     1823-1887

                                Chipp, Edmund Thomas                                                     1823-1886               Composer

                                Janet, Paul                                                                             1823-1899

                                Lalo, Edouard-Victoire-Antoine                                        1823-1892               Composer

                                Lemmens, Jacques Nicolas                                                 1823-1881               Composer

                                Parkman, Francis                                                                  1823-1893               Historian (Boston)

                                Patmore, Coventry                                                               1823-1896

                                Petofi, Sandor                                                                       1823-1849

                                Renan, Ernst                                                                         1823-1892

                                Wallace, Alfred Russel                                                       1823-1913

                                Breval, Jean Baptiste Sebastian                                         1753-1823               Composer

                                Carnot, Lazare Nicolas Marguerite                                    1753-1823               Military Engineer (France)

                                Dumouriez, Charles Francois                                             1739-1823               Military General (France)

                                Fiorillo, Federigo                                                                  1755-1823               Composer

                                Jenner, Edward                                                                     1749-1823

                                Lithander, Fredrik Emanuel                                 1777-1823               Composer

                                Nollekens, Joseph                                                                1737-1823

                                Radcliffe, Ann Ward                                                           1764-1823               Novelist (London, England)

                                Raebern, Henry                                                                    1756-1823

                                Reinhold                                                                                1755-1823

                                Ricardo, David                                                                      1772-1823

1824                        The Champion (Charles Lock Eastlake)

                                Coast of Picardy (Parkes Bonington)

                                Zur Kritik neuerer Geschichtschrieber (Critique of Modern Historical Writing) (Leopold von Ranke)

                                GREEK WAR OF INDEPENDENCE ...   (1821-1831)

                                Delacroix's first "modern painting"

                                Gibbons v. Ogden - defines Congress’ right to regulate interstate commerce (3/2)

                                Augustin de Iturbide is shot trying to return to Mexixo (7/19)

                                Mexican Constitution is promugated (10/4)

                                Battle of Ayacucho - last major engagement in South America (12/9)

                                Combination Acts repealed in England - stimulates trade union movement (-1825)

                                Death of Lord Byron at Missolonghi

                                War between British and Ashanti in Gold Coast (Ghana) (-1827)

                                First Anglo-Burmese War - Great Britain begins annexation of Burma (-1826)

                                Pawtucket weavers strike (first for women)

                                Second Party System in the United States  (-1854)

                                Corrupt Bargain

                                Louis XVIII -                        (France)                                                 (1814-)   King      

                                Charles X +                          (France)                                                 (-1830)   King (br. of Louis XVI and XVIII)

                                Guadelupe Victoria +          (Mexico)                                                (-1829)   1st President

                                Boudin, Louis Eugene                                                         1824-1898

                                Bruckner, Anton  Joseph                                                   1824-1896               Composer

                                Buchner, Ludwig                                                                  1824-1899

                                Dumas, Alexander                                                                1824-1895

                                Fischer, Kuno                                                                       1824-1907

                                Gerome, Jean-Leon                                                              1824-1904               Painter (Vesoul, France)

                                Kelvin, William Thompson                                 1824-1907

                                Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert                                                   1824-1887

                                Reinecke, Carl Heinrich Carsten                                        1824-1910               Composer

                                Smetana, Bedrich Friedrich                                                1824-1884               Composer

                                Biran, Maine de                                                                    1766-1824

                                Byron, George Gordon                                                        1788-1824

                                Chladni, Ernst E. F.                                                              1756-1824

                                Gericault, Jean Louis Andre Theodore                             1791-1824              

                                Girodet, Anne-Louis                                                            1767-1824

                                Viotti, Giovanni Battista                                                      1755-1824               Composer

1825                        Eve at the Fountain (John Martin)

                                I Promessi Sposi (Manzoni)

                                Boris Gogunov (Pushkin)

                                Labour Defended Against the Claims of Capital (Thomas Hodgskin)

                                GREEK WAR OF INDEPENDENCE ...   (1821-1831)

                                John Quincy Adams inaugurated (3/4)

                                Erie Canal opens (10/26)

                                Accession of Nicholas I of Russia (12)


                                Steam Era begins with George Stephenson's locomotive on the Stockton and Darlington RR in n. England

                                Egyptian forced invade Greece

                                Russo-Persian war begins (-1828)

                                Bolivia gains independence

                                Morris Canal begins construction

                                Indian Land Exchange program (land in East for public land in west)

                                US Treaty with the Sioux

                                Henry Atkinson leads his second expedition to the Yellowstone River

                                Leopold von Ranke becomes a professor at the University of Berlin (-1871)

                                Ludwig I +                             (Bavaria)

                                Alexander I Pavlovich -       (Russia)                                                 (1801-)   Emperor (faked death?)

                                Nicholas I +                          (Russia)                                                 (-1855)   Emperor (Tsar)

                                James Monroe -                   (United States)                                     (1817-)   President

                                John Quincy Adams +        (United States)                                     (-1829)   President

                                First experimental steam locomotive built and operated (John Stevens)

                                String Quartet, Op. 127                                        Beethoven

                                String Quartet, Op. 132                                        Beethoven

                                String Octet Eb maj., op. 20                                Mendelssohn

                                Blackwell, Antoinette Brown                                             1825-1921

                                Dalton, John Call                                                                  1825-1889

                                Huxley, Thomas                                                                   1825-1895

                                Innes, George                                                                       1825-1894

                                Strauss II, Johann                                                                1825-1899               Composer

                                Cambini, Giuseppe Maria Gioacchino                               1746-1825               Composer

                                David, Jaques-Louis                                                            1748-1825               Painter

                                Fussli, Johann Heinrich (Henry Fuseli)                            1741-1825

                                Richter, Johann Paul Friedrich                                           1763-1825               Novelist (Germany)

                                Saint Simon, Claude Henri de Rouvroy                            1760-1825

                                Salieri, Antonio                                                                    1750-1825               Composer

                                Vorisek, Jan Vaclav Hugo                                                   1791-1825               Composer

1826                        Greece on the ruins of Missolonghi (Delacroix)

                                The Last of the Mohicans (Cooper)

                                GREEK WAR OF INDEPENDENCE ...   (1821-1831)

                                FOURTH RUSSO-PERSIAN WAR +   (1826-1828)

                                Treaty of Yandabo- 1st Burmese War ends  - British East India.takes control of Arakan & Tenasserim  (2/24)

                                William Morgan, ex-Mason disappears at Fort Niagra (9)

                                Decembrist rising in Russia against Tsar

                                Egyptian forces under Ibrahim, son of Mohammed Ali, invade Greece

                                Russia and Persia at war (-1828)

                                Turks capture Missolonghi from Greeks

                                Mahmud II enlists loyal Spahis to massacre Janissaries (who are outlawed) - reorganizes Ottoman army

                                Ottoman fleet sunk at Navarino

                                Congress of Panama - convoked by Bolivar

                                New Republic of Bolivia gains independence

                                Jedidiah Smith overland expedition to California (-1827)

                                Belvidere Court House founded (Belvidere, NJ)

                                John VI -                               (Portugal)                                             House of Braganza

                                Maria II +                              (Portugal)                                             House of Braganza

                                Quartet No. 14 in C-Sharp Minor, Op. 131   Beethoven (1827)

                                String Quartet, Op. 130                                     Beethoven

                                String Quartet, Op. 135                                     Beethoven

                                Die Winterreise                                                    Schubert

                                Overture to A Midsummer Night’s Dream      Mendelssohn

                                Bagehot, Walter                                                                   1826-1877

                                Church, Frederic                                                                   1826-1900

                                Foster, Steven Collins                                                         1826-1864               Composer

                                Loomis, Mahlon                                                                   1826-1886

                                Minkus, Leon (Ludwig)                                                      1826-1917               Composer

                                Moreau, Gustave                                                                 1826-1898

                                Riemann, Georg Friedrich Bernard                                    1826-1866

                                Thomas, John                                                                       1826-1913               Composer

                                Adams, John                                                                         1735-1826

                                Arriaga, Juan Crisostomo                                                   1806-1826               Composer

                                Baggesen, Jens Immanuel                                                  1764-1826

                                Bode, Johann Elert                                                               1747-1826

                                Danzi, Franz                                                                          1763-1826               Composer

                                Flaxman, John                                                                       1755-1826

                                Gifford, William                                                                    1756-1826

                                Jefferson, Thomas                                                               1743-1826

                                Laennec, Rene Theophile Hyacinthe                                1781-1826

                                Piazzi, Giuseppi                                                                     1746-1826

                                Weber, Carl Maria von                                                        1786-1826               Composer

1827                        Windings of the Forth (Alexander Nasmyth)

                                An Odalisque (Richard Parkes Bonington)

                                Buch der Lieder (Heine)

                                Preface to the play Cromwell (Victor Hugo)

                                GREEK WAR OF INDEPENDENCE ...   (1821-1831)

                                FOURTH RUSSO-PERSIAN WAR ...   (1826-1828)

                                Fort Leavenworth founded by Col. Henry Leavenworth to protect Sante Fe Trail travellers (5/8)


                                Treaty of London - Great Britain, Russia, and France to guarantee Greek independence

                                Greece wins independence from Turkey

                                Battle of Navarino - French, Russian, and British navies destroy Egyptian fleet

                                John McLoughlin of HBC builds first lumber mill at Fort Vancouver

                                Slavery abolished in New York state

                                Mormon Chuch founded

                                Die Winterreise                                                    Schubert

                                Abel, Frederick Augustus                                                  1827-1902

                                Berthelot, Pierre Eugene Marcelin                                     1827-1907               Chemist (France)

                                Bocklin, Arnold                                                                    1827-1901

                                Bodley, George Frederick                                                   1827-1907

                                Collins, Mortimer                                                 1827-1876

                                Hunt, Holman                                                                       1827-1910

                                Lister, Joseph                                                                       1827-1912               Physician

                                Mivart, George                                                                     1827-1900

                                Strauss, Joseph                                                                    1827-1870               Composer

                                Beethoven, Lugwig von                                                     1770-1827

                                Blake, William                                                                       1757-1827

                                Canning, George                                                                  1770-1827

                                Laplace, Pierre Simon                                                          1749-1827

                                Peale, Charles Willson                                                        1741-1827

                                Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich                                                1746-1827

                                Possinger, Franz Alexander                                                1767-1827               Composer

                                Schulze, Johann Philipp Christian                                     1733-1827               Composer

                                Volta, Allesandro                                                                 1745-1827

1828                      First performance of Goethe's Faust

                                Noah Webster publishes American Dictionary of the English Language

                                GREEK WAR OF INDEPENDENCE ...   (1821-1831)

                                FOURTH RUSSO-PERSIAN WAR -   (1826-1828)

                                RUSSO-TURKISH WAR +   (1828-1829)

                                Treaty of Turkmanchai - Ends Russo-Persian war (2/21)  (5 Shaban 1243 AH)

                                Baltimore and Ohio 1st U.S. passenger RR construction begun (7/4)

                                Shaka King of the Zulus is murdered by his half brothers Dingane and Mhlangana (9/24)

                                Miguelite Wars in Portugal - regent Dom Miguel overthrows government (-1834)

                                War between Russia and Ottoman Empire (-1829)

                                “Tariff of Abominations” - South Carolina opposes declaring right of states to nullify federal laws

                                Sabine River set as Mexico - United States border

                                Jacksonian democracy in power in the US

                                Anti-Masonite Party forms in New York State - 1st third party

                                Maria II -                               (Portugal)                                             House of Braganza

                                Miguel +                                (Portugal)                                             House of Braganza

                                Lord William Bentinck +  (India)                                                    Governor General (-1835)

                                Paganini concerts

                                Le Comte Ory                                                       Rossini

                                Symphony in C                                                     Schubert

                                Piano Sonata                                                       Schubert

                                Piano Sonata                                                       Schubert

                                Piano Sonata                                                       Schubert

                                Sting Quintet                                                        Schubert

                                Ardigo, Roberto                                                                   1828-1920               Philosopher

                                Gairdner, James                                                                    1828-1912

                                Isben, Henrik                                                                        1828-1906

                                Meredith, George                                                                 1828-1909

                                Rossetti, Dante Gabriel                                                       1828-1882

                                Taine, Hyppolyte                                                                 1828-1893

                                Tolstoy, Leo                                                                         1828-1910

                                Verne, Jules                                                                           1828-1905

                                Gall, Franz Joseph                                                                1758-1828

                                Goya, Francisco                                                                   1746-1828

                                Houdon, Jean                                                                       1741-1828

                                Marsh, John                                                                          1752-1828               Composer

                                Schubert, Franz Peter                                                          1797-1828               Composer

                                Stewart, Dugald                                                                    1753-1828

                                Stuart, Gilbert                                                                        1755-1828

1829                        The Rose Miracle of Mary (Johann Overbeck)

                                Les Chouans (Balzac)         

                                Les Orientales (Hugo)

                                Analysis of the Mind (John Stuart Mill)

                                Appeal (David Walker)

                                GREEK WAR OF INDEPENDENCE ...   (1821-1831)

                                RUSSO-TURKISH WAR -   (1828-1829)

                                Andrew Jackson inaugurated (3/4)

                                Treaty of Adrianople - ends Russo-Turkish War (9/14)


                                Catholic Emancipation Act in Great Britain - Roman Catholics allowed to hold public office

                                The Greek revolution succeeds and is ratified by the powers

                                Greater Colombia divides into Colombia, Venezuala, Equador, and New Granada

                                Safety Fund Act passed in NY

                                William and Charles Bent lead expedition to Santa Fe

                                Akbar Ali Khan - (Hyderabad)                                          Nizam

                                Nasir ud Daulah +               (Hyderabad)                                          Nizam

                                John Quincy Adams -         (United States)                                     (1825-)   President

                                Andrew Jackson +              (United States)                                     (-1837)   President

                                Guadelupe Victoria -           (Mexico)                                                (1824-)   1st President

                                Leo XII -

                                Pius VIII +

                                George Stephenson perfects the steam locomotive

                                Mendelssohn revives Bach by performing St. Matthew’s Passion

                                Mendelssohn begins Songs without Words (-1845)

                                Guillaumme Tell                                                  Rossini

                                Dietrich, Albert                                                                     1829-1908               Composer

                                Fick, Adolph                                                                         1829-1901

                                Gardiner, Samuel Rawson                                                   1829-1902

                                Geronimo                                                                               1829-1909

                                Gottschalk, Louis Moreau                                                  1829-1869               Composer

                                Millais, John                                                                         1829-1896

                                Rubinstein, Anton                                                               1829-1894               Composer

                                Abel, Niels Henrik                                                                1802-1829

                                Davy, Humphry                                                                    1778-1829

                                Giuliani, Mauro Giuseppe Sergio Pantaleo                      1781-1829               Composer

                                Gossec, Francois-Joseph                                                    1734-1829               Composer

                                Jay, John                                                                               1745-1829

                                Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste                                                       1744-1829

                                Schlegel, Friedrich                                                               1772-1829

1830                        Liberty leading the people (Delacroix)

                                iL'Institute de France (Shotter Boys)

                                Harmonies poetiques et religieuses (Lamartine)

                                Hernani (Hugo)

                                Le Rouge et le noir (Stendhal)

                                Principles of Geology (Charles Lyell) (-1833)

                                GREEK WAR OF INDEPENDENCE ...   (1821-1831)

                                Mormon Church organized by Joseph Smith at  Fayette, NY (4/6)

                                Indian Removal Act (Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek)-Indian Territory established by a  vote 28-20 (5/26)

                                Breakup of the Le Temps presses (7/27)

                                Franz Joseph I is born (8/8)

                                Bivouac of the French National Guard in the courtyard of the Louvre (12/22)


                                First passenger steam railways open - Liverpool to Manchester -  The Rocket

                                Revolutions in France, Belgium, the Rhineland, Italy, and Brazil

                                July Revolution in Paris - Charles X overthrown

                                Rising in Brussels

                                Flanders gains independence as a monarchy - Kingdom of Belgium recognized by the Powers (-1831)

                                Revolution in Poland crushed by Russia (-1831)

                                Greece formally declares independence - recognized by the Powers

                                French occupation of Algiers

                                Railroad is put to its first serious uses in the United States

                                Bent, St. Vrain and Company forms

                                Comte's positivist philosophy (-1842)

                                Charles X -                           (France)                                                 (1824-)   King

                                Louis Philippe +                  (France)                                                 (-1848)   "Citizen" King (desc. of Louis XIII)

                                George IV -                           (England)                                               (1820-)   King

                                William IV +                        (England)                                               (-1837)   King

                                Leopold I +                            (Belgium)                                              House of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield (Duke)

                                Peter I -                                 (Montenegro)                                       Prince-Bishop

                                Peter II +                               (Montenegro)                                       Prince-Bishop

                                Otto of Bavaria + (Greece)                                                                King

                                Pius VIII -

                                Fra Diavolo                                                          Auber                                    

                                Symphony Fantastique                                      Berlioz (1829)

                                Hebrides Overture (Fingal’s Cave)                 Mendelssohn

                                Songs without Words (first)                              Mendelssohn

                                Abegg Variations                , Op. 1                                    Schumann            

                                Nocturne in E-Flat Major, Op. 9, No. 2          Chopin

                                Bierstadt, Albert                                                                   1830-1902

                                Bronsart von Schellendorf, Hans                                      1830-1913               Composer

                                Coulanges, N. D. Fustel de                                 1830-1889               Historian (France)

                                Dickinson, Emily                                                                  1830-1886

                                Faure, Jean Baptiste                                                            1830-1914

                                Goldmark, Karl                                                                      1830-1915               Composer

                                Heise, Peter Arnold                                                             1830-1913               Composer

                                Heyse, Paul Johann Ludwig                                               1830-1914

                                Meyer, Lothar                                                                       1830-1895

                                Mistral, Frederic                                                                   1830-1914

                                Pissarro, Camille                                                                   1830-1903              

                                Bolivar, Simon                                                                              -1830

                                Fourier, Jean Baptiste Joseph                                            1768-1830

                                Hazlitt, William                                                                     1778-1830

                                Schliermacher, Friedrich Ernst Daniel                               1768-1830

1831                        The Princes in the Tower (Paul Hyppolyte Delaroche)

                                Dancing on the Barn Floor (William Sidney Mount)

                                La Peau de Chagrin (Balzac)

                                Faust Pt. II (Goethe)

                                Notre Dame de Paris (Hugo)

                                GREEK WAR OF INDEPENDENCE -   (1821-1831)

                                William Lloyd Garrison founds the Liberator - beginning of the anti - slavery movement (1/1)

                                Leopold of Saxe-Coburg (Leopold I) is elected first  King of the Belgians (6/21)                      

                                Nat Turner sees blue-green sun (atmospheric disturbance) as sign to begin slave  rebellion  (8/13)

                                Nat Turner’s Rebellion officially begins (8/21)

                                Nat Turner’s Rebellion supressed

                                John Capodistria is assassinated (first leader of independent Greece)  (10/9)

                                20,000 Choctaw removed to Indian Territory (11)


                                Revolutions in Poland, Spain and Italy (-1834)

                                Revolution in Warsaw

                                Uprisings in Modena, Parma, and Papal States put down by Austria

                                Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini forms Young Italy movement

                                Great Britain and France guarantee Belgian independence

                                Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia case (Georgia wins)

                                Morris Canal begins operation from Dover to Newark

                                Leopold I +                            (Belgium)                                              (-1865)  King (Saxe-Coburg)

                                Gregory XVI +

                                Faraday makes first electric transformer (8/29)

                                Chopin arrives in Paris

                                La sonnambula                                                    Bellini

                                Norma                                                                    Bellini

                                Papillons                                                              Schumann

                                Etude in C Minor, Op. 10, No. 12 “Revol.”   Chopin

                                Blavatsky, Helena                                                                1831-1891

                                Calverley, Charles S.                                                            1831-1884

                                Dedekind, Julius Wilhelm Richard                                    1831-1916

                                Garfield, James Abram                                                         1831-1881

                                Hughes, David Edward                                                       1831-1900

                                Joachim, Joseph                                                                   1831-1907               Composer

                                Maxwell, James Clerk                                                           1831-1871

                                Moore, Henry                                                                       1831-1895

                                Norman, Ludwig                                                                   1831-1885               Composer

                                Adams, Hannah                                                                   1755-1831

                                Albeniz, Mateo Antonio Perez                                          1760-1831               Composer

                                Arnim, Ludwig Achim                                                         1781-1831

                                Germaine, Sophie                                                 1776-1831

                                Hansel, Peter                                                                         1770-1831               Composer

                                Hegel, George Wilhelm Friedrich                                       1770-1831               Philosopher

                                Karl, Freiherr vom Stein                                                      1757-1831               Reformer (Prussia)

                                Kreutzer, Rodolphe                                                              1766-1831               Composer

                                Krommer, Franz Vincenz                                                     1759-1831               Composer

                                Pleyel, Ignaz Joseph                                                            1757-1831               Composer

                                Rudolph, Archduke of Austria                                          1788-1831               Composer

                                Seebeck,                                                                                1770-1831

1832                        The Money Diggers (John Ouidor)

                                George Catlin visits Mandan

                                John Trumbel founds the Yale University Art Gallery - sixth museum in the US

                                Tales of the Alhambra (Irving)

                                Black Hawk War begins Sauk and Fox pushed west across Mississippi (4/6)

                                Leopold I of Belgium marries Louise-Marie Orleans in Conpiegne, France (8/9)


                                Reform Act - extends vote to middle class in Great Britain - passed after a near revolution

                                Greece establishes monarchy

                                War between Egypt and Ottoman Empire (-1833)

                                Battle of Koniah - Ottomans defeated

                                Anahuac Disturbance #1 - helped precipitate Texas Revolution

                                Payne’s Landing Treaty - Seminole lands taken

                                Worcester vs. Georgia case (Cherokee win)

                                Otto I +                                  (Greece)                                                                Son of King Ludwig I of Bavaria

                                Concerts historiques founded in Paris

                                Stabat Mater                                                        Rossini

                                L'Elisir d'Amore                                                   Donizetti

                                Hebrides Overture                                               Mendelssohn

                                Etudes, Op. 10                                                      Chopin

                                Mazurkas, Op. 6                                                  Chopin

                                Alcott, Louisa May                                                             1832-1888

                                Alger, Horatio                                                                       1832-1899

                                Bjornsun, Bjornstjerne Martinus                                       1832-1910

                                Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge (Lewis Carrol)                     1832-1898

                                Dore, Gustave                                                                       1832-1883

                                Eizaguirre, Jose Echogram y                                               1832-1916

                                Koenig, K.R.                                                                         1832-1901

                                LeCocq, Charles                                                                   1832-1918               Composer

                                Manet, Eduard                                                                      1832-1883               Painter

                                Olcott, Henry Steel                                                              1832-1907

                                Otto, Nikolaus                                                                      1832-1891

                                Teichmuller, Gustav                                                             1832-1888

                                Wundt, Wilhelm                                                                   1832-1920

                                Bentham, Jeremy                                                                  1748-1832

                                Clementi, Muzio                                                                   1752-1832               Composer

                                Cuvier, Georges Leopole Chretien Frederic                     1769-1832

                                Galois, Evariste                                                                     1811-1832

                                Goethe, Wolfgang von                                                       1749-1832

                                Krause, Karl Christian Freidrich                                        1781-1832

                                Kuhlau, Daniel Friedrich Rudolph                                     1786-1832               Composer

                                MacKintosh, James                                                             1765-1832

                                Remusat, Jean Pierre Abel                                                  1788-1832

                                Scott, Sir Walter                                                                   1771-1832

1833                        Sartor Resartus (Carlyle)

                                Eugenie Grandet (Balzac)

                                Pauline (Robert Browning)

                                350 settlers establish city of Chicago (8/12)

                                Factory Act - forbids employment of children under nine in British factories (8/29)

                                Isabella II becomes Queen of Spain under the regency of her mother (9/29)

                                Convention of Kutahia - Mohammed Ali gains Syria

                                Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi - between Russia and Ottoman Empire

                                Munchengratz Argreement between Russia and Austria

                                Act abolishing slavery in British colonies

                                Hardy Ivy builds cabin near Atlanta

                                Andrew Jackson’s second inauguration

                                Bent Brothers build Fort William (Fort Bent)  on the north bank of the Arkansas River

                                First steam powered crossing of the Atlantic

                                First Carlist War begins - challenge to Isabella II's accession

                                Oberlin College opens

                                Ferdinand VII -                     (Spain)                                                   House of Bourbon  (rethroned)

                                Isabella II +                           (Spain)                                                   House of Bourbon 

                                Invention of photography (-1839)

                                “Italian” Symphony                                           Mendelssohn

                                Die Feen                                                                Wagner

                                Borodin, Alexander Porfirievich                                        1833-1887               Composer

                                Bradlaugh, Charles                                                              1833-1891

                                Brahms, Johannes                                                                1833-1897               Composer

                                Burne-Jones, Edward                                                          1833-1898               Painter

                                Clebsch,                                                                                 1833-1872

                                Dilthey, Wilhelm                                                                  1833-1911

                                Duhring, Eugen Karl                                                            1833-1901

                                Harrison, Benjamin                                                              1833-1901

                                Legendre, Adrien Marie                                                      1752-1833

                                More, Hannah                                                                      1745-1833

1834                        Comanche Feats of Horsemanship - Sham Battle (Catlin)

                                Le Pere Goriot (Balzac)

                                The Last Days of Pompeii (Bulwer-Lytton)

                                Robert Browning visits Italy

                                "Tolpuddle Martyrs" - six Dorset labourers transported for attempt to form a trade union

                                Carlist Wars in Spain - pretender Don Carlos attempts to gain Spanish throne (-1839)

                                Quadruple Alliance - between Great Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal to safeguard Spanish/Portuguese govts

                                Dom Miguel defeated in Portugal

                                Russian occupation ends in Walachia and Moldavia

                                Beginning of foundation of South Australia (1836) and Victoria (1837)

                                British Empire abolishes slavery

                                Indian Trade and Intercourse Act  of 1834 created Indian Territory w of Mississippi R.

                                Payne’s Landing Treaty  ratified - Seminole given three years to move to Indian Territory (32-35)

                                Washington Irving’s “A Tour of the Prairies” sketch

                                Bronson Alcott opens the Temple School in Boston

                                McCormick patents mechanical reaper

                                Miguel -                                 (Portugal)                                             House of Braganza

                                Maria II +                              (Portugal)                                             House of Braganza

                                Mihai Sturdza +                   (Moldavia)                                             Prince 

                                Alexander Ghica +              (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Vicente Rocafuerte +          (Equador)                                               (-1839)   President

                                Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik founded by Schumann

                                Harold in Italy                                                     Berlioz

                                Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg                              1834-1902               English Historian  (Naples)

                                Daimler, Gottlieb                                                                   1834-1900               Engineer (Germany)

                                Degas, Edgar                                                                        1834-1917               Painter

                                Haekel, Ernst                                                                         1834-1919

                                Howison, G. H.                                                                     1834-1916

                                Mendelejeff, Dmitri Ivanovich                                           1834-1907

                                Morris, William                                                                     1834-1896

                                Plante, Gaston                                                                      1834-1889

                                Ponchielli, Amilcare                                                             1834-1886               Composer             

                                Sitting Bull                                                                            1834-1890               Sioux Chief

                                Stockton, Frank                                                                    1834-1902

                                Waterson, James                                                                  1834-1893               Composer

                                Webb, Charles Henry                                                          1834-1905

                                Whistler, James Abbott McNeill                                       1834-1903               Painter

                                Zabel, Albert Heinrich                                                         1834-1910               Composer

                                Boieldieu, Francois Adrien                                 1775-1834               Composer

                                Coleridge, Samuel Taylor                                                    1772-1834

                                Lamb, Charles                                                                       1775-1834

                                Schuncke, Ludwig                                                               1810-1834               Composer

1835                        Music Party, Petworth (Joseph Mallord William Turner)

                                Noli me Tangere (Alexander Andreyevitch Ivanov)

                                Goethe's Correspondence with a Child (Arnim)

                                Life of Jesus (David Strauss)

                                Democracy in America (Tocqueville)

                                Paracelsus (Robert Browning)

                                Mademoiselle de Maupin (Theophile Gautier)

                                SECOND SEMINOLE WAR +   (1835-1842)

                                Leopold II of Belgium born (4/9)

                                Second (Great) Seminole War (11/1)

                                Gold discovered on Cherokee lands in Georgia.  Forced to cede lands (12/20)

                                Treaty of New Echota - Treaty "Ridge" Party - Cherokee exchanges GA and AL land in east for IT land (12/29)

                                Great Trek - Boer (Dutch) settlers in southern Africa found Transvaal (1836) (-1837)

                                Resolution on use of English for higher education in India

                                Railroad through Rahway, NJ

                                Anahuac Disturbance #2 - helped precipitate Texas Revolution

                                William Lamb +                   (Great Britain)                                     (1835-1841)         Prime Minister (2nd Time)

                                Francis I -                             (Austria)                                               Emperor House of Leopold

                                Ferdinand I +                        (Austria)                                               Emperor House of Leopold

                                Lord William Bentinck -   (India)                                                    Governor General (1828-)

                                Mendelssohn becomes conductor of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra

                                Treatise on Counterpoint and Fugue             Cherubini

                                Lucia di Lammermoor                                        Donizetti

                                I Puritani                                                              Bellini

                                Symphonis Etudes, Op. 13                                 Schumann

                                Abbot, Lyman                                                                      1835-1922

                                Adams Jr., Charles Francis                                 1835-1918               Economist/Historian (Boston, MA)

                                Baeyer, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von 1835-1917

                                Caird, Edward                                                                       1835-1908

                                Carducci, Giosue                                                                  1835-1907

                                Carnegie, Andrew                                                                1835-1919

                                Cui, Cesar                                                                              1835-1918               Composer

                                Clemens, Samuel (Mark Twain)                                         1835-1910

                                Gaboriau, Emile                                                                     1835-1873

                                Jevons, William Stanley                                                      1835-1882

                                Saint-Saens, Charles-Camille                                              1835-1921               Composer

                                Strauss, Eduard                                                                    1835-1916               Composer

                                Wieniawski, Henryk                                                            1835-1880               Composer

                                Bellini, Vincenzo                                                                   1801-1835

                                Gros, Antoine Jean                                                              1771-1835

                                Marshall, John                                                                      1755-1835

                                Nash, John                                                                            1752-1835

1836                        The Lion Hunt (Emile Vernet)

                                Departure of Volunteers (Francois Rude)

                                Nature (Emerson)

                                The Pickwick Papers (Dickens)

                                History of Bohemia (Palacky)

                                SECOND SEMINOLE WAR ...   (1835-1842)

                                Battle of Alamo begins (2/23)            -(3/6)

                                Texas declares independence from Mexico (3/1)

                                Battle of Coleto Creek - 380+ soldiers of Fannin's army surrender to Santa Anna (3/20)

                                Goliad Massacre - Santa Anna executes 380 Texan soldiers (3/27)  Palm Sunday

                                Battle of San Jacinto - Sam Houston and Texans win "Remember Goliad, remember the Alamo!" (4/21)

                                Santa Anna is captured (4/22)

                                Treaties of Velasco - signed by Santa Anna and David Burnet - end hostilities between Mexico & Texas (5/14)

                                Morocco Treaty of Peace (9/16)

                                Sam Houston elected president of Republic of Texas (10)

                                Bent Brothers and Ceran St. Vrain obtain a license to trade on the south Platte (11)


                                Chartist movement begins in Great Britain - demands votes for all adult males - initial violent support

                                Louis Napoleon starts insurrection against Louise Philippe

                                South Australia founded 

                                Gag Rule - US

                                Marcus Whitman., HH Spalding families reach Fort Walla Walla.  1st white women to cross plains

                                Sir Charles Barry designs Houses of Parliament, London

                                John Joseph I -                     (Liechtenstein)                                    Prince

                                Alois Joseph II +  (Liechtenstein)                                    Prince

                                Sam Houston +                     (Republic of Texas)                             President

                                Requiem in D minor                                            Cherubini

                                Les Huguenots                                                     Meyerbeer

                                A Life for the Tsar                                                Glinka

                                Ballades, Op. 23                                                  Chopin

                                Abbot, Francis Ellingwood                                                1836-1903

                                Delibes, Clement Philibert Leo                                           1836-1891               Composer

                                Gilbert, William Schwenck                                  1836-1911               Composer

                                Green, Thomas Hill                                                              1836-1882

                                Homer, Winslow                                                                  1836-1910               Painter

                                LaTour, Henri Fantin                                                           1836-1904

                                Lombroso                                                                              1836-1909

                                Lockyer, Joseph Norman                                                    1836-1920

                                Schuppe, Wilhelm                                                                1836-1913

                                Tissot, James                                                                        1836-1902               Painter

                                Toepler,                                                                                 1836-1912

                                Ampere, Andre Marie                                                         1775-1836

                                Belcher, Supply                                                                    1751-1836               Composer

                                Charles X, Count of Artois                                 1757-1836               King (France)

                                Colman the Younger, George                                             1762-1836

                                Galles, Jose                                                                           1761-1836               Composer

                                Godwin, William                                                                   1756-1836

                                Madison, James                                                                   1751-1836

                                Mill, James                                                                            1773-1836

                                Read, Daniel                                                                          1757-1836               Composer

                                Reicha, Anton                                                                      1770-1836               Composer (Prague)

                                Witt, Friedrich                                                                      1770-1836               Composer (Niederstetten)

1837                        The Old Shepherd's Chief Mourner (Edwin Landseer)

                                The French Revolution (Carlyle)

                                Contrasts (Pugin)

                                Strafford (Robert Browning) verse play

                                SECOND SEMINOLE WAR ...   (1835-1842)

                                Martin Van Buren inaugurated (3/4)

                                Queen Victoria succeeds to the British throne (6/20)

                                Persian-Afghan War (-1838)

                                Rebelion in Upper and Lower Canada

                                Victoria founded in Australia

                                Fort St. Vrain is built by Ceran st. Vrain and the Bent brothers along the South Fork of the Platte

                                Panic of 1837

                                Caroline Affair (-1842)

                                Morse telegraph

                                Mount Holyoke College founded

                                William IV -                         (England)                                               (1830-)   King

                                Victoria +                              (Great Britain)                                     (1837-1900)         Queen

                                Andrew Jackson -               (United States)                                     (1829-)   President

                                Martin Van Buren +           (United States)                                     (-1841)   President

                                Requiem                                                                 Berlioz

                                Fantasiestucke, Op. 12                                        Schumann

                                Annees de Pelerinage                                         Liszt

                                Bajer, Fredrik                                                                         1837-1922

                                Balakirev, Mili Alexayevich                                                1837-1910               Composer

                                Bastian, Henry Charlton                                                     1837-1915

                                Cleveland, Grover                                                                1837-1908

                                Green, J. R.                                                                            1837-1883               Historian (England)                            

                                Guilmant, Felix Alexandre                                                   1837-1911               Composer

                                Howells, William Dean                                                        1837-1920

                                Moran, Thomas                                                                    1837-1926

                                Newlands, John Alexander                                 1837-1889

                                Spir, African                                                                          1837-1890

                                Swinburne, Algernon Charles                                            1837-1909

                                Van der Waals, J. D.                                                            1837-1923

                                Waldteufel, Charles Emile                                                   1837-1915               Composer

                                Constable, John                                                                   1776-1837

                                Field, John                                                                             1782-1837               Composer

                                Fourier, F. M. (Charles)                                                       1772-1837

                                Gerard, Francois Pascal Simon, Baron                              1770-1837               Painter (French, b. Rome)

                                Hummel, Johann Nepomuk                                 1778-1837               Composer

                                Laromiguiere, Pierre                                                             1756-1837

                                Leopardi, Giacomo                                                               1798-1837

                                Lichnowsky, Reichsgrof Moritz von                                1771-1837               Composer

                                Pushkin, Aleksander Sergeyevich                                    1799-1837

                                Welsey, Samuel                                                                    1766-1837               Composer

1838                        Oliver claimed by his affectionate friends (from Oliver Twist) (Cruikshank)

                                Frederic Chopin (Delacroix)

                                The Capture of Constantinople (Delecroix)

                                Crossing the Bridge (Jules Dupre)

                                Daguerre takes first photographs

                                SECOND SEMINOLE WAR ...   (1835-1842)

                                Osceola, captured Senimole chief dies (1/20)

                                People's Charter in Great Britain published (5)

                                Battle of Blood River - Boers defeat Zulus in Natal, South Africa (12/16)

                                Honduras leaves Confederation

                                Aroostock War - border dispute along Maine/New Brunswick border (-1839)

                                Trail of Tears (summer, October-)

                                Pastry War - Mexico vs. France over debts - France invades Mexico

                                Victoria ...                              (Great Britain)                                       (1837-1900)            Queen

                                First public school instruction in music (Boston)

                                Benevuto Cellini                                                   Berlioz

                                Kinderszenen                                                        Schumann

                                Kreisleriana                                                           Schumann

                                Abbe, Cleveland                                                                  1838-1916

                                Abbott, Edwin Abbott                                                        1838-1926

                                Adams, Henry Brooks                                                         1838-1918               Historian

                                Bizet, Georges Alexandre Cesar Leopold                         1838-1875               Composer

                                Brentano, Franz                                                                    1838-1917               Philosopher/Psychologist (Germany)

                                Bruch, Max                                                                            1838-1920               Composer (Germany)

                                Castillon, Alexis Vicomte de                                               1838-1873               Composer

                                Daly, Augustin                                                                     1838-1899               Dramatist (Plymouth, NC)

                                Mach, Ernst                                                                          1838-1916               Physicist/Philosopher (Moravia)

                                Morley, Edward William                                                     1838-1923               Scientist (Newark, NJ)

                                Morley, John                                                                        1838-1923               Statesman/Letters (England)

                                Muir, John                                                                             1838-1914               Naturalist

                                Perkin, William Henry                                                          1838-1907

                                Richardson, Henry Hobson                                               1838-1886

                                Busby, Thomas                                                                    1775-1838               Composer

                                Chamisso, Adelbert von                                                     1781-1838

                                Crusell, Bernhard Henrik                                                     1775-1838               Composer

                                Lessel, Francizek                                                                  1780-1838               Composer

                                Reis, Ferdinand                                                                    1784-1838               Composer

                                Talleyrand-Perigord, Charles Maurice de                        1754-1838

1839                        The slave ship (Joseph Mallord William Turner)

                                The Fighting Temeraire (Joseph Mallord William Turner)

                                The Punishment of the Hooks (Alexandre Gabriel Decamps)

                                The Poor Poet (Carl Spitzweg)

                                Daguerreotype publicised

                                The Charterhouse of Parma (Stendhal)

                                Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque (Poe)

                                SECOND SEMINOLE WAR ...   (1835-1842)

                                Pastry War ends -  French forces leave Mexico after British arbitration (3/9)

                                Treaty (Convocation)of London is signed - European powers recognize the neutrality of Belgium (4/19)

                                Bedchamber Crisis - Melbourne tries to resign as PM (5)

                                Major Ridge, Cherokee leader is assassinated (6/22)

                                La Amistad insurrection (7/1)

                                Christian VIII crowned King of Denmark (12/13)


                                Anti- Corn Law League formed in Britain

                                Ottoman-Egyptian war (-1840)

                                Ottomans invade Syria

                                Battle of Nesib - Ottomans defeated

                                Hatt-i Serif of Gulhane - beginning of the Tanzimat period - reforms guaranteeing liberties of Ottoman subjects

                                Great Britain and Afghanistan at war (First Anglo-Afghan War) (-1842)

                                Death of Ranjit Singh

                                British occupy Aden

                                Commisioner Lin destroys foreign opium

                                First Opium War - between Great Britain and China (-1842)

                                Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada

                                Durham Report on the Organization of Canada

                                Helderberg War (anti-rent war) (-1846)

                                Stephen Kearney leads 10 companies of Dragoons from Fort Leavenworth against the Cherokees

                                Victoria ...                              (Great Britain)                                       (1837-1900)            Queen

                                Frederik VI -                        (Denmark)

                                Christian VIII +                   (Denmark)

                                Milos Obrenovic +               (Serbia)                                                 Prince

                                Milan +-                                 (Serbia)                                                 Prince

                                Michael +                              (Serbia)                                                 Prince

                                Mahmud I -                            (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Abdulmecid I +                     (Ottoman Empire)                                (-1861)   Sultan

                                Vicente Rocafuerte +          (Equador)                                               (1834-)   President

                                Wagner and Minna cross to Paris

                                Vienna Philharmonic founded

                                New York Philharmonic Society founded

                                Romeo and Juliet                                                                Berlioz

                                Trio in D Minor for violin, cello, piano          Mendelssohn

                                Nachtstucke                                                         Schumann

                                Preludes, Op. 28                                                  Chopin

                                Oberto                                                                   Verdi

                                Buck, Dudley                                                                        1839-1909               Composer

                                Cezanne, Paul                                                                       1839-1906               Painter

                                Chardonett, Louis                                                                1839-1924

                                George, Henry                                                                      1839-1897               Economist (United States) 

                                Gibbs, Josiah Willard                                                          1839-1903

                                Howells, William Dean                                                        1839-1920

                                Leclanche, Georges                                                             1839-1882

                                Mussorgsky, Modest Petrovich                                       1839-1881               Composer

                                Paine, John Knowles                                                           1839-1906               Composer

                                Pierce, Charles Sanders                                                       1839-1914

                                Prudhomme, (Sully) Rene Francois Armond                   1839-1907

                                Rheinberger, Josef Gabriel                                                  1839-1901               Composer              3/17

                                Rockefeller, John D.                                                             1839-1937

                                Sisley, Alfred                                                                        1839-1899               Painter

                                Austin, John                                                                         1790-1839

                                Backofen, Johann Georg Heinrich                                     1768-1839               Composer

                                Bystrom, Thomas                                                                 1772-1839               Composer

                                Galt, John                                                                              1779-1839

                                Praed, Winthrop Mackworth                                             1802-1839

                                Sor, Fernando                                                                       1778-1839               Composer

1840                        What is Property? (Proudhon)

                                Sordello  (Robert Browning)

                                Ecclesiastical and Political History of the Popes during the 16th &17th Centuries (3 vol.) (Leopold von Ranke)

                                Two Years before the Mast (Richard Henry Dana Jr.)

                                SECOND SEMINOLE WAR ...   (1835-1842)

                                British expeditionary force lands in China in response to the destruction of over a million pounds of opium (6)

                                World Anti-Slavery Convention begins at Freemasons Hall, London - Elizabeth Cady Stanton from U.S. (6/12)

                                Napoleon's body brought to Paris from St. Helena on the St. Poule - Elizabeth Cady Stanton in Paris (11/30)

                                Sirius  (Cunard Line) docks in New York City, 1st regular Atlantic steam ship (w/Cady Stanton) (12/24)


                                Socialism of Louis Blanc

                                Chartism and Parliamentary rule

                                Penny post introduced in Britain

                                Louis Napoleon's second insurrection against Louis Philippe - Napoleon III escapes to England

                                Treaty of London - Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria agree to limit Egyptian expansion

                                Treaty of London  - concedes Egypt to Muhammad Ali

                                British navy bombards Beirut

                                Union Act - unites Upper and Lower Canada

                                Treaty of Waitangi - New Zealand becomes a British Crown Colony with the help of the Colonization Society

                                Liberty Party formed in US

                                Victoria ...                              (Great Britain)                                       (1837-1900)            Queen

                                William I -                            (Netherlands)

                                William II +                          (Netherlands)

                                Frederick William III -      (Prussia)                                               (-1797)   King

                                Jose Rodriguez de Francia - (Paraguay)                                        (1816-)   Perpetual Dictator "El Supremo"

                                First incandescent electric light bulb developed by ...

                                Paganini dies at 58 (5/27)

                                The Daughter of the Regiment                          Donizetti

                                Dichterliebe                                                         Schumann

                                Lieder                                                                    Schumann

                                Sonata in B-flat minor                                        Chopin

                                Don Juan Fantasie                                             Liszt

                                Abbe, Ernst                                                                           1840-1905               Physicist (Germany)

                                Brassin, Louis                                                                       1840-1884               Composer

                                Blunt, Wilfrid Scawen                                                         1840-1922               Poet/Political writer (England)

                                Cope, Edward Drinker                                                         1840-1897               Paleontologist (Philadelphia)

                                Davidson, Thomas                                                              1840-1900

                                Goetz, Hermann                                                                    1840-1876               Composer

                                Monet, Claude                                                                      1840-1926               Painter

                                Redon, Odilon                                                                      1840-1916               Painter

                                Rodin, Auguste                                                                    1840-1917               Sculptor

                                Svendsen, Johann                                                                               1840-1911               Composer

                                Tchaikovsky, Peter                                                              1840-1893               Composer

                                Zola, Emile                                                                             1840-1902               Novelist

                                Beck, Jakob Sigismund                                                       1761-1840

                                Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich                                          1752-1840

                                Bonald, Louis de                                                                  1754-1840

                                Dizi, Francois-Joseph                                                          1780-1840               Composer

                                Friedrich, Caspar David                                                      1774-1840

                                Maistre, Joseph de                                                              1754-1840

                                Paganini, Nicolo                                                                   1782-1840               Composer

                                Poisson, Simeon Denis                                                       1781-1840

1841                        Punch founded

                                SECOND SEMINOLE WAR ...   (1835-1842)

                                Convention of Chuenpeh - signed between Great Britain and China for British control of Hong Kong (1/25)

                                Great Britain occupies Hong Kong under leadership of Edward Belcher (1/26)

                                First ongoing filibuster in US Senate begins (2/18)        -(3/11)

                                William Henry Harrison inaugurated (3/4)

                                Quincy Adams argues Amistad case in Supreme Court - Court declares in favor of the slaves (3/9)

                                US Senate filibuster ends (3/11)

                                William Henry Harrison dies (4/4)

                                John Tyler (Vice President) is inaugerated as the 10th US president (4/6)

                                First emigrant wagon train leaves for California from Independence, MO (5/1)        -(11/4)

                                Straits Convention - between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, and France (7/13)

                                Straits Convention - Dardenelles to be closed to foreign ships in peacetime (7/13)

                                Straits Convention -  Convention of Alexandria - Mohammed Ali to be hereditary ruler of Egypt (7/13)

                                Whigs riot outside of the White House in protest of a plan to re-establish the 2nd Bank of the US (8/16)

                                Robert Peel becomes British Prime Minister (Conservative) (8/30)

                                Edward VII is born to Victoria and Albert (11/9)


                                Brook Farm Commune set up by Trancendentalists (-1846)

                                Pre-emption Act of 1841 - legalizes rights of squatters to occupy unsurveyed land and buy later at $1.25/acre

                                Creole case (-1842)

                                John Sutter buys Fort Ross north of San Francisco and moves it to Fort Sutter

                                Western Emigration Society formed by John Bidwell

                                James Joule states relation between current and energy produced

                                Victoria ...                              (Great Britain)                                       (1837-1900)            Queen

                                William Lamb -                    (Great Britain)                                     (1835-1841)         Prime Minister (2nd Time)

                                Robert Peel +                       (Great Britian)                                     (1841-1846)         Prime Minister

                                Martin Van Buren -            (United States)                                     (1837-1841)         President

                                William Henry Harrison +-(United States)                                    *****    President  dies

                                John Tyler +                         (United States)                                     (1841-1845)         President

                                Saxophone invented

                                First Symphony                                                    Schumann

                                Fourth Symphony                                                Schumann

                                Bazille, Frederic                                                                    1841-1870

                                Chabrier, Alexis Emmanuel                                 1841-1894               Composer

                                Dvorak, Antonin                                                                  1841-1904               Composer

                                Lovreglio, Donato                                                                1841-1907               Composer

                                Morisot, Berthe                                                                    1841-1895

                                Renoir, Pierre August                                                          1841-1919               Painter

                                Tausig, Karl                                                                          1841-1871               Composer/Pianist

                                Baader, Franz Xavier von                                                   1765-1841

                                Carulli, Ferdinando                                                              1770-1841               Composer

                                Herbart, Johann Friedrich                                                   1776-1841

                                Lermontov, Mikhail Yuryevich                                          1814-1841

                                Savart, F.                                                                               1791-1841

                                Schinkel, Karl Friedrich                                                       1781-1841

1842                        Crossing the Ford (William Mulready)

                                Uncle Toby and the Widow Wadman (Charles Robert Leslie)

                                SECOND SEMINOLE WAR -   (1835-1842)

                                John Fremont stops at Fort St. Vrain to obtain horses and coffee (6/10)

                                Webster-Ashburton Treaty signed - settles boundary dispute between Canada and the United States (8/9)

                                Seminole War ends - Indians sent to Oklahoma (8/14)

                                Treaty of Nanking - between Great Britain and China - Hong Kong ceded to Great Britain (8/29)


                                Boer War - between British and Dutch Boers - British victorious

                                British withdraw from Kabul, Afghanistan

                                Dorr’s Rebellion

                                John C. Fremont’s Rocky Mountain expedition

                                Alexander Ghica -               (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Georghe Bibescu +             (Walachia)                                            Prince

                                Michael -                               (Serbia)                                                 Prince

                                Alexander +                          (Serbia)                                                 Prince (Karadjordjevic)

                                John Tyler ….                       (United States)                                     (1841-1845)

                                Vienna Philharmonische Konzerte founded (Weiner Philharmoniker)

                                First VPO concert under Otto Nicolai in Redoutensaal (3/28)

                                Third New York Philharmonic Society founded (4/2)

                                Leipzig Conservatory founded by Mendelssohn

                                Russlan and Ludmilla                                        Glinka

                                “Scotch” Symphony”                                         Mendelssohn

                                Polonaise in A-flat Major, Op. 53                    Chopin

                                Nabucco                                                                                Verdi

                                Rienzi                                                                     Wagner

                                Bierce, Ambrose                                                                   1842-1914

                                Fiske, John                                                                            1842-1901

                                Hartmann, Edward von                                                       1842-1906

                                James, William                                                                      1842-1910

                                Mallarme, Stephane                                                             1842-1898               Poet

                                Marshall, Alfred                                                                   1842-1924              

                                Massenet, Jules Emile Frederic                                          1842-1912               Composer

                                Pasculli, Antonino                                                               1842-1924               Composer

                                Rayleigh, J. William Strut                                                    1842-1919

                                Reynolds, Osborne                                                              1842-1912

                                Sullivan, Arthur Seymour                                                   1842-1900               Composer

                                Tilden, William Augustus                                                  1842-1926

                                Brentano, Clemens                                                               1778-1842

                                Channing, William Ellery                                                    1780-1842

                                Cherubini, Luigi                                                                    1760-1842               Composer

                                Cotman, John                                                                        1782-1842

                                Jouffroy, Theodore Simon                                                  1796-1842

                                Stendhal, Henri Beyle                                                          1783-1842

                                Weber, Bedrich Dionys                                                      1766-1842               Composer

1843                        A Christmas Carol (Dickens)

                                Fear and Trembling (Kierkegaard)

                                Karl Marx is expelled from Germany

                                Natal becomes a British colony

                                British annexation of Sind

                                First Maori War (-1848)

                                Gag Rule repealed - US

                                Fort Bridger on the Green River (Oregon Trail) built

                                Great Migration on the Oregon Trail

                                Daniel Webster resigns as US Secretary of State

                                John Tyler ….                       (United States)                                     (1841-1845)

                                Don Pasquale                                                      Donizetti

                                Der fliegende Hollander                                    Wagner

                                Avenarius, Richard                                                              1843-1896

                                Grieg, Edvard Hagerup                                                        1843-1907               Composer

                                Hamerik, Asger                                                                     1843-1923               Composer

                                Herzogenberg, Heinrich von                                              1843-1900               Composer

                                James, Henry                                                                        1843-1916

                                McKinley, William                                                               1843-1901               President

                                Pepper, William                                                                    1843-1898

                                Perez Galdos, Benito                                                            1843-1920

                                Popper, David                                                                       1843-1913               Composer

                                Ziehrer, Ludwig August                                                     1843-1922               Composer

                                Fries, Jakob Friedrich                                                          1773-1843

                                Hassler, Ferdinand Rudolf                                                  1770-1843

                                Holderlin, Johann Christian Friedrich                               1770-1843               Poet (Germany)

                                Lanner, Joseph Franz Karl                                                  1801-1843               Composer

                                Lithander, Carl Ludwig                                                        1773-1843               Composer

                                Webster, Noah                                                                     1758-1843

1844                        Rain, Steam and Speed - The Great Western Railway (Joseph M. William Turner)

                                The Painter's Mother and Sister (Friedrich Wasmann)

                                The Three Musketeers (Alexander Dumas)

                                The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 (Engels)

                                First telegraph message transmitted - Washington-Baltimore: “What Hath God Wrought!” (5/24)

                                Joseph Smith Jr. is murdered by a rioutous mob in a prison in Carthage Illinois (6/27)


                                Marx meets Friedrich Engels

                                Catholic riots in Philadelphia

                                “Vulcanization” patented

                                Charles XIV -                       (Sweden)                                                House of Bernadotte (John)

                                Oscar I +                               (Sweden)                                                House of Bernadotte

                                Charles XIV -                       (Norway)                                                House of Bernadotte (John)

                                Oscar I +                               (Norway)                                                House of Bernadotte

                                John Tyler ….                       (United States)                                     (1841-1845)

                                Carlos Lopez +                     (Paraguay)                                            (-1862)   President

                                The Sacred Harp                                                 White

                                Concerto for Violin in E Minor, Op. 64          Mendelssohn

                                Ernani                                                                   Verdi

                                Bernhardt, Sarah                                                                  1844-1923               Actress (10/23) (France)

                                Boltzmann, Ludwig                                                              1844-1906

                                Cassatt, Mary                                                                       1844-1926

                                Eakins, Thomas                                                                    1844-1916               Painter (Philadelphia) (7/25)

                                Nietzsche, Friedrich                                                             1844-1900               Philosopher (10/15)

                                Ratzel, Friedrich                                                                    1844-1904

                                Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolay Andreyevich                        1844-1908               Composer (3/6) (3/18 N.S.)

                                Rousseau, Henri                                                                   1844-1910               Painter (5/21)

                                Sarasate, Pablo Martin Meliton de                                    1844-1908               Composer (3/10)

                                Taffanel, Claude Paul                                                          1844-1908               Composer                                             

                                Thibault, Jacques Anatole (France)                                  1844-1924

                                Verlaine, Paul                                                                        1844-1896               Poet (3/30) (Metz, France)

                                Widor, Charles Marie Jean Albert                                     1844-1934               Composer

                                Bulfinch, Charles                                                                  1763-1844

                                Dalton, John                                                                         1766-1844

                                Mozart, Franz Xaver                                                            1791-1844               Composer

                                Smith Jr., Joseph                                                                  1805-1844               Latter Day Prophet/ Founder of Mormonism

1845                        The Fairy of the Fountain (William Etty)

                                The Spirit of Chivalry (Daniel Maclise)

                                The Greeks and the Trojans contending for Patroclus' Body (Antoine Wiertz)

                                Fur traders on the Missouri (George Caleb Bingham)

                                The Caliph of Constantine with his Bodyguards (Chasseriau)

                                The Count of Monte Christo (Alexander Dumas)

                                Cosmos (Humboldt)

                                Texas annexed by US (3/1)

                                James Knox Polk inaugurated (3/4)  

                                “Manifest Destiny” appears as a concept in article by John L. O’Sullivan (7/8)

                                Texas joins the United States (12/29)

`                               -------------------------------------------------------

                                Anglo-Sikh Wars - Britain annexes Punjab, northwest India

                                Methodist Church splits along sectional lines

                                John Tyler -                          (United States)                                     (1841-)   President

                                James Knox Polk +             (United States)                                     (-1849)   President

                                Sonata in B minor                                               Chopin

                                Les Preludes                                                         Liszt

                                Tannhauser                                                          Wagner

                                La Bamboula                                                        Gottschalk

                                Bode, Wilhelm von                                                              1845-1929

                                Boutroux, Emile                                                                    1845-1921

                                Cantor, George                                                                     1845-1918

                                De la Blache, Paul Vidal                                                      1845-1918

                                Faure, Gabriel Urbain                                                           1845-1924               Composer

                                Hasselmans, Alphonse                                                       1845-1912               Composer

                                Gunton, George                                                                    1845-1919

                                Ivanovici, Iosif                                                                     1845-1902               Composer

                                Lippman, Gabriel                                                                  1845-1921

                                Roentgen, Wilhelm Conrad                                                1845-1923

                                Saintsbury, George Edward Bateman                               1845-1933

                                Sousa, John Philip                                                               1845-1932               Composer

                                Spitteler, Carl Friedrich Georg                                            1845-1924

                                Buxton, Thomas Fowell                                                      1786-1845

                                Daniel, John Frederic                                                           1790-1845

                                Hood, Thomas                                                                      1799-1845

                                Royer-Collard, Pierre Paul                                                   1763-1845

1846                        The Oxbow (Thomas Cole)

                                Promenade by the Sea (Eugene Isabey)          

                                Brigham Young leads Mormons westward departing from Nauvoo, IL (2/4)

                                Komei becomes 121st emperor of Japan (3/10)

                                Zachary Taylor's army reaches Rio Grande opposite Matamoros (3/28)

                                Donner Party sets off from Springfield, IL (4/16)

                                Mexican War starts (4/25)

                                Donner Party arrives in Independence, Missouri (5/11)

                                Donner Party sets out west from Independence (5/12)

                                US declares war on Mexico (5/13)

                                Francis Parkman's party sets off west from Fort Leavenworth (5/23)

                                Advance party of Mormons led by Brigham Young reach the Missouri River near present-day  Omaha, NE (6/14)

                                Oregon Treaty -  boundary dispute settled at 49th parallel (6/15)

                                US forces under John Sloat occupy Monterey and Yerba Buena - begin the annexation of California (7/6)

                                Stephen W. Kearny becomes military governor of New Mexico (8/18)

                                Parman expedition sets off from Bent's Fort east for final leg of journey (8/27)

                                Parkman expedition meets large army caravan bound for Santa Fe on the Arkansas (9/14)

                                Battle of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon - US Victory (9/21-23)

                                Kearny Code - Laws for the government of the territory of New Mexico (9/22)

                                Kearny sets out from New Mexico to California with 300 men (9/25)

                                Californios defeat US force in Los Angeles (9/30)

                                Battle of San Pasqual (12/6-7)


                                Potato famine reaches height in Ireland - 1 million die by 1851

                                Growth of anti-British movement in Ireland

                                Corn Laws repealed in Great Britain

                                Zulu reserves set up in Natal

                                War between Kaffirs (Bantu) and Great Britain in South Africa (-1847)

                                First act of segregation in South Africa - Zulu reserves set up in Natal

                                United States and Mexico at war (-1848)

                                Applegate Trail Opens

                                Mormon Migration (-1848)

                                Wilmot Proviso

                                Smithsonian Institution founded

                                First use of ether as an anesthetic

                                Howe's sewing machine patented

                                Komei +                                 (Japan)                                                   (-1867)   121st Emperor

                                Gregory XVI -

                                Pius IX +

                                The Damnation of Faust                                    Berlioz

                                Elijah                                                                     Mendelssohn

                                Bradley, Francis Herbert                                                     1846-1924

                                Euken, Rudolf  Christolf                                                      1846-1926

                                Noskowski, Zygmunt                                                          1846-1908               Composer (Poland)

                                Sienkiewicz, Henryk                                                             1846-1919

                                Westinghouse, George                                                       1846-1914

                                Bessel, Wilhelm                                                                    1784-1846

                                Dragonetti, Domenico                                                         1763-1846               Composer

                                List, Friedrich                                                                        1789-1846

1847                        The Greek Slave (Hiram Powers)

                                Evangeline (Longfellow)

                                Jane Eyre (Charlotte Bronte)

                                Wuthering Heights (Emily Bronte)

                                Battle of Rio San Gabriel - US wins (1/8)

                                Battle of La Mesa - US wins (1/9)

                                US Marines take Los Angeles from Mexico (1/10)

                                Treaty of Cahuenga - ended California segment of Mexican-American War (1/13)

                                Pueblo Revolt at Taos - Governor Bent is murdered (1/17)

                                Donner party "Forelorn Hope" reaches saftey on the western side of Sierra Nevadas (1/18)

                                First Relief of the Donner Party sets out (2/22)

                                Battle of Buena Vista, Coahila (2/22-23)

                                Vanguard Company leaves Winter Quarters (Iowa Territory) along Missouri with 143 people towards Great Basin, UT (4/5)

                                Vangard Company reaches Fort Laramie merges with two other Mormon groups  (6/1)

                                Brigham Young with Vanguard Company meets mountain man Jim Bridger (6/28)

                                Vanguard Company arrives at Fort Bridger (7/7)

                                Erastus Snow and Orson Pratt arrive at Salt Lake Valley as part of Vanguard Company (7/21)

                                Brigham young and others of the “sick party” reach Salt Lake Valley (7/24)

                                Mexico City falls to Winfield Scott’s forces (9/14)

                                Siege of Puebla begins (9/14)                             -(10/12)


                                Irish famine - "Young Ireland" party

                                Kaffirs (Bantu) defeated by Great Britain

                                Atlanta incorporated

                                Martha                                                                  von Flotow

                                Macbeth                                                                                Verdi

                                Bell, Alexander Graham                                                       1847-1922               Scientist

                                Besant, Annie                                                                       1847-1928

                                Browne, Borden Parker                                                       1847-1910

                                Cervantes, Ignatio                                                               1847-1905               Composer

                                Edison, Thomas Alva                                                          1847-1931               Scientist

                                Fuchs, Robert                                                                       1847-1927               Composer

                                Gide, Charles                                                                         1847-1932               Economist (France)

                                Grondahl, Agathe Backer                                                   1847-1907               Composer

                                Marconi, Marchese Guglielmo                                           1847-1937               Scientist

                                Pulitzer, Joseph                                                                    1847-1911

                                Ryder, Albert Pinkham                           &