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1900                        West Point, Prout's Neck (Winslow Homer)

                                Bathers (Paul Cezanne) (-1905)

                                The Cyclops (Odilon Redon)

                                The Wyndham Sisters (John SInger Sargent)

                                Door from the Palace of king of Ikere-Ekiti (Olowe of Ise) (Yoruba)

                                Art Nouveau (-1911)

                                Resurrection (Tolstoy)

                                Lord Jim (Conrad)

                                British Governor Frederick Hodgson demands the the Golden Stool from the Ashanti leaders (3/28)

                                Umberto I, King of Italy assassinated by anarchist Gaetano Bresci (7/29)

                                Hague Convention goes into force (9/4)

                                International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union founded  in NYC (11)

                                -------------------------------------------------------------

                                Labour Representation Committee founded in Britain - leading to formation of the Labour oarty in 1906

                                German Navy Law - provides for massive increase in sea power - starts arms race with Great Britain

                                British conquest and occupation of northern Nigeria begins (-1903)

                                Kimberly, Ladysmith, Mafeking relieved by British forces under Generals Roberts and Kitchener

                                Great Britain annexes Orange Free State and Transvaal

                                Boxer Rebellion - Nationalist forces rebel in China - besiege foreign legations - suppressed by internat. force

                                Western envoys besieged in Peking and relieved by a European army under a German general

                                The "Yellow Peril"

                                Qing Dynasty decides to build a modernized army

                                Gold Standard adopted

                                Carry Nation raids in Kansas

                                US helps supress Boxer Uprising in China

                                Indian Territory renamed Oklahoma territory

                                Paris World's Fair

                                Umberto I -

                                Vittorio Emanuele III +

                                The Interpretation on Dreams (Freud) (1899)

                                Count Ferdinand Zeppelin constructs the first dirigible

                                Hopkins' first studies of vitamins

                                Philadelphia Orchestra forms

                                Weiner Symphoniker forms

                                The Dream of Gerontius                                     Elgar

                                Tosca                                                                     Puccini

                                Louise                                                                    Charpentier

                                Nocturnes                                                             Debussy

                                Alkema, Wobbe                                                                   1900-1981

                                Allegret, Marc                                                                      1900-1973

                                Antheil, George                                                                    1900-                       Composer

                                Armstrong, Louis                                                                 1900-1971               Musician

                                Brown, Willie                                                                        1900-1952               Musician

                                Bunuel, Luis                                                                          1900-1983               Director

                                Chiarini, Luigi                                                                       1900-1975

                                Copland, Aaron                                                                    1900-1990               Composer

                                Cugat, Xavier                                                                        1900-1990               Musician

                                Fromm, Erich                                                                         1900-1980

                                Gabor, Dennis                                                                       1900-1979

                                Gadamer, Hans Georg                                                          1900-

                                Gorky, Arshile (Adoian Vosdnik)                                      1900-1948               Painter

                                Halffler, Rodolfo                                                                   1900-                       Composer

                                Head, Michael                                                                      1900-1976               Musician

                                Hilton, James (Glen Trevor)                                                1900-1954

                                Johnson, Eyvind                                                                  1900-1976

                                Krenek, Ernest                                                                      1900-                       Musician

                                Ladnier, Thomas                                                                  1900-1939               Musician

                                Luening, Otto                                                                       1900-1996               Composer

                                Needham, Joseph                                                                 1900-1995

                                Neel, Alice                                                                             1900-1984

                                Parham, Hartzell “Tiny”                                                      1900-1943               Musician

                                Pauli, Wolfgang                                                                   1900-1958

                                Potter, Stephen                                                                     1900-

                                Ryle, Gilbert                                                                          1900-1976

                                Saint-Exupery, Antoine de                                                 1900-1944

                                Seferis, Giorgos (Seferiadis)                                               1900-1971

                                Tanguy, Yves                                                                       1900-1955

                                Weill, Kurt                                                                             1900-1950               Composer

                                Wolfe, Thomas                                                                     1900-1938

                                Bertrand, Joseph Louis Francois                                       1822-1900

                                Church, Frederic                                                                   1826-1900

                                Crane, Stephen                                                                     1871-1900

                                Daimler, Gottlieb                                                                   1834-1900

                                Davidson, Thomas                                                              1840-1900

                                Fibich, Zdenek                                                                      1850-1900               Composer

                                Grove, Sir George                                                                 1820-1900               Composer

                                Hartmann, Johann Peter Emilius                                        1805-1900               Composer

                                Herzogenberg, Heinrich von                                              1843-1900               Composer

                                Hughes, David Edward                                                       1831-1900

                                Martineau, James                                                                 1805-1900               Philosopher / Theologian (England)

                                Mivart, George                                                                     1827-1900

                                Nietzsche, Friedrich                                                             1844-1900               Philosopher

                                Ruskin, John                                                                         1819-1900

                                Sullivan, Arthur Seymour                                                   1842-1900               Composer

                                Wilde, Oscar                                                                         1854-1900               Writer (1856)

1901                        Mediterranean (Maillol)

                                Caesar and Cleopatra (Shaw)

                                Buddenbrooks (Mann)

                                The Will To Power (Nietzsche)   postumous fragments

                                Queen Victoria dies (1/22)

                                US captures Filipino insurgent leader Emilio Aguinaldo (5/23)

                                William McKinley shot twice by anarchist Leon Czolgosz in  Buffalo - Temple of Music (9/6)             Friday

                                William McKinley dies from gunshot wound  (gangrene) to stomach (9/14) Saturday

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                "Terrorist" activities increase in Russia

                                Russia occupies Manchuria

                                Commonwealth of Australia established

                                First oil strike in Beaumont, TX

                                Buganda agreement - British indirect rule in Uganda through king of Buganda

                                Oil concession granted to W. K. D'Arcy in Iran

                                US Steel Corporation forms - first business capitalized at more than a billion dollars

                                Victoria -                               (England)                                               (1837-)

                                Edward VII +                         (England)                                               King

                                Marconi transmits first radiotelegraphy message across the Atlantic

                                Max Planck develops quantum theory

                                Victor Talking Machine incorporated in Camden NJ

                                Columbia starts producing disc records

                                Fourth Symphony                                                Mahler

                                A Pagan Poem                                                     Loeffler

                                Three Nocturnes for orchestra                          Debussy

                                Second Piano Concerto                                     Rachmaninov

                                Gurre-Lieder                                                        Schoenberg

                                "High Society"                                                     Porter Steele/Walter Melrose

                                Abbagnano, Nicola                                                             1901-

                                Apostel, Hans Erich                                                            1901-1972               Composer

                                Boyer, Jean                                                                           1901-

                                Bresson, Robert                                                                   1901-1999

                                Collins, Lee                                                                           1901-1960

                                Disney, Walt                                                                         1901-1966               Cartoonist

                                Dubuffet, Jean                                                                      1901-1985               Painter

                                Fermi, Enrico                                                                         1901-1954               Physicist (Italy)

                                Finzi, Gerald                                                                          1901-1956               Composer

                                Giacometti, Alberto                                                              1901-1966               Painter/Sculptor

                                Heisenberg, Werner Karl                                                    1901-1976               Physicist

                                Kahn, Louis                                                                          1901-1974

                                Lacan, Jacques Marie Emile                                               1901-1981

                                Lawrence, E. O.                                                                     1901-1958

                                Malraux, Andre                                                                    1901-1976

                                Morris, Charles W.                                                              1901-1979

                                Nagel, Ernest                                                                        1901-1985

                                Partch, Harry                                                                         1901-1974               Composer

                                Pepping, Ernst                                                                      1901-                       Musician

                                Poot, Marcel                                                                         1901-1988               Musician

                                Quasimodo, Salvadore                                                        1901-1968

                                Rodrigo, Joaquin                                                                  1901-                       Composer

                                Rubbra, Edmund                                                                  1901-1986               Composer

                                Scruggs, Irene                                                                      1901-                       Musician

                                Seifert, Jaroslav                                                                    1901-1986

                                Trumbauer, Frankie                                                              1901-1956

                                Adams, Herbert Baxter                                                        1850-1901

                                Bocklin, Arnold                                                                    1827-1901

                                Broglie, Jaques Victor Albert                                             1821-1901

                                Duhring, Eugen Karl                                                            1833-1901

                                Fick, Adolph                                                                         1829-1901

                                Fiske, John                                                                            1842-1901

                                Harrison, Benjamin                                                              1833-1901

                                Hermite, Charles                                                                   1822-1901

                                Kalinnikov, Vasily Sergeyevich                                         1866-1901               Composer

                                Koenig, K.R.                                                                         1832-1901

                                McKinley, William                                                               1843-1901               President

                                Rheinberger, Josef Gabriel                                                  1839-1901               Composer              3/17

                                Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de                                               1864-1901               Painter

                                Verdi, Guiseppi Fortunino Frencesco                               1813-1901               Composer

1902                        Waterloo Bridge (Monet)

                                Mediterranee (Aristide Maillol)

                                Door of the Room De Luxe of the Willow Tea Rooms (Mackintosh)

                                Heart of Darkness (Conrad)

                                Tales (Maxim Gorky)

                                Treaty of Vereenigong (Vereeniging) - ends Boer War

                                Anglo-Japanese Alliance forms - ending Great Britain's isolation policy

                                End of Philippine insurrection

                                British and German fleet seize Venezuelan navy to force payment of debts

                                Sannidhana -                        (Mysore)                                                H.H. Vani Vilas (regent)

                                First transPacific cable

                                Radio invented

                                Pierre and Marie Curie discover radium

                                Caruso records 10 arias for Gramophone Red Label

                                Pelleas et Melisande                                          Debussy  (4/30)

                                Second Symphony                                               Sibelius

                                "In the Good Old Summertime"                         Tin Pan Alley

                                Adams, Alibris Ansel                                                          1902-1984               Photographer

                                Adler, Mortimer                                                                    1902-2001

                                Brattain, W. H.                                                                      1902-1987

                                Braudel, Fernand                                                                  1902-1985

                                De Sica, Vittoria                                                                    1902-1974               Director

                                Dirac, P. A. M.                                                                      1902-1984

                                Feigl, Hebert                                                                         1902-1988

                                Hatta, Mohammed                                                               1902-

                                House, Son                                                                           1902-1988               Musician

                                James, Skip                                                                            1902-1969               Musician

                                Johnson, Blind Willie                                                          1902-1947               Musician]

                                Kaper, Bronislau                                                                  1902-1983               Composer (Warsaw, Poland)

                                Kastler, Alfred                                                                      1902-1984

                                Laxness, Halldor Kiljan                                                       1902-1998

                                Lindbergh, Charles Augustus                                           1902-                       Entrepreneur

                                Loyd, Seton Howard Frederick                                          1902-

                                Popper, Karl                                                                          1902-1994

                                Rodgers, Richard Charles                                                   1902-1979               Musician

                                Rushing, Jimmy                                                                    1902-1972               Musician

                                Steinbeck, John                                                                    1902-1968               Writer

                                Tarsky, Alfred                                                                      1902-1983

                                Walton, William Turner                                                      1902-1983               Composer

                                Wigner, Eugene Paul                                                           1902-1995

                                Wild, John                                                                             1902-1972

                                Wolpe, Stefan                                                                       1902-1972

                                Wyler, William                                                                      1902-1981               Director

                                Abel, Frederick Augustus                                                  1827-1902

                                Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg                              1834-1902               English Historian  (Naples)

                                Bierstadt, Albert                                                                   1830-1902

                                Gardiner, Samuel Rawson                                                   1829-1902

                                Ivanovici, Iosif                                                                     1845-1902               Composer

                                Stanton, Elizabeth Cady                                                      1815-1902

                                Stockton, Frank                                                                    1834-1902

                                Tissot, James                                                                        1836-1902

                                Zola, Emile                                                                             1840-1902               Writer

1903                        Houses at Chatou (Maurice de Vlaminck)

                                Man and Superman (Shaw)

                                Call of the Wild (London)

                                The Souls of the Black Folk (W. E. B. Dubois)

                                Motu proprio (Pope Pius X)

                                First Transcontinental automobile trip SF-NYC (5/23-8/1)

                                Panama declares independence with US support (11/3)

                                Panama Canal Treaty signed (11/18)

                                Kitty Hawk flight (12/17)

                                Iroquois Theatre fire in Chicago kills over 600 people (12/30)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Women's Social and Political Union firmed in Britian by suffragette Mrs. Emmeline Pankhurst

                                Russian Social Democratic Party meets in London - split between Mensheviks and Bolsheviks

                                Trans-Siberian railway completed

                                General agitation about appalling labour conditions in Congo Free State

                                Panama achieves independence from Colombia

                                Alaska boundary determined

                                Elkins Act

                                Wilbur and Orville Wright conduct first successful airplane flight - Kitty Hawk

                                Twsett's studies in adsorption chromatography

                                Alexander I -                         (Serbia)                                                 King

                                Peter I +                                (Serbia)                                                 King (Karadjordjevic) (-1921)

                                Leo XIII -

                                Pius X +

                                Seattle Symphony Orchestra forms (12/29)

                                Minnesota Orchestra forms (1903)

                                Jeji Pastorkna (Jenufa)                                     Janacek

                                Estampes                                                               Debussy

                                Pagodes                                                                                Debussy

                                Sinfonia domestica                                             R. Strauss

                                Trois Pieces en forme de poire                          Satie

                                Adorno, Theodor                                                                 1903-1969

                                Baker, Josephine                                                                  1903-                       Singer

                                Ball, Eric (sp?)                                                                       1903-1989               Musician

                                Beiderbecke, Bix                                                                   1903-1931               Musician

                                Berkeley, Lennox                                                                  1903-1989               Composer

                                Cornell, Joseph                                                                     1903-1973

                                Crosby, Bing                                                                         1903-1977               Singer

                                Hepworth, Barabara                                                             1903-1975

                                Hines, Earl Kenneth                                                             1903-1983               Musician

                                Khachaturian, Aram Il’yich                                                1903-1978               Composer

                                Mankiewicz, Joseph L.                                                        1903-1993               Director  (1911)

                                Neumann, John von                                                            1903-1957

                                Noble, Ray                                                                            1903-                       Composer

                                Onsanger, Lars                                                                     1903-1976

                                Orwell, George                                                                      1903-1950               Writer

                                Ozu, Yasujiro                                                                        1903-1963

                                Powell, C. F.                                                                          1903-1969

                                Ramsey, F. P.                                                                        1903-1930

                                Rothko, Mark                                                                        1903-1970               Painter

                                Serkin, Rudolf                                                                       1903-                       Classical Pianist

                                Dickinson, Thorold                                                              1903-1984               Director

                                Walton, Ernest T. S.                                                            1903-1995

                                West, Nathanael                                                                  1903-1940               Writer

                                Williams, Big Joe                                                                  1903-1982               Musician

                                Yourcenar, Marguerite                                                        1903-1987

                                Abbot, Francis Ellingwood                                                1836-1903

                                Bain, Alexander                                                                    1818-1903

                                Gauguin, Paul                                                                       1848-1903               Painter

                                Gibbs, Josiah Willard                                                          1839-1903

                                Mommsen, Christian Matthias Theodor                          1817-1903               Historian (Germany)

                                Olmsted, Frederick Law                                                       1822-1903

                                Pissarro, Camille                                                                   1830-1903               Painter

                                Sadlier, Mary Anne Madden                                             1820-1903

                                Spencer, Herbert                                                                  1820-1903               Philosopher

                                Stokes, George Gabriel                                                        1819-1903

                                Whistler, James Abbott McNeill                                       1834-1903

                                Wolf, Hugo                                                                           1860-1903               Composer

1904                        Water-lilies (Claude Monet)

                                Children of Wrath (Jeppe Aakjaer) novel

                                The Cherry Orchard (Chekhov)

                                Historique du mouvement de la paix (Passy)

                                Peter Pan (Barrie)

                                Jean Christophe (Roland)

                                The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (Freud)

                                Rooselvelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine - presents in his address to Congress (1/6)

                                Russia and Japan at war (Russo-Japanese War) (-1905)

                                Entente Cordiale (friendly understanding) reached between Great Britain and France (Anglo-French Entente)

                                Belgian commission investigates labour conditions in Congo Free State

                                British explorer Sir Francis Younghusband enters Lhasa (Tibet) - treaty opens Tibet to western trade

                                Thirteenth Dalai Lama flees to Mongolia

                                Panama zone aquired by US on lease

                                First Antidumping Law passed in Canada

                                St. Louis World Exposotion

                                London Symphony Orchestra forms

                                Madame Butterfly                                                Puccini

                                String Quartet in F                                             Ravel

                                Little Johnny Jones                                             George M. Cohen

                                Cantata for mixed choir and piano                 Stravinsky

                                "Yankee Doodle Dandy"                                   George M. Cohen

                                "Give My Regards to Broadway"                     George M. Cohen

                                Addinsell, Richard                                                               1904-1977               Composer

                                Basie, Count                                                                         1904-1981               Composer

                                Cadmus, Paul                                                                        1904-1999

                                Campbell, Joseph                                                                 1904-1987               Anthropologist

                                Cherenkov, P. A.                                                                  1904-1990

                                Dali, Salvador                                                                       1904-1989               Painter

                                Dallapiccola, Luigi                                                               1904-1975               Composer

                                De Kooning, Willem                                                            1904-1997               Painter

                                Hamilton, Anthony Walter Patrick                                    1904-1962

                                Hawkins, Coleman                                                               1904-1969               Musician

                                Herzberg, Gerard                                                                  1904-1999

                                Johnson, Pete                                                                       1904-1967               Musician

                                Kabalevsky, Dmitri Borisovich                                          1904-1987               Composer

                                Kenp, James Hal                                                                   1904-1940               Musician

                                Lerner, Frederick                                                                  1904-1988

                                Martinson, Harry                                                                 1904-1978

                                McDowell, Mississippi Fred                                              1904-1979               Musician

                                Milstein, Nathan                                                                  1904-                       Musician

                                Neel, Luis Eugene                                                                1904-

                                Neruda, Pablo (Neftali Ricardo Reyes B)                         1904-1973

                                Noguchi, Isamu                                                                    1904-1988               Sculptor/Architect (Japan)

                                Oppenheimer, Robert                                                          1904-1967               Physicist

                                Perelman, Sydney Joseph                                                   1904-1979

                                Pourbaix, Marcel                                                                  1904-1998

                                Red, Tampa                                                                           1904-1981               Musician

                                Singer, Isaac Bashevis                                                        1904-1991

                                Stevens, George                                                                   1904-1979

                                Waller, Fats                                                                           1904-1943               Musician

                                Wisdom, John                                                                      1904-1993

                                Bohtlingk, Otto von                                                             1815-1904

                                Chekhov, Anton                                                                  1860-1904

                                Chopin, Kate O’Flaherty                                                     1851-1904

                                Dvorak, Antonin                                                                  1841-1904

                                Emmett, Dan                                                                          1815-1904               Composer

                                Gerome, Jean-Leon                                                              1824-1904               Painter (Vesoul, France)

                                Heade, Martin Johnson                                                      1819-1904

                                Heinze, Gustaf Adolf                                                           1820-1904               Composer

                                Herzl, Theodor                                                                      1860-1904               Zionist

                                LaTour, Henri Fantin                                                           1836-1904

                                Ratzel, Friedrich                                                                    1844-1904

1905                        Family of Saltimbanques (Picasso)

                                House of Mirth (Wharton)

                                Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (Freud)

                                The Cubist Decade (-1915)

                                Golden Dome at al-Alskari Mosque is added in Samarra

                                Bloody Sunday - troops fire on workers in St. Petersburg, Russia - several killed - general strike (1/22G) (1/9J)

                                Battle of Mukden - last major land battle of Russo-Japanese War - Japan defeat Russians (2/20) -(3/10)

                                Kaiser Wilhelm II arrives in Tangier, Morocco (3/31)

                                Battle of Tsushima - Japan destroys Russian fleet (5/27-29)

                                Maji Maji Rising begins (German East Africa) (7)          (-1907)

                                Treaty of Portsmouth - ends Russo-Japanese War (9/5) (8/23J old style)

                                October Manifesto -  issued by Tsar Nicholas II granting limited reforms (10/30) (10/17Old Style Julian)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Reforming liberal government in Britain

                                United Socialist Party forms in France

                                Pope Leo XIII's letter condemns labor conditions

                                Russian Revolution (-1906)

                                Moscow uprisings - general strike and revolution in Russia

                                Church and state separated in France - repudiation of Concordat of 1801 (except Alsace & Lorraine)

                                Norway becomes an independent kingdom separate from Sweden

                                First Morroccan Crisis begins - between France and Germany

                                Constitutional Revolution in Iran (-1909)

                                Bengal partitioned - arouses strong nationalist feelings in India

                                Chinese civil service examination system abolished

                                Sun Yat Set organizes a revolutionary league in Japan - the T'ung Meng Hui

                                Port Arthur falls to Japan

                                Niagra Falls Convention - US

                                Oscar II -                               (Norway)(Swenden)                             House of Bernadotte

                                Haakon VII +                        (Norway)

                                Lord Curzon +                     (India)                                                    Governor General (1899-)

                                Albert Einstein's Special Relativity Theory

                                Wilstatter's first chemical investigations in photosynthesis

                                Sime starts Variety magazine

                                La Mer                                                                   Debussy

                                Suite bergamasque                                             Debussy

                                Salome                                                                   R. Strauss

                                The Merry Widow                                                Lehar

                                D Minor String Quartet                                     Schoenberg

                                Chamber Symphony                                            Schoenberg

                                Alwyn, William                                                                     1905-1985               Composer

                                Anderson, C. D.                                                                   1905-1991

                                Arlen, Harold                                                                        1905-1986               Songwriter

                                Bloch, Felix                                                                            1905-1983

                                Bozza, Eugene                                                                      1905-                       Musician

                                Canetti, Elias                                                                         1905-1994

                                Chagrin, Francis                                                                   1905-1972               Composer (Romania)

                                De Mille, Agnes                                                                   1905-1993

                                Dorsey, Tommy                                                                    1905-1956               Musician

                                Euler, Ulf Svante von                                                          1905-1983

                                Halffter, Ernesto                                                                   1905-1989               Musician

                                Hempel, Carl Gustav                                                            1905-1997

                                Koestler, Arthur                                                                   1905-1983

                                Kosma, Joseph                                                                     1905-1969

                                Lambert, Constant                                                               1905-1951               Composer (London, England)

                                Lenard, Philip Edward Anton                                             1905-1991

                                Mott, Nevill F.                                                                      1905-1996

                                Panova, Vera Fedorovna                                                    1905-1973

                                Rand, Ayn                                                                             1905-1982               Philosopher

                                Rawsthorne, Alan                                                                1905-1971               Musician

                                Rexroth, Kenneth                                                                 1905-1982

                                Sartre, Jean Paul                                                                   1905-1980               Philosopher/Writer

                                Segre, Emilio                                                                         1905-1989

                                Seiber, Matyas                                                                     1905-1960               Musician

                                Sholokhov, Michail Aleksandrovich                                1905-1984

                                Tippett, Sir Michael Kemp                                                  1905-                       Musician

                                Tubin, Eduard                                                                       1905-1982               Musician

                                Wiren, Dag Ivar                                                                    1905-1986               Musician

                                Abbe, Ernst                                                                           1840-1905

                                Cervantes, Ignatio                                                               1847-1905               Composer

                                Haupt, Herman                                                                     1817-1905

                                Komzak, Karel                                                                       1850-1905               Composer

                                Richthofen, Ferdinand von                                                 1883-1905

                                Verne, Jules                                                                           1828-1905

                                Webb, Charles Henry                                                          1834-1905

1906                        Unicorns (Arthur Brown Davies)

                                Figures in Landscape (Louis Michel Eilshemius)

                                Girl (Georges Rouault)

                                Posters at Trouville (Raoul Dufy)

                                Landscape in Provence (Andre Derain)

                                London Bridge (Andre Derain)

                                Songs of the Rye (Jeppe Aakjaer)                     poems

                                The Jungle (Upton Sinclair)                               fiction

                                Lectures on Modern History (Acton)

                                Algeciras Conference convenes- international meeting to discuss Morocco - French rights recognized - (1/16)

                                Algeciras Conference ends (4/7)

                                ----------------------------------------------------------

                                First Labour MPs returned in British general election - Labour Party forms

                                HMS Dreadnought - first modern battleship launches in Britain

                                French officer Alfred Dreyfus declared innocent of treason on retrial

                                First Russian Duma (representative body) meets -is dissolved                  

                                Muslim League founded (India)

                                Liberal revolution in Persia - Shah Nasir ud-Din grants constitution

                                Burke Act - softens 25 yearr land ownership probationary period for Indians

                                San Francisco earthquake and fire

                                Christian IX -                       (Denmark)

                                Frederick VIII +                  (Denmark)

                                Emile Francois Loubet -     (France)

                                Clement Fallieres +            (France)

                                Victor introduces Victrola record player

                                First Mozart festival in Salzburg

                                The Unanswered Question                                Ives

                                Kammersymphonie                                              Schoenberg

                                First String Quartet                                            Schoenberg

                                George Washington Jr.                                      George M. Cohen

                                "You're a Grand Old Flag"                                  George M. Cohen

                                Allen, Henry Red                                                                 1906-1967               (1908)

                                Beckett, Samuel                                                                    1906-1989

                                Bethe, Hans Albrecht                                                          1906-

                                Bigard, Albany Barney                                                       1906-1980

                                Blume, Peter                                                                          1906-

                                Cooke, Arnold                                                                      1906-                       Musician

                                Creston, Paul                                                                        1906-1985               Musician

                                Darby, Blind Teddy                                                             1906-

                                Dorati, Antal                                                                         1906-1988               Conductor (Budapest, Hungary)

                                Frankel, Benjamin                                                                 1906-1973               Musician

                                Gideon, Miriam                                                                     1906-1996               Musician

                                Goodman, Nelson                                                                1906-1998

                                Hofmann, Albert                                                                  1906-2008

                                Ingle, Red                                                                              1906-                       Musician

                                Jones, Curtis                                                                         1906-1971

                                Mayer, Maria Goeppert                                                       1906-1972

                                Montgomery, Little Brother                                               1906-1985               Musician

                                Rossellini, Roberto                                                              1906-1977

                                Ruska, Ernst                                                                          1906-1988

                                Sykes, Roosevelt                                                                 1906-1983

                                Sabin, Albert Bruce                                                             1906-

                                Shostakovich, Dmitri                                                           1906-1975               Composer

                                Smith, David                                                                         1906-1965               Sculptor (Decatur, Indiana)

                                Tomonaga, Shinichiro                                                         1906-1979

                                Visconti, Luchino                                                                 1906-1976              

                                Anthony, Susan Brownell                                                  1820-1906

                                Arensky, Anton Stepanovich                                            1861-1906               Composer

                                Boltzmann, Ludwig                                                              1844-1906

                                Cezanne, Paul                                                                       1839-1906               Painter

                                Curie, Pierre                                                                           1859-1906

                                Dresser, Paul                                                                         1859-1906               Composer (Indiana, US)

                                Hurlstone, William Yeats                                                    1876-1906               Composer

                                Hartmann, Edward von                                                       1842-1906

                                Isben, Henrik                                                                        1828-1906              

                                Paine, John Knowles                                                           1839-1906               Composer

1907                        Les Aliviers a Menton (Henri Harpignes)

                                Charmeuse de serpents (Henri Rousseau)

                                Ice Bridge over the St. Lawrence (James Wilson Morrice)

                                La Luxe (Henri Matisse)

                                The kiss (Gustav Klimt) (1908) (1911)

                                Place de Clichy, Paris (Charles Camoin)

                                Fernand Fleuret (Othon Friesz)

                                Self-Portrait with Model (Ernst Kirchner)

                                Les Demoiselles d’avignon (Pablo Picasso)

                                Stag at Sharkey's (George Wesley Bellows)

                                Pragmatism (James)

                                The Playboy of the Western World (Synge)

                                History of Freedom (Acton)

                                Historical Essays and Studies (Acton)

                                Iran is informed of the Anglo-Russian accord which delineated Russian/British spheres of influence (9/16)

                                Hague Convention of 1907 signed (10/8)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Second Hague Peace Conference - Germany opposes proposed arms limitation

                                Entente Cordiale - between Russia and Great Britain (Anglo-Russian Entente)

                                Triple Entente - between Great Britain, France, Russia,

                                Triple Alliance - between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy

                                Second Duma dismissed in Russia - Third Duma (more conservative) forms (-1912)

                                Dominion of New Zealand established

                                Oscar II -                               (Sweden)                                                House of Bernadotte

                                Gustavus V +                        (Sweden)                                                House of Bernadotte

                                First music radio broadcast

                                The Golden Cockerel                                         Rimsky-Korsakov

                                Symphony of a Thousand                                   Mahler  

                                Poem of Ecstasy                                                   Scriabin 

                                Symphony in E-flat Major                                  Stravinsky

                                Ammons, Albert                                                                   1907-1949               Pianist

                                Auden, Wystan Hugh                                                        1907-1973               Poet (York, England)

                                Barzun, Jacques                                                                   1907-

                                Blunt, Anthony Frederick                                                   1907-

                                Bohrod, Aaron                                                                     1907-1992

                                Calloway, Cab                                                                       1907-1994               Musician

                                Carter, Benny                                                                        1907-                       Musician

                                Eames, Charles                                                                     1907-1978

                                Fortner, Wolfgang                                                               1907-                       Musician

                                Guarnieri, Mozart Camargo                                                 1907-                       Musician

                                Heinlein, Robert Anson                                                      1907-1988               Writer

                                Heschel, Abraham Joshua                                                  1907-

                                Hoar, Thomas Percy                                                            1907-1978

                                Hodges, Johnny                                                                   1907-1970               Musician

                                Jensen, J. Hans D.                                                                1907-1973

                                Kahlo, Frida                                                                          1907-1954               Painter

                                Lindgren, Astrid                                                                   1907-2002

                                Maconchy, Elizabeth                                                           1907-                       Musician

                                Porter, Fairfield                                                                     1907-1975               Painter

                                Rozsa, Miklos                                                                       1907-                       Composer

                                Sunnyland Slim                                                                    1907-1995               Musician

                                Yukawa, Hideki                                                                     1907-1981

                                Berthelot, Pierre Eugene Marcelin                                     1827-1907               Chemist (France)

                                Bodley, George Frederick                                                   1827-1907               Architect (England)

                                Carducci, Giosue                                                                  1835-1907

                                Fischer, Kuno                                                                       1824-1907

                                Grieg, Edvard Hagerup                                                        1843-1907               Composer

                                Grondahl, Agathe Backer                                                   1847-1907               Composer

                                Joachim, Joseph                                                                   1831-1907               Composer

                                Lovreglio, Donato                                                                1841-1907               Composer

                                Kelvin, William Thompson                                                 1824-1907

                                Mendelejeff, Dmitri Ivanovich                                           1834-1907

                                Moisson, Henri                                                                    1852-1907

                                Olcott, Henry Steel                                                              1832-1907

                                Perkin, William Henry                                                          1838-1907

                                Peto, John Frederick                                                            1854-1907

                                Prudhomme, (Sully) Rene Francois Armond                   1839-1907

                                Saint-Gaudens, Augustus                                                  1848-1907               Sculptor (Dublin, Ireland --->US)

                                Thompson, Francis                                                              1859-1907

1908                        The Young Bathers (John Sloan)

                                The Kiss (Brancusi)

                                Walter Lestikow - Bust (Georg Kolbe)

                                Neue Gedichte (Rilke)

                                Reflections on Violence (Georges Sorel)

                                Kaiser Wilhelm: "Germany must have a powerful (naval) fleet to protect that commerce"(10/27)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Bulgaria becomes an independent kingdom separate from Ottoman Empire

                                Austria annexes Bosnia  and Herzegovina

                                Revolution in Ottoman Empire led by young Turk movement (Committee of Union of Progress)

                                Turkish Constitution restored by Young Turk revolt (-1909)

                                Crete proclaims union with Greece

                                Belgium takes over Congo Free State - changes name to Belgian Congo

                                Successful counter-revolution in Persia - supported by Russia

                                Model T Ford produced

                                Ferdinand -                           (Bulgaria)                                             Prince (from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha)

                                Ferdinand I +                        (Bulgaria)                                             King

                                Carlos I -                               (Portugal)                                             House of Braganza

                                Emanuel II +                         (Portugal)                                             House of Braganza

                                Dezong Jing -                       (China)                                                  (1875-)   9th Qing Dynasty (Guangxu Era)

                                Tz'u Hsi -                              (China)                                                  Empress

                                Columbia mass produces double sided discs

                                Mahler becomes principal conductor of the Met in NY

                                Das Lied von der Erde                                        Mahler

                                Children’s Corner                                               Debussy

                                Rapsodie Espagnole                                           Ravel

                                Steichquartett Nr. 1, op 7                                  Bartok    (-1909)

                                "Shine on Harvest Moon"                                 Tin Pan Alley

                                Alfven, Hans Olof                                                                1908-1995

                                Rola, Balthazar Klossowski de (Balthus)                         1908-2001              

                                Allen, Henry Red                                                                 1908-1967               Musician

                                Bardeen, John                                                                       1908-1991

                                Beauvoir, Simon de                                                              1908-1986

                                Bresson, Henri Cartier-                                                        1908-2004

                                Carter, Elliot                                                                          1908-                       Composer

                                Ferguson, Howard                                                               1908-                       Musician

                                Frank, Ilya M.                                                                       1908-1990

                                Gordon, Cyrus H.                                                                 1908-

                                Hampton, Lionel                                                                   1908-2002               Musician

                                Johnson, Lyndon B.                                                            1908-1973               Politician

                                Landau, L. D.                                                                        1908-1968

                                Lion, Alfred                                                                           1908-                       Musician

                                Merleau-Ponty, Maurice                                                     1908-1961

                                Messaien, Olivier                                                                 1908-                       Composer

                                Levi-Strauss, Claude                                                           1908-

                                Price, Sammy                                                                         1908-1992

                                Quine, Willard van Orman                                                  1908-

                                Roethke, Theodore                                                              1908-1963               Poet (U.S.)

                                Ronell, Ann                                                                           1908-1993

                                Tveitt, Geirr                                                                           1908-1981               Composer (Norway)

                                Becquerel, Antoine Henri                                                   1852-1908

                                Caird, Edward                                                                       1835-1908

                                Cleveland, Grover                                                                1837-1908

                                Dietrich, Albert                                                                     1829-1908               Composer

                                Libert, George Emil                                                               1820-1908

                                Macdowell, Edward Alexander                                          1860-1908               Composer

                                Noskowski, Zygmunt                                                          1846-1908               Composer (Poland)

                                Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolay Andreyevich                        1844-1908               Composer

                                Sarasate, Pablo Martin Meliton de                                    1844-1908               Composer

                                Taffanel, Claude Paul                                                          1844-1908               Composer

1909                        Three A.M. (John Sloan)

                                Design for a set for "Prince Igor" (Nikolai Roerich)

                                Glasses (Mikhail Larionov)

                                Seated Nude (Pablo Picasso)

                                Frank Lloyd Wright designs Robie House

                                Liliom (Ferenc Molnar)

                                Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (Freud)

                                John Brown (W.E.B. Du Bois)

                                Drilling begins on Lakeview Oil Gusher in Kern County, California (1/1)

                                Columbia recognizes independence of Panama (1/5)

                                Shackleton Expedition reaches magnetic South Pole (1/16)

                                Anglo-Siamese Treaty signed in Bangkok - dividedes northern Malay states into two parts (3/10)

                                American explorer Robert Peary reaches North Pole after seven visits to the Arctic (4/6)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                First cross English Channel flight by Louis Bleriot

                                Old age pensions introduced in Great Britain

                                Union of South Africa forms

                                Young Turks defeat Sultans

                                Sultan Abdul Hamid II of Ottoman Empire overthrown in Turkey

                                Indian Council Act - increases elected membership on Indian councils (India)

                                Morley-Minto Reforms (India)

                                American Manufacturer Henry Ford begins assambly line production of cheap motor cars

                                Mexican Indians visit Porfirio Diaz to air greivances about their land rights

                                NAACP founded

                                Freud and Jung visit the United States to lecture at Clark University

                                Leopold II -                            (Belgium)                                              (1865)    Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield (Duke)

                                Albert I +                               (Belgium)                                              House of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield (Duke)

                                Abdulhamid II -                    (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Mehmet V +                          (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                Xuantong +                           (China)                                                  (-1912)   10th Qing Dynasty

                                Theodore Roosevelt -          (United States)                                     (1901-)   President

                                Wlliam Howard Taft +        (United States)                                     (-1913)   President

                                Nobel Prize (Physics) - Carl Ferdinand Braun / Marconi - wireless telegraphy

                                Word "gene" is coined by Wilhelm Johannsen to describe a fundamental unit of heredity

                                Elektra                                                                  Richard  Strauss

                                Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis          Ralph Vaughan Williams

                                Piano Pieces, Op. 11                                          Schoenberg

                                Five Pieces for Orchestra, Op. 16                    Schoenberg

                                Agee, James                                                                          1909-1955               Writer

                                Bacon, Francis                                                                      1909-1992               Painter

                                Black, Max                                                                             1909-1988               Analytical Philosopher (Baku, Russia)

                                Constantinescu, Paul                                                          1909-1963               Musician

                                Drucker, Peter Ferdinand                                                    1909-2005               "Social Ecologist"

                                Goodman, Benjamin David                                                 1909-1986               Musician

                                Holmboe, Vagn                                                                     1909-1996               Composer

                                Kazanjoglous, Elia                                                               1909-2003

                                Krupa, Gene                                                                          1909-1973               Musician

                                Mee, Margaret Ursala                                                         1909-1988

                                Mercer, Johnny                                                                    1909-1976               Musician

                                Nighthawk, Robert                                                               1909-1967               Musician

                                Parkinson, C. Northcote                                                      1909-1993

                                Tatum, Art                                                                             1909-1956               Musician

                                Tatum, Edward Lawrie                                                         1909-1975               Geneticist (Boulder, CO)

                                Webster, Ben                                                                        1909-1973               Musician

                                Welty, Eudora                                                                      1909-2001               Writer (Jackson, Mississippi)

                                Young, Lester                                                                       1909-1959               Musician

                                Albeniz, Isaac Manuel Francisco                                      1860-1909               Composer

                                Buck, Dudley                                                                        1839-1909               Composer

                                Geronimo                                                                               1829-1909

                                Karlowicz, Mieczyslaw                                                        1876-1909               Composer

                                Lombroso                                                                              1836-1909

                                Martucci, Giuseppe                                                             1856-1909               Composer

                                Meredith, George                                                                 1828-1909

                                Red Cloud                                                                             1821-1909               Oglala Chief

                                Remington, Frederic                                                            1861-1909

                                Swinburne, Algernon Charles                                            1837-1909

                                Synge, John Millington                                                      1871-1909               Poet/Dramatist (Dublin, Ireland)

                                Tarrega, Francesco                                                              1852-1909               Composer

1910                        The Dream (Henri Rousseau)

                                Flowers (Henri Rousseau)

                                The Regatta (Raoul Dufy)

                                Cats (Natalya Gontcharova)

                                Violin and Jug (Georges Braque)

                                L'Impasse Cottin (Maurice Utrillo)

                                Dr. August Forel (Oskar Kokoschka)

                                L'Heresiarche et Cie (Apollinaire)

                                The Tragedy of Pompey the Great (Masefield)

                                Lectures on the French Revolution (Acton)

                                Principia Mathematica (Russell / Whitehead)

                                Willful Peggy (D.W. Griffith) (8/25) (8/29)

                                British suffragette movement becomes increasingly militant

                                Revolution in Portugal - becomes a republic

                                Union of South Africa becomes independent dominion within British Empire

                                Japan annexes Korea

                                Mexican Revolution begins

                                Madera gains power in Mexico

                                Edward VII -                          (England)                                               King

                                George V +                           (England)                                               King

                                Emanuel II +                         (Portugal)                                             House of Braganza

                                Nicholas I -                           (Montenegro)                                       Prince

                                Nicholas I +                          (Montenegro)                                       King

                                Discovery of protons and electrons

                                International Psychoanalytical Association founded - Jung president

                                HMV

                                First volume of Cowboy songs published

                                Mahler's Eighth Symphony "Symphony of a Thousand" premiers in Munich

                                Preludes, book 1                                                 Debussy

                                Sea Symphony                                                      Vaughan Williams                                               

                                Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis           Vaughan Williams (1909)

                                Daphnis et Chloe                                                                Ravel

                                Ma Mere l'Oye                                                     Ravel

                                Allegro Barbaro                                                  Bartok

                                The Firebird                                                         Stravinsky

                                "Down by the Old Mill Stream"                         Tin Pan Alley

                                "Let Me Call You Sweetheart"

                                Ayer, Alfred Jules                                                                1910-1989

                                Barber, Samuel                                                                      1910-1981               Composer

                                Dimas, Blas Galindo                                                             1910-                       Musician

                                Genet, Jean                                                                            1910-1986               Writer

                                Glaser, Werner Wolf                                                            1910-                       Musician

                                Kline, Franz                                                                           1910-1962

                                Kurosawa, Akira                                                                  1910-1998               Filmmaker (Japan)

                                North, Alex                                                                            1910-1991               Composer

                                Reinhardt, Django                                                                1910-1953               Musician

                                Schaeffer, Henri Pierre                                                         1910-1995               Musician

                                Schuman, William Howard                                                  1910-1992               Composer

                                Shaw, Artie                                                                           1910-2004               Musician

                                Shockley, W. B.                                                                    1910-1989

                                Subrahmanyan, Chandrasekhar                                         1910-1995

                                Balakirev, Mili Alexayevich                                                1837-1910               Composer

                                Bjornsun, Bjornstjerne Martinus                                       1832-1910

                                Browne, Borden Parker                                                       1847-1910

                                Clemens, Samuel (Mark Twain)                                         1835-1910               Writer

                                Cross, Henri Edmund                                                          1856-1910

                                Homer, Winslow                                                                  1836-1910               Painter

                                Hunt, Holman                                                                       1827-1910

                                James, William                                                                      1842-1910

                                Reinecke, Carl Heinrich Carsten                                        1824-1910               Composer

                                Rousseau, Henri                                                                   1844-1910

                                Tolstoy, Leo                                                                         1828-1910

                                Zabel, Albert Heinrich                                                         1834-1910               Composer

1911                        The Zoo (Roger Fry)

                                Interior with Eggplants (Henri Matisse)

                                Mornington Crescent (Spencer Gore)

                                Jolts of a Cab (Carlo Carra)

                                The Street Enters the House (Umberto Boccioni)

                                Tea-time (Jean Metzinger)

                                Landscape in Lofhus (Karl Schmidt-Rottluff)

                                Bathing (Duncan Grant)

                                Music (Luigi Russolo)

                                I and the village (Marc Chagall)

                                La Nostalgie de l'infini (Giorgio de Chirico)

                                Ethan Frome (Wharton)

                                Mind of Primitive Man (Franz Boas)

                                QING -

                                REPUBLIC OF CHINA +

                                Second Morocco Crisis (Agadir Crisis)  begins between France and Germany (7/1)

                                Parliament Act - reduces power of House of Lords in Great Britain (8/11)

                                Pyotr Stolypin, Russian Prime Minister is assassinated (9/18)    (9/5 O.S)

                                Italy attacks and occupies Tripoli, Lybia - war with Ottoman Empire (10/3)

                                Wuchang Uprising - in southern China starts the Xinhai Revolution which overthrows the Qing Dynasty (10/11)

                                Francisco Madero becomes president of Mexico (11/6)

                                Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen and his team are the first to reach South Pole (12/14)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                British MPs receive salaries for the first time

                                Germany sends gunboat to Morocco but withdraws claims

                                Sun Yat-sen leads revolution in China and overthrows Manchu Dynasty

                                Revolution in Mexico overthrows Porfirio Diaz - period of disorder follows

                                Mubarak Ali Khan -            (Hyderabad)                                          Nizam

                                Usman Ali Khan +               (Hyderabad)                                          Nizam

                                Sun Yat Sen +                      (1st Chinese Republic)                       (-1912)   Provisional President

                                Porfirio Diaz -                      (Mexico)                                                (1877-)   President

                                Francisco Madero +            (Mexico)                                                President

                                Freud has falling out with Jung and Adler - mainly on the issue of infantile sexuality

                                Scott Joplin's Treemonisha performed in New York

                                San Francisco Symphony Orchestra forms

                                Das Lied von der Erde                                        Mahler

                                L'Heure espagnole                                              Ravel

                                Der Rosenkavalier                                              R.Strauss

                                Fourth Symphony                                                                R, Strauss

                                Treemonisha                                                         Joplin

                                Duke Bluebeard's Castle                                   Bartok

                                Petrushka                                                             Stravinsky

                                Alain, Jehan                                                                          1911-1940               Musician

                                Alvarez, Luis W.                                                                  1911-1988

                                Austin, John Langshaw                                                      1911-1960

                                Ball, Lucille                                                                            1911-1989               Actress / Comedian

                                Bjorling, Jussi                                                                       1911-1960               Opera Tenor (Sweden)

                                Bourgeois, Louise                                                                1911-2010

                                Cobb, Lee J.                                                                          1911-1976               Actor

                                Eldridge, Roy                                                                        1911-1989               Musician

                                Elenescu, Emanuel                                                               1911-2003               Musician/Conductor

                                Elytis, Odysseus (Alepoudhelis)                                      1911-1996                              

                                Fowler, William A.                                                               1911-1995

                                Golding, William                                                                   1911-1993               Writer

                                Herrmann, Bernard                                                               1911-1975               Composer

                                Hovhaness, Alan                                                                 1911-2000               Composer

                                Jackson, Mahalia                                                                 1911-1972               Singer

                                Johnson, Robert                                                                   1911-1938               Musician

                                Kusch, Polycarp                                                                   1911-1993

                                Mahfouz, Naguib                                                                 1911-2006               Writer (Egypt)

                                McLuhan, Marshall                                                             1911-1980

                                Menotti, Gian Carlo                                                             1911- 2007               Composer

                                Milosz, Czeslaw                                                                    1911-2004               Poet

                                Monroe, Vaughan                                                                1911-1973               Musician

                                Neame, Ronald                                                                     1911-2010               Filmmaker             

                                Patchen, Kenneth                                                                1911-1972

                                Red, Piano                                                                             1911-1985               Musician

                                Rockmore, Clara                                                                   1911-1998

                                Rota, Nino                                                                             1911-1979               Composer

                                Seaton, George                                                                     1911-1979               Screenwriter/Director

                                Terrell, Saunders (Sonny Terry)                                        1911-1986               Musician

                                Turner, Big Joe                                                                     1911-1985               Musician              

                                Ussachevsky, Vladimir                                                        1911-1990               Composer

                                Williams, Thomas Lanier (Tennesee)                               1911-1983               Playwright

                                Abbey, Edwin Austin                                                         1852-1911

                                Bland, James                                                                         1854-1911               Composer

                                Ciurlionis, Mikolajus Konstantinas                                  1875-1911               Composer

                                Dilthey, Wilhelm                                                                  1833-1911

                                Gilbert, William Schwenck                                                  1836-1911               Composer

                                Guilmant, Felix Alexandre                                                   1837-1911               Composer

                                Kopylov, Alexander                                                            1854-1911               Composer

                                Mahler, Gustav                                                                     1860-1911               Composer

                                Pulitzer, Joseph                                                                    1847-1911

                                Pyle, Howard                                                                        1853-1911

                                Svendsen, Johann                                                                               1840-1911               Composer

1912                        Olga - Girl with a Feathered Hat (Alexei von Jawlensky)

                                Improvisation (Wassily Kandinsky)

                                Solo of Black Line (Frantisek Kupka)

                                Spring Breezes, High Park (James MacDonald)

                                Window at Vers (Andre Derain)

                                The Bathers (Albert Gleizes)

                                Dynamic Hieroglyphic of the Bal Tabarin (Gino Severini)

                                The Window (Robert Delaunay)

                                Cavalry (Marc Chagall)

                                Nude Descending a staircase, No. 2 (Marcel Duchamp)             

                                Bildnis Ida Roessler (Egon Schiele)

                                Jewish Family (Mark Gertler)

                                Walking Woman (Alexander Archipenko)

                                Technical Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture (Boccioni)

                                Titanic sinks with loss of 1513 lives (4/15)

                                Treaty of Ouchy - ends Italo-Turkish war - Tripoli ceded to Italy (10/18)

                                 ------------------------------------------------------

                                Miners' strike in Britain

                                Fourth Russian Duma (-1916)

                                First Balkan War - Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, and Montenegro against Ottoman Empire (-1913)

                                French protectorate established in Morocco - Spanish zone defined by agreement

                                Delhi becomes capital of India

                                Republic froms in China

                                Universal compulsory male suffrage law passes in Argentina

                                Frederick VIII -                   (Denmark)

                                Christian X +                       (Denmark)

                                Xuantong -                            (Manchu China)                                   (1909-1912)10th Qing Dynasty

                                Sun Yat Sen -                       (1st Chinese Republic)                       (-1912)   Provisional President

                                Yuan Shih-k'ai + (Republic of China)                             (1912-1916)1st President

                                Columbia discontinues manufacture of cylinders

                                Ariadne auf Naxos                                              R.Strauss

                                “Memphis Blues”                                                W.C. Handy

                                Pierrot Lunaire                                                   Bartok

                                Daphnis et Chloe                                                Ravel

                                Antonioni, Michelangelo                                                   1912-2007               Filmmaker

                                Cage, John                                                                            1912-1992               Musician

                                Cheever, John                                                                       1912-1982

                                Como, Perry                                                                          1912-2001               Musician

                                Evans, Gil                                                                              1912-1988               Composer

                                Everson, William                                                                  1912-1994

                                Francaix, Jean                                                                       1912-1997               Composer

                                Guthrie, Woody                                                                   1912-1967               Musician

                                Hopkins, Sam Lightning                                                     1912-1982               Musician

                                Louis, Morris                                                                        1912-1962               Painter (Baltimore, U.S.)

                                Machito                                                                                 1912-1984               Musician

                                Pollock, Jackson                                                                   1912-1956               Painter

                                Purcell, E. M.                                                                         1912-1997

                                Seaborg, Glenn T.                                                                1912-1999               Nuclear Physicist

                                Toscano, Salvador                                                               1912-1949

                                White, Patrick                                                                       1912-1990

                                Wilson, Teddy                                                                     1912-1986               Musician

                                Barton, Clara                                                                         1821-1912

                                Blockx, Jan                                                                            1851-1912               Composer

                                Coleridge-Taylor, Samuel                                                   1875-1912               Composer

                                Gairdner, James                                                                    1828-1912

                                Hasselmans, Alphonse                                                       1845-1912               Composer

                                Massenet, Jules Emile Frederic                                          1842-1912               Composer

                                Passy, Frederic                                                                     1822-1912

                                Poincare, Jules Henri                                                           1854-1912               Mathematician/Physicist  (France)

                                Reynolds, Osborne                                                              1842-1912

                                Strindberg, August                                                              1849-1912

                                Toepler,                                                                                 1836-1912

1913                        The Promenade (Maurice Brazil Predergast)

                                Dining Room in the Country (Pierre Bonnard)

                                Swifts: Paths of Movement and Dynamic Sequences (Balla)

                                Sunday, Women Drying their Hair (John Sloan)

                                Mademoiselle Yvonne Duchamp (Jacques Villon)

                                The Fate of Animals (Franz Marc)

                                Musical Forms (Georges Braque)

                                Terre Sauvage (Mount Ararat) (Alexander Jackson)

                                The Anguish of Departure (de Chirico)

                                The Mud Bath (David Bomberg)                                                                                       (1890-1957)

                                Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (Boccioni)

                                Red Stone Dancer (Henri Gaudier-Brzeska)

                                Armory Show - International Exhibition of Contemporary Art - held at the 69th Regiment Armory in NYC (2/17-3/15)

                                Remembrance of Things Past Vol. 1 (Swann's Way) (Marcel Proust)

                                Calligrammes (Apollinaire)

                                Les Peintres cubistes (Apollinaire)

                                Death in Venice (Mann)

                                Sons and Lovers (Lawrence)

                                Totem and Taboo (Freud)

                                EUROPE THE OVERLORD ENDS

                                Huerta's coup d'etat - Madero falls from power (2/18)s

                                Treaty of Bucharest - ends Second Balkan War - Bulgaria defeated - Balkan states again partitioned (8/10)

                                Treaty of Bucharest - Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro signed - Turkey acquiesced    (8/10)

                                US Federal Reserve Act (12/23)

                                ---------------------------------------------------------

                                Third Irish Home Rule Bill passes House of Commons but rejected by House of Lords

                                Threat of civil war in Ireland

                                Ulster Volunteers (private Protestant army) forms in opposition to proposed Home Rule Bill

                                Young Turks establish dictatorship in Turkey

                                Treaty of London - ends first Balkan War - Balkan states victorious - state of Albania  created

                                Greece officially takes over Crete

                                Second Balkan War - Serbia Greece, Romania, and Ottoman Empire unite against Bulgaria

                                Second Balkan War caused by Serbian claims to Macedonia

                                Treaty of Constantinople between Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria

                                Sun Yat Sen leads an unsuccessful revolt against president Yuan Shih K'ai - flees to Japan -

                                Clement Fallieres -             (France)

                                Raymond Poincare +           (France)

                                George I -                              (Greece)                                                                Son of Christian IX of Denmark

                                Constantine I +                    (Greece)                                                                Son of George I

                                1st performance of Stravinsky's Le Sacr du printemps at Paris' Theatre des Champs-Elysees - Pierre Monteaux cond. (5/29)

                                Preludes for piano                                              Debussy

                                Jeux                                                                       Debussy

                                Descriptions automatiques                               Satie

                                La vida breve                                                       de Falla

                                Le Sacre du Printemps                                       Stravinsky 

                                Trois poésies de la lyrique japonaise              Stravinsky

                                Souvenir de mon enfance                                   Stravinsky

                                Five Pieces for Orchestra, Op. 10                    Webern

                                Six Orchestral Pieces                                         Webern

                                The Art of Noises (Luigi Russolo)

                                Britten, Benjamin                                                                  1913-1976               Composer

                                Camus, Albert                                                                       1913-1960               Writer

                                Ford, Gerald Rudolph                                                          1913-                       Statesman

                                Guston, Philip                                                                       1913-1980               Painter

                                Herman, Woody                                                                   1913-1987               Musician

                                Lamb, Willis E.                                                                      1913-

                                Lloyd, George                                                                       1913-                       Musician

                                Lutoslavski, Witold                                                             1913-                       Composer

                                Nixon, Richard Milhouse                                                    1913-1994               President

                                Paul, Wolfgang                                                                    1913-1993

                                Perkins, Pinetop                                                                   1913-                       Musician

                                Simon, Claude                                                                       1913-

                                Bronsart von Schellendorf, Hans                                      1830-1913               Composer

                                Heise, Peter Arnold                                                             1830-1913               Composer

                                Popper, David                                                                       1843-1913               Composer

                                Saussure, Ferdinand de                                                      1857-1913

                                Tubman, Harriet                                                                   1820-1913

                                Schuppe, Wilhelm                                                                1836-1913

                                Thomas, John                                                                       1826-1913               Composer

                                Wallace, Alfred Russel                                                       1823-1913

1914                        Improvisation "Klamm" (Wassily Kandinsky)

                                Frogs (Alfred Kubin)

                                Suprematist Composition: Black Square and Red Square (Kasimir Malevich)

                                In the Madhouse (Erich Heckel)

                                Breakfast (Juan Gris)

                                Mystery and Melancholy of a Street (de Chirico)

                                Le Grand Cheval (Raymond Duchamp-Villon)

                                The Prophet (Ossip Zadinke)

                                Sailor with a Guitar (Jacques Lipchitz)

                                North of Boston (Frost)

                                The Congo and Other Poems (Lindsay)

                                The Dubliners (Joyce)

                                Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (Joyce)

                                Birth of a Nation (Griffith)

                                THE MODERN WORLD BEGINS

                                Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria assassinated by a Bosnian student               (6/28)

                                Austria declares war on Serbia and invades (7/28)        Tuesday Noon

                                Austrians begin to bombard Belgrade (7/30)

                                Germany declares war on Russia (8/1)  Saturday

                                Wilhelm II asks Moltke to cancel the invasion of Belgium to keep Great Britain out of the war (8/2) Sunday

                                Germany declares war on France (8/3)   Monday

                                Germany invades Belgium as per Schlieffen Plan (8/4) Monday

                                Germany declares war on Belgium (8/4) Tuesday

                                England declares war on Germany at midnight (8/4)

                                Montenegro declares war on Austria (8/5)      Wednesday

                                Austria declares war on Russia (8/6)                Thursday

                                Serbia declares war on Germany (8/6)               Thursday

                                Battle of Mulhouse - first French attack of the war (8/7) Friday

                                Montenegro declares war on Germany (8/8)   Saturday

                                France declares war on Austria (8/12)              Wednesday

                                England declares war on Austria (8/12)           Wednesday

                                Battle of the Frontiers begins - French attempt to invade Germany (Plan XVII) (8/14-24)       Friday

                                Battle of Cer begins - Serbs fight a successful defensive battle against the invading Austrians (8/14) Friday

                                Germans enter Brussels, capital of Belgium (8/14) Friday

                                Panama Canal officially opens (8/15) Saturday

                                Liege falls to the Germans n Belgium (8/16) Sunday

                                King Albert II of Belgium orders retreat to the town (fort) of Antwerp (8/20) Thursday

                                Battle of Mons - British Expeditionary force tries to block German advance into France (8/23) Sunday

                                Japan declares war on Germany (8/23) Sunday

                                Namur falls to the Germans in Belgium (8/24) Monday

                                Japan declares war on Austria (8/25)

                                Battle of Tannenburg - invading Russians defeated by German forces in eastern Germany (8/26)

                                Austria declares war on Belgium (8/28)

                                Battle of the Marne - Allies halt German advance on Paris (9/5-9)

                                First Battle of Masurian Lakes - Russians retreat from East Prussia (9/9-14)

                                German army begins siege of Antwerp (9/28)

                                German army breaks through Belgian defenses at Lier - Belgian forces abandon Antwerp (10/5)

                                Belgian forces retreat west frmo Antwerp toward the coast (10/6)

                                Mayor of Antwerp capitulates - German occupation of the town until 1918 (10/10)

                                First Battle of Ypres - Germans fail to reach Channel ports          (10/19-11/24)

                                Russia declares war on Turkey (11/2)

                                Serbia declares war on Turkey (11/2)

                                England declares war on Turkey (11/5)

                                France declares war on Turkey (11/5)

                                Great Britain declares Egypt a British Protectorate (12/18)

                                Central and Allied troops meet in No Man's Land (Western Front) to wish each other Merry Christmas (12/25)

                                Irish Home Rule Act provides for separate Parliament in Ireland, with some MPs at Westminster

                                Position of Ulster to be decided after the War

                                Divisions in socialist parties on the war result in its general support - collapse of Second International

                                Allied Powers - Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, United States

                                Central Powers - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

                                Austrian ultimatum to Serbia

                                Russian mobilization

                                German and French mobilization

                                Trench warfare on Western and Eastern fronts until end of World War I

                                Huerta resigns under US pressure

                                Carol I -                 (Romania)                                             King (Charles Eitel Frederick)

                                Ferdinand I +                        (Romania)                                             King

                                Huerta -                 (Mexico)

                                Pius X -

                                Benedict XV +

                                Detroit Symphony Orchestra forms

                                A London Symphony                                           Vaughan Williams

                                "St. Louis Blues"                                                                 W.C. Handy

                                Berryman, John                                                                    1914-1972

                                Blount, Herman “Sonny” (Sun Ra)                                   1914-1993

                                Burroughs, William                                                              1914-1997               Writer

                                Clarke, Kenny                                                                       1914-1985               Musician

                                Davis Jr., Raymond                                                              1914-

                                De Stael, Nicolas                                                                  1914-1955

                                Eckstein, William Clarence                                                 1914-1993

                                Ellison, Ralph                                                                        1914-1994               Writer

                                Giulini, Carlo Maria                                                              1914-2005               Conductor

                                Hampshire, Stuart                                                                1914-

                                Lloyd Webber, William Southcombe                                1914-1982               Musician

                                Malamud, Bernard                                                               1914-

                                Paz, Octavio                                                                          1914-1998                              

                                Perutz, Max Ferdinand                                                        1914-

                                Salk, Jonas Edward                                                              1914-

                                Thomas, Dylan                                                                     1914-

                                Bierce, Ambrose                                                                   1842-1914

                                Bohm-Bawerk, Eugen                                                          1851-1914

                                Faure, Jean Baptiste                                                            1830-1914

                                Fournier, Henri Alban                                                         1886-1914

                                Hall, Charles Martin                                                             1863-1914

                                Heroult, Paul Louis Toussaint                                           1863-1914

                                Heyse, Paul Johann Ludwig                                               1830-1914

                                Liadov, Anatoli                                                                    1855-1914               Composer

                                Macke, August                                                                    1887-1914

                                Magnard, Lucien Denis Gabriel Alberic                           1865-1914               Composer

                                Mistral, Frederic                                                                   1830-1914

                                Muir, John                                                                             1838-1914               Naturalist

                                Peguy, Charles                                                                     1873-1914

                                Pierce, Charles Sanders                                                       1839-1914

                                Stavenhagen, Bernhard                                                      1862-1914               Composer

                                Westinghouse, George                                                       1846-1914

1915                        Forest Undergrowth II (Tom Thompson) (-1916)

                                Suprematist Composition (Kasimir Malevich)

                                Suburban Train Arriving at Paris (Gino Severini)

                                The Hanged Man (Bohumil Kubista)

                                Two Girls (Marie Laurencin)

                                The Bride Stripped Bare by her Batchelors, even... (Marcel Duchamp) (-1923)

                                La Place Ravignan (Juan Gris)

                                Man in the Open Air (Elie Nadelman)

                                Veranda post in the palace of king of Ijero-Ekiti (Agunna of Ikole) (Yoruba)

                                Of Human Bondage (Maugham)

                                Birth of a Nation (D. W. Griffiths)

                                Rags (James Kirkwood) (8/2)

                                Great Britain announces naval blockade of Germany    (1/5)

                                Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes (2/7-22)

                                Germany begins submarine blockade of Great Britain (2/18)

                                Second Battle of Ypres - Gerrmans use poison gas for the first time (4/22-5/25)

                                German U-boat sinks British liner Lusitania - many civilians incl. 139 Americans drown        (5/7)

                                First Battle of Artois - begins - ends in stalemate(5/9-15)

                                Battle of Festubert - nets 1km advance for British under Haig with 16000 casualties (5/15-5/25)

                                Italy joins Allied Powers (5/22)

                                Italy declares war on Austria (5/23)

                                San Marino declares war on Austria (6/3)

                                Italy declares war on Turkey (8/21)

                                Third Battle of Artois (9/15)-(11/4)

                                Second Battle of Champagne (9/25)-(10/6)

                                Battle of Loos - Birtish and French offensive fails - 43000 British casualties(9/25-28)

                                Bulgaria declares war on Serbia (10/14)

                                Bulgaria joins Central Powers (10/15)

                                England declares war on Bulgaria (10/15)

                                Montenegro declares war on Bulgaria (10/15)

                                France declares war on Bulgaria (10/16)

                                Russia declares war on Bulgaria (10/19)

                                Henry McMahons second letter to Hussein ibn Ali approving Arab independence within certain limits (10/24)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Austria occupies Serbia (-1918)

                                Dardanelles operation

                                Gallipoli Campaign - Axis powers defeat Allies (-3/22 1916)

                                Twenty-one Demands - Japan attempts to assert political and economic dominance over China

                                Second formation of Klu Klux Klan

                                General Theory of Relativity (Einstein)

                                X-Rays and Crystal Structure (Bragg)

                                Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity (T. H. Morgan)

                                Three Sonatas                                                      Debussy

                                En Blanc et noir                                                  Debussy

                                Douze etudes for piano                                      Debussy

                                Mozart Variations for Orchestra                      Reger

                                Concord Sonata                                                  Ives

                                Sonata for Unaccompanied Cello, Op. 8        Kodaly (pub. 1921)

                                Piano Sonatina                                                   Bartok

                                Steichquartett Nr. 2, op. 17                               Bartok (-1917)

                                Jelly Roll Blues                                                    Morton

                                Bergman, Ingrid                                                                    1915-1982               Actor

                                Burns, John Horne                                                               1915-1953

                                Diamond, David                                                                   1915-2005               Composer

                                Hofstadter, Robert                                                               1915-1990

                                Holiday, Billie                                                                       1915-1959               Musician

                                Levine, Jack                                                                          1915-

                                Lilburn, Douglas                                                                  1915-                       Musician

                                Lippold, Richard                                                                   1915-

                                McGhee, Brownie                                                                1915-1996               Musician

                                Morganfield, McKinley (Muddy Waters)                       1915-1983

                                Persichetti, Vincent                                                              1915-1987               Composer

                                Ramsay, Norman Foster                                                      1915-

                                Richter, Sviatoslav Teofilovich                                         1915-                       Pianist

                                Shull, Clifford Glennwood                                                  1915-

                                Sinatra, Frank                                                                        1915-1998               Musician

                                Slim, Memphis                                                                      1915-1988               Musician

                                Surinach, Carlos                                                                   1915-                       Musician

                                Townes, Charles Hard                                                         1915-

                                Welles, Orson                                                                       1915-1985               Director/Actor

                                Bastian, Henry Charlton                                                     1837-1915

                                Corinth, Lovis                                                                       1858-1915

                                Goldmark, Karl                                                                      1830-1915               Composer

                                Hardie, Keir                                                                           1856-1915

                                Moseley, Henry Gwyn Jeffreys                                         1887-1915

                                Scriabin, Alexander Nikolaevich                                        1872-1915               Composer

                                Taneyev, Sergei Ivanovich                                                 1856-1915               Composer

                                Waldteufel, Charles Emile                                                   1837-1915               Composer

                                Washington, Booker T.                                                      1856-1915

                                Windelbrand, Wilhelm                                                        1848-1915

1916                        Teacher and Girl (Emil Nolde)

                                Nude, Fitzroy Street, No. 1 (Matthew Smith)

                                Night Cafe (George Grosz)

                                Dada Relief (Arp)

                                Intolerance (D. W. Griffith)

                                Frank Lloyd Wright's Imperial Hotel in Tokyo

                                Battle of Verdun - German offensive on Western Front - +-350,000 wounded each - stalemate (2/21)-(12/19)

                                Wilson urges Germany to stop unrestricted submarine warfare or risk break in German-US relations (3)

                                Germany declares war on Portugal (3/9)

                                The Pershing Expedition - US Punitive Expedition into Mexico begins (3/14)

                                Austria declares war on Portugal (3/15)

                                Sussex Incident - unarmed French liner is sunk (3/24)

                                Wilson issues Sussex ultimatum (4/18)

                                Easter rising in Ireland - supressed after one week (4/24)

                                Sussex Pledge - Germany agrees to change U-boat policy - if the US can stop the British blockade (5/4)

                                Sykes-Picot Agreement  - Anglo-French agreement for the partition of the Middle East (5/16)

                                Battle of Jutland - only major naval battle between Britain and Germany (5/31)

                                Brusilov Offensive - Russian attack led by General Alexei Brusilov fails (6/4)

                                Arab revolt against Ottoman Turks begins - proclaimed by Sharif Husayn (6/10)

                                British bombardment at Somme front begins (6/24-7/1)

                                Battle of the Somme - British offensive - 1 million + killed - tanks used for first time (7/1) Saturday 7:30A -(11/18)

                                Battle of the Somme - 19,000 British dead after first day of fighting (7/1)

                                Rumania declares war on Austria (8/27)

                                Italy declares war on Germany (8/28)

                                Germany declares war on Rumania (8/28)

                                Paul von Hindenberg becomes Chief of the German General Staff (8/29) -(7/3/19)

                                Turkey declares war on Rumania (8/30)

                                Bulgaria declares war on Rumania (9/1)

                                Battle of Verdun ends - French drive Germans back to their starting positions (12/19)

                                Rasputin murdered (12/29) (12/16 O.S.)

                                British Parliament passes conscription

                                Hindenburg appointed chief of staff with Ludendorff as quartermaster general

                                First popularly elected president in Argentina - Hipolito Irigoyen

                                Woodrow Wilson/Charles Evans Hughes  election race

                                Lloyd George +                     (Great Britain)                                       Prime Minister

                                Francis Joseph I -                 (Austria)(Hungary)                              Emperor House of Leopold (1848-) (1867-)

                                Charles I +                             (Austria)                                                Emperor House of Leopold

                                Yuan Shih-k'ai -                    (Republic of China)                              1st President (1912-)

                                Hipolito Irigoyen +              (Argentina)                                           President

                                Einstein's general relativity theory

                                Baltimore Symphony Orchestra forms (2/11)

                                Fourth Symphony                                                Ives

                                Schelomo                                                               Bloch

                                Goyescas                                                               Granados

                                America First                                                        Cole Porter

                                "Beale Street Blues"                                            W.C. Handy

                                Babbitt, Milton                                                                     1916-                       Composer

                                Cela, Camilo Jose                                                                 1916-2002

                                Christian, Charlie                                                                  1916-1942               Jazz Guitarist

                                Crick, Francis H.C.                                                               1916-2004

                                Dutilleux, Henri                                                                     1916-                       Composer

                                Ginastera, Alberto                                                                1916-1983               Composer

                                Ginzburg, Vitaly L.                                                               1916-

                                Gyson, Brion                                                                         1916-1986

                                Miller, Arthur                                                                        1916-

                                Peck, Gregory                                                                       1916-2003               Actor

                                Prokhorov, Alexander Mikhailovich                                 1916-

                                Reis, Dilermando                                                                  1916-                       Composer

                                Risi, Dino                                                                               1916-

                                Salgan, Horacio                                                                    1916-                       Composer

                                Weiss, Peter                                                                          1916-

                                Abbe, Cleveland                                                                  1838-1916

                                Alaichem, Sholom                                                                1859-1916

                                Boccioni, Umberto                                                               1882-1916

                                Butterworth, George Sainton Kaye                                   1885-1916               Composer

                                Cather, Willa                                                                         1873-1916

                                Dedekind, Julius Wilhelm Richard                                    1831-1916

                                Eakins, Thomas                                                                    1844-1916

                                Eizaguirre, Jose Echogram y                                               1832-1916

                                Granados, Enrique                                                               1867-1916               Composer

                                Howison, G. H.                                                                     1834-1916

                                James, Henry                                                                        1843-1916

                                MacCunn, Hamish                                                               1868-1916               Composer

                                Mach, Ernst                                                                          1838-1916

                                Marc, Franz                                                                           1880-1916

                                Munro, H. H. (Saki)                                                              1870-1916

                                Munsterberg, Hugo                                                             1863-1916

                                Redon, Odilon                                                                      1840-1916

                                Reger, Max                                                                            1873-1916

                                Royce, Josiah                                                                       1855-1916               Philosopher (California, US)

                                Strauss, Eduard                                                                    1835-1916               Composer

1917                        Three Clowns (Rouault)

                                Mrs Mounter at Breakfast (Harold Gilman)

                                The Disquieting Muses (Giorgio de Chirico)

                                The Embrace (Egon Schiele)

                                Wild Swans at Coole (Yeats)

                                De Stijl begins publication

                                “Surrealism” coined by Appollinaire

                                Zimmerman Telegram - invites Mexico and Japan to join Germany against the US (1/17)

                                Woodrow Wilson's "Peace without Victory" speech (1/22)

                                Germany notifies US that unrestricted submarine warfare will commence post haste (1/31)

                                Wilson administration publishes Zimmerman Telegram proposing alliance with Mexico and Japan (3/1)

                                Workers begin strike in Petrograd (2/22 O.S.) (3/7)

                                International Women's Day  - Female factory workers initiate 100,000 worker general strike in Petrograd - protesting bread shortage (2/23 O.S.) (3/8)

                                Police crack down against massive worker protests in Petrograd (2/25 O.S.) (3/10)

                                Soldiers under orders from Nicholas II shoot protesters in Petrograd - killing 50 (2/27) (3/12)

                                Russian soldiers in Petrograd mutiny against comanding officer after the previous day's massacre - shooting him (2/28?) (3/13)

                                Russian sailors stationed at Kronstadt elect new Revolutionary Committee - take over barracks - killing all commanders not supporting revolution (3/1 O.S.) (3/14)

                                Nicholas II abdicates - replaced by provisional government under Prince Lvov - end of Romanov dynasty (3/2 O.S.)  (3/15)

                                British capture Baghdad from Ottoman Empire (3/11)

                                Wilson's War Address in DC(4/2)

                                United States declares war on Germany (4/6)

                                Panama declares war on Germany (4/7)

                                Carranza declines Germany's proposals of the Zimmerman note

                                Bolivia severs relations with Germany (4/13)

                                Lenin returns to Russia from Switzerland having formulated the "Ten April Theses" - becomes leader of the Bolshevik Revolution (4/16)

                                Turkey severs relations with United States (4/23)

                                Greece declares war on Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, and Turkey (6/27)

                                T.E. Lawrence takes over command of Arab revolt against Ottoman Empire (7/6)

                                Arabs under T.E. Lawrence take Aqaba (7/6)

                                July Days - 500,000 march in Petrograd to protest new offensive against Germany - 700 killed by provisional government troops (7/4 O.S.) (7/17)

                                Siam (Thailand) declares war on Germany and Austria (7/22)

                                War Industries Board is formed in the US (7/28)

                                Third Battle of Ypres - major British offensive -little gained after German counter-attack       (7/31)

                                Liberia declares war on Germany (8/4)

                                China declares war on Germany and Austria (8/14)

                                Kornilov Affair in Russia (9/9-9/14)

                                Peru severs relations with Germany (10/6)

                                Uruguay severs relations with Germany (10/7)

                                Bolsheviks meet and decide on armed revolt to overthrow provisional government (10/23) (10/10 O.S.)

                                Battle of Caporetto - Italians defeated (10/24)

                                Sailors set off for Petrograd from Kronstadt siezing control of Winter Palace - Lenin: "All power to the soviets"  (11/7)   (10/25 O.S.)

                                Brazil declares war on Germany (10/26)

                                Balfour Declaration - Great Britain announces support for Jewish state in Palestine (11/2)

                                October Revolution - Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin seize power in Russia (11/7)

                                British capture Jerusalem (11/11)

                                United States declares war on Austria (12/7)

                                Equador severs relations with Germany (12/8)

                                Panama declares war on Austria (12/10)

                                Cuba declares war on Austria (12/16)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Russian Revolution  (3)

                                Bolshevik Russia concludes armistice with Central Powers

                                Russian Civil War (11/15) - 1921

                                Mutinies in French army

                                Beginning of ill-fated Brusilov offensive

                                German Chancellor Bethmann Hollweg forced to resign - succeded by Dr. Michaelis

                                Real power in Germany held by Hindenburg and Ludendorff

                                British Parliament announces that responsible government is the goal for India

                                Sun Yat Sen returns to China from exile

                                Mexican revolutionary constitution

                                Danish West Indies Purchased by United States (Virgin Islands)

                                Clemenceau +                      (France)                                                 Prime Minister

                                Bethmann Hollweg -           (Germany)                                             Chancellor

                                Dr. Michaelis +                    (Germany)                                             Chancellor

                                Nicholas II -                          (Russia)                                                 Emperor

                                Constantine I -                     (Greece)                                                                Son of George I

                                Alexander +                          (Greece)                                                                Son of Constantine I

                                Storyville shut down

                                First Jazz recording ODJB (Victor)

                                Parade                                                                   Satie

                                Palestrina                                                             Pfitzner

                                Four Songs for Voice and Orchestra               Schoenberg

                                Fountains of Rome                                              Respighi

                                Classical Symphony                                           Prokofiev

                                "Over There"                                                        George M. Cohan

                                Boll, Heinrich                                                                        1917-1985

                                Carson, Rachel                                                                     1917-1964

                                Clarke, Arthur Charles                                                         1917-2008               Writer

                                Gillespie, John Birks (Dizzy)                                               1917-1993               Trumpeter

                                Harrison, Lou                                                                        1917-2003               Composer

                                Horton, Walter                                                                     1917-1981               Musician

                                Lawrence, Jacob                                                                   1917-2002               Painter

                                McCullers, Carson                                                               1917-1967               Writer

                                Monk, Thelonius Sphere                                                    1917-1982               Composer

                                Rich, Buddy                                                                          1917-1987               Musician

                                Rainwater, James                                                                  1917-1986

                                Shavers, Charlie                                                                   1917-1971

                                Taylor, Hound Dog                                                             1917-1975               Guitarist

                                Wyeth, Andrew                                                                   1917-2009                       Painter

                                Baeyer, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von                 1835-1917

                                Brentano, Franz                                                                    1838-1917

                                Carreno, Maria Teresa                                                         1853-1917               Composer

                                Degas, Edgar                                                                        1834-1917               Painter

                                Durkheim, Emile                                                                    1858-1917

                                Joplin, Scott                                                                          1868-1917               Composer

                                Leo, Alan                                                                               1860-1917

                                Minkus, Leon (Ludwig)                                                      1826-1917               Composer

                                Rodin, Auguste                                                                    1840-1917               Sculptor

                                Ryder, Albert Pinkham                                                        1847-1917

1918                        The Night (Max Beckman) (-1919)

                                Gypsy Woman with Baby (Amedeo Modigliani)

                                Architectonic Composition (Liubov Popova)

                                My Antonia (Cather)

                                Alcools (Apollinaire)

                                Les Mamelles de Tiresias (Apollinaire)

                                The Decline of the West, 1st volume (Spengler)

                                Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson  (1/8)

                                Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - Russia cedes Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine, etc. (3/3)

                                Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - between Russia and Germany - Russia withdraws from the war     (3/3)

                                Germans bomb Paris (3/25)

                                Guatemala declares war on Germany (4/23)

                                Nicaragua declares war on Germany and Austria (5/8)

                                Revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion in Russia begins - start of counter-revolutionary "White" army that marches west(5/14)-(8)

                                Costa Rica declares war on Germany (5/23)

                                Haiti declares war on Germany (7/12)

                                Second Battle of the Marne (aka Battle of Reims) -  last major German offensive fails (7/15-8/6)

                                Tsar Nicholas II and his family are murdered (7/17)

                                Battle of Château-Thierry - first American engagement of WWI (7/18)

                                Honduras declares war on Germany (7/19)

                                Allies' offensive on Western Front begins - Germans forced to retreat (8/8)

                                Lenin is shot three times outside "Hammer and Sickle" factory -  he survives (8/30)

                                New German government of Prince Max von Baden askes President Wilson for 14 Points armistice (10/6)

                                Argonne-Meuse Front - Heroism of Alvin York of Tennessee (10/8)

                                Battle of Vittorio Veneto - Italian victory - Austria-Hungary surrenders (10/24)

                                Mutiny at German naval base of Kiel (11/3)

                                Revolution in Germany - William II abdicates - republic declared (11/7)

                                Germany signs Armistice - World War I ends (11/11)

                                -------------------------------------------------------------

                                Russia adopts Gregorian calendar

                                Women over 30 receive vote in Great Britain

                                Foch named commander-in-chief of Allied forces in France

                                Bulgaria receives armistice

                                Armistice with Turkey

                                Allies sign armistice with Austria-Hungary

                                Allies occupy Aachen (-1930)

                                Ottoman Empire collapses at end of Great War

                                Austria becomes a republic

                                Serbia becomes part of Yugoslavia

                                Croatia becomes part of Yugoslavia

                                Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes forms - union of Croatia, Montenegro, Slovenia & Serbia

                                Treaty of Versailles

                                Cabinet of Prime Minister Hara in Japan - first to be headed by a member of the House of Representatives

                                Student movement begins in Cordoba, Argentina

                                Charles I -                             (Austria)                                               Emperor House of Leopold

                                Ferdinand I -                         (Bulgaria)                                             King

                                Boris III +                             (Bulgaria)                                             King

                                Nicholas I -                           (Montenegro)                                       King

                                Peter I +                                (Yugoslavia)                                          King

                                Alexander +                          (Yugoslavia)                                          Regent

                                Mehmet V -                           (Ottoman Empire)                                (1909-)   Sultan

                                Mehmet VI -                          (Ottoman Empire)                                Sultan

                                First radio station broadcast

                                King Oliver’s band arrives in Chicago

                                Debussy dies in Paris while city is being bombed by German artillery (3/25)                           

                                OkeH records formed in NY by Otto Heinemann

                                Cleveland Orchestra forms

                                Il Tabarro                                                             Puccini

                                L’Histoire du soldat                                            Stravinsky

                                Classical Symphony                                           Prokofiev

                                L'homme et son desir, op 48                              Milhaud

                                Althusser, Louis                                                                  1918-1990

                                Bergman, Igmar                                                                    1918-                       Director

                                Bernstein, Leonard                                                              1918-1990               Composer

                                Brockhouse, Bertram N.                                                      1918-

                                Byrd, Henry Roeland (Professor Longhair)                     1918-                       Musician

                                Davis, Wild Bill                                                                    1918-1995               Musician

                                Feynman, Richard Phillips                                                  1918-1988               Nuclear Physicict (Queens, NYC)

                                Fitzgerald, Ella                                                                      1918-1996               Singer

                                Granz, Norman                                                                      1918-2001               Musician

                                Houston, Cisco                                                                    1918-1961               Musician

                                James, Elmore                                                                       1918-1963               Musician

                                Lerner, Alan Jay                                                                   1918-1986               Composer

                                Morante                                                                                 1918-1985

                                Quebec, Ike                                                                           1918-1963               Musician

                                Rochberg, George                                                                1918-                       Musician

                                Rulfo, Juan                                                                            1918-1986

                                Reines, Frederick                                                                  1918-

                                Ryle, Martin                                                                          1918-1984

                                Schwinger, Julian Seymour                                                1918-1994

                                Siegbahn, Kai Manne Borge                                              1918-

                                Solszhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isaevich                                   1918-

                                Zimmerman, Bernd Alois                                                    1918-1970               Musician

                                Adams Jr., Charles Francis                                                 1835-1918               Economist/Historian (Boston, MA)

                                Adams, Henry Brooks                                                         1838-1918               Historian (Boston, MA)

                                Apollinaire, Guillaume                                                         1880-1918               Poet (France)

                                Boulanger, Juliette Maria Olga Lili                                    1893-1918               Musician

                                Braun, Carl Ferdinand                                                         1850-1918               Physicist (Germany)

                                Cantor, George                                                                     1845-1918               Mathematician (Germany)

                                Cui, Cesar                                                                              1835-1918               Composer

                                De la Blache, Paul Vidal                                                      1845-1918

                                Debussy, Claude Achille                                                    1862-1918               Composer

                                Klimt, Gustav                                                                        1862-1918               Painter (Austria)

                                LeCocq, Charles                                                                   1832-1918               Composer

                                Owen, Wilfred                                                                      1893-1918              

                                Parry, Charles Hubert Hastings                                         1848-1918               Composer

                                Rostand, Edmond                                                                 1868-1918               Poet/Dramatist (France)

                                Schiele, Egon                                                                        1890-1918               Painter (Austria)

                                Simmel, Georg                                                                       1858-1918               Philosopher/Sociologist (Germany)

                                Taneyev, Alexander Sergeievich                                       1850-1918               Composer (Russia)

                                Tobias, Rudolf                                                                      1873-1918               Composer

                                Ysaye, Theophile                                                                 1865-1918               Composer

1919                        The Spahi (Dufresne)

                                Epsom Downs - City and Suburban Day (Alfred Munnings)

                                Child Carburetor (Francis Picabia)

                                Villa R. (Paul Klee)

                                Return From Church (Lawren Stewart Harris)

                                Model of The Monument to the Third International (Vladimir Tatlin) (-1920)

                                Prussianism and Socialism (Spengler)

                                Beyond the Pleasure Principle (Freud)

                                Faisal-Weizmann Agreement - Faisal conditionally accepts the Balfour Agreement (1/3)

                                Paris Peace Conference begins (1/18)

                                Habibullah Shah King of Afghanistan is assassinated (2/20)

                                Treaty of Versailles signed by Germany (6)

                                Treaty of Saint-Germaine -  signed by Austria (9)

                                Woodrow Wilson embarks on 8,000 mile tour to promote League of Nations (9)

                                Woodrow Wilson  has a stroke (10/2)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Between Wars (-1939)

                                Rebellion in Ireland led by Irish nationalist movement Sinn Fein

                                League of Nations founded

                                Germany to lose Alsace-Lorraine and colonies and to pay reparations to Allies (Treaty of Versailles)

                                Treaty of Saint-Germaine - Hapsburg monarchy ends

                                Treaty of Saint-Germaine - Austria to recognize indep. of Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, and Hungary 

                                Treaty of Neuilly - with Bulgaria

                                Kingless monarchy established in Transylvania

                                Romania annexes Old Kingdom of Transylvania, Bessarabia, and Burkovina (-1920)

                                Weimar Constitution adopted in Germany

                                Spartacist (Communist) rising in Berlin crushed by the Friekorps- socialist leader Rosa Luxembourg murdered

                                Italian nationalist Gabriel d'Annunzio seizes Fiume from Yugoslavia

                                Fascist movement founded in Italy by Benito Mussolini

                                Turkish war of liberation against Greek and Allied forces (-1922)

                                Indian leader Mohandas Gandhi (Mohatma) begins campaign of passive resistance to Great Britain

                                Amristar massacre - British troops fire on nationalist rioters in India

                                Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms in India

                                May Fourth Movement in China

                                US Senate rejects League of Nations treaty

                                Red Scare

                                Volstead Act - Eighteenth Amendment (prohibition) ratified

                                East St. Louis Race Riots

                                First transatlantic flight by John Alcock and Arthur Brown

                                Third Anglo-Afghan War

                                Joseph of Austria +-            (Transylvania)                                      Regent

                                Sydney Bechet celebrated in Europe

                                Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra forms

                                Prohibition starts

                                The Royal Guest                                                  Hakon Borresen

                                Hitchy-Koo of 1919                                            Cole Porter

                                Swanee                                                                 Gershwin

                                Sinbad                                                                   Gershwin

                                Blakey, Art                                                                            1919-1990               Musician

                                Cunningham, Merce                                                            1919-                       Dancer

                                Duncan, Robert                                                                    1919-1988

                                Edison, Harry “Sweets”                                                      1919-1999               Musician

                                Ferlinghetti, Lawrence                                                         1919-

                                Jackson, Shirley                                                                   1919-1965

                                Lessing, Doris                                                                      1919-

                                O’day, Anita                                                                         1919-                       Singer

                                Salinger, Jerome David                                                        1919-                       Writer

                                Seeger, Pete                                                                          1919-                       Musician

                                Weinberg, Moise                                                                 1919-                       Musician

                                Baum, Lyman Frank                                                             1856-1919               Writer (Chittenango, NY)

                                Carnegie, Andrew                                                                1835-1919

                                Gjellerup, Karl Adolph                                                        1857-1919

                                Gunton, George                                                                    1845-1919

                                Haekel, Ernst                                                                         1834-1919

                                Haverfield, Francis John                                                     1860-1919

                                Leoncavallo, Ruggero                                                         1857-1919               Composer

                                Parker, Horatio William                                                       1863-1919               Composer

                                Rayleigh, J. William Strut                                                    1842-1919

                                Renoir, Pierre August                                                          1841-1919               Painter

                                Roosevelt, Theodore                                                           1858-1919               President

                                Sabine, W. C.                                                                        1868-1919

                                Sienkiewicz, Henryk                                                             1846-1919

                                Villoldo, Angel                                                                     1861-1919               Composer

1920                        Flask, Guitar, Glass and Bottle on the grey Table (Amedee Ozenfant)

                                Das Haarnabelbild (Kurt Schwitters)

                                Composition (Georges Vantongerloo)

                                Age of Innocence (Edith Wharton)

                                Charlie Chaplin, D. W. Griffith, Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford form United Artists

                                League of Nations meets for first time (1/10)

                                Paris Peace conference ends (1/21)

                                Sanremo Conference - confirmed the mandates in former Ottoman Territories (4/19-26)

                                Battle of Maysalun - French defeat Syrian forces 12 miles west of Damascus (7/23)

                                French forces enter Damascus (7/25)

                                Treaty of Sevres - between Allies and Turkey - opposed by Turkish nationalists led by Mustafa Kemal (8/10)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                League of Nations admits Ethiopia as member state (9/28)

                                Civil war in Ireland - situation aggravated by British auxiliaries - the Black and Tans

                                Northern Ireland accepts Home Rule Act

                                Treaty of Rapallo between Italy and Yugoslavia

                                Russia and Poland at war (-1921)

                                Treaty of Trianon - with Hungary

                                Palestine established as Jewish state under British administration

                                Great Britain assigned mandate over Palestine, Iraq, and Transjordan

                                France assigned mandate over Lebanon and Syria

                                M. K. Gandhi becomes leader of the Indian National Congress

                                US Senate rejects League of Nations

                                Prohibition in the United States

                                Nineteenth Amendment (Womens Suffrage) ratified

                                Republic Party returns to power

                                US Census shows that country is predominantly urban

                                Raymond Poincare -            (France)

                                Paul Deschanel +-               (France)

                                Alexandre Millerand +       (France)

                                Miklos Horthy +                  (Transylvania)                                      Regent (Hungary) (from Nagybanya)

                                Alexander -                           (Greece)                                                                Son of Constantine I

                                Constantine I +                    (Greece)                                                                Son of George I (rethroned)

                                First Blues Record “That Thing Called Love” Perry Bradford Maime Smith Crazy Blues

                                “You Can’t Keep A Good Man Down”            Perry Bradford Mamie Smith

                                Fletcher Henderson arrives in New York

                                Pulcinella                                                             Stravinsky

                                Serenade, op. 24 (/1923)                                     Schoenberg

                                Abzug, Bella                                                                         1920-

                                Bloembergen, Nicolaus                                                       1920-

                                Brubeck, Dave                                                                      1920-                       Musician

                                Asimov, Isaac (Paul French)                                              1920-1992               Writer

                                Bradbury, Ray                                                                      1920-                       Writer

                                Bukowski, Charles                                                               1920-1994               Writer

                                Celan, Paul                                                                            1920-1970

                                Chamberlain, Owen                                                              1920-

                                Fellini, Frederico                                                                   1920-

                                Fetler, Paul                                                                            1920-                       Musician

                                Leary, Timothy Francis                                                       1920-1996

                                Parker, Charlie Christopher                                                 1920-1955               Composer

                                Rohmer, Eric                                                                          1920-

                                Thiebaud, Wayne                                                                 1920-

                                Ardigo, Roberto                                                                   1828-1920               Philosopher

                                Bruch, Max                                                                            1838-1920               Composer (Germany)

                                Griffes, Charles Tomlinson                                                  1884-1920               Composer

                                Howells, William Dean                                                        1837-1920               (1939)

                                Jackson, Tony                                                                      1876-1920

                                Lockyer, Joseph Norman                                                    1836-1920

                                Modigliani, Amedeo                                                            1884-1920

                                Perez Galdos, Benito                                                            1843-1920

                                Weber, Max                                                                          1864-1920

                                Wundt, Wilhelm                                                                   1832-1920

1921                        Costume Design for the Countess in Scene II of The Sleeping Princess (Bakst)

                                Painting No. 1 (Piet Mondrian)

                                Composition (Piet Mondrian)

                                Three musicians (Pablo Picasso)

                                Le Canigou (Juan Gris)

                                Pedestal Table before a Window (Juan Gris)

                                Dazzle Ships in Drydock at Liverpool (Edward Wadsworth)

                                The Kid (Chaplin)

                                Kronstadt Rebellion ("the 3rd Revolution") led by Petrichenko opposes Bolsheviks - fails (3/7-17)

                                Treaty of Riga - ends Russo-Polish war (3/18)

                                ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                Irish Free State established - Irish Republican Army (IRA) continues opposition

                                Mutiny of Russian sailors at Kronstadt, Finland, is put down

                                New Economic Policy in USSR

                                Greece attacks Turkey bu is finally defeated (1922)

                                Turkish nationalist government set up at Ankara

                                Riza Khan establishes control over Iran - deposes Ahmed Shah and founds Pahvlavi dynasty (-1925)

                                First Noncooperation Movement in India

                                Sun Yat Sen elected president of self-proclaimed national government at Canton, s. China

                                Washington Conference held to discuss naval armaments (-1922)

                                Pacific Treaty - between four powers Great Britain, France, Japan, and United States

                                Peter I -                                 (Serbia)                                                 King (Karadjordjevic) (1903-)

                                Peter I -                                 (Yugoslavia)                                          King

                                Alexander -                           (Yugoslavia)                                          Regent

                                Alexander I +                        (Yugoslavia)                                          King

                                Katya Kabanova                                                 Janacek

                                Pastoral Symphony                                             Vaughan Williams

                                The Love for Three Oranges                              Prokofiev

                                Symphony for Wind Instruments                       Stravinsky

                                King David                                                           Honegger

                                Saudades do Brasil                                             Milhaud

                                “Carolina Shout”                                                  James P. Johnson

                                Arnold, Malcolm                                                                  1921-                       Composer

                                Basarab, Mircea                                                                   1921-                       Musician

                                Beuys, Joseph                                                                      1921-1986

                                Freed, Alan                                                                           1921-                       Musician

                                Garner, Erroll                                                                         1921-1977               Musician

                                Piazzolla, Astor                                                                     1921-1992               Composer

                                Rawls, John                                                                           1921-2002

                                Sakharov, Andrei Dimitrievich                                           1921-

                                Schawlow, Arhur Leonard                                                  1921-

                                Simpson, Robert                                                                   1921-                       Musician

                                Steinberger, Jack                                                                  1921-

                                Blackwell, Antoinette Brown                                             1825-1921

                                Boutroux, Emile                                                                    1845-1921

                                Caruso, Enrico                                                                      1873-1921               Singer

                                Huber, Hans                                                                          1852-1921               Composer

                                Humperdinck, Engelbert                                                     1854-1921               Composer

                                Lippman, Gabriel                                                                  1845-1921

                                Meinong, Alexius                                                                1853-1921

                                Petri, Richard                                                                        1852-1921

                                Saint-Saens, Charles-Camille                                              1835-1921               Composer

                                Severac, Deodat de                                                              1872-1921               Composer

1922                        Maine Islands (John Marin)

                                Twittering Machine (Paul Klee)

                                Seated Woman (Henri Laurens)

                                Still-life (Le Corbusier)

                                The Forsyte Saga (Galsworthy)

                                Duino Elegies (Rilke)

                                Sonnets to Orpheus (Rilke)

                                Ulysses (Joyce)

                                The Wasteland (Eliot)

                                Tess of the Storm Country (John S. Roberttson)

                                British Archaeologist opens King Tut's tomb (11/26)

                                March on Rome - King Victor Emmanuel III invites fascist Benito Mussolini to be prime minister (3/28)

                                Churchill's White Paper - states British view on the Balfour Declaration (6/3)

                                Union of Soviet Socialist Republics established (USSR)

                                Stalin named Secretary General of Communist Party

                                Last Ottoman sultan Mehmet VI flees - deposed by Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk)

                                Britain declares Egypt independent from British and French influence

                                Nine Power Treaty

                                Washington Naval Conference (-1923)

                                Constantine I -                      (Greece)                                                 Son of George I (rethroned)

                                George II +                            (Greece)                                                 Son of Constantine I

                                Mehmet VI -                          (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan

                                Benedict XV -

                                Pius XI +

                                Discovery of insulin

                                Schoenberg develops twelve-tone serialism

                                Louis Armstrong moves to Chicago joins King Oliver

                                Fifth Symphony                                                    Nielsen

                                Piano Concerto No. 1                                        Antheil

                                Basov, Nikolai Gennadiyevich                                           1922-

                                Bohr, Aage N.                                                                       1922-

                                Brim, John                                                                             1922-2003

                                Brubeck, Dave                                                                      1922-                       Composer

                                Byard, Jaki                                                                             1922-1999

                                Dehmect, Hans Georg                                                         1922-

                                Diebenkorn, Richard                                                            1922-1993

                                Foss, Lukas                                                                           1922-                       Composer

                                Freud, Lucian                                                                        1922-

                                Kerouac, Jack                                                                       1922-1969               Writer

                                Khan, Ali Akbar                                                                   1922-

                                Lederman, Leon Max                                                           1922-

                                Olsen, Poul Rovsing                                                            1922-1982               Composer

                                Pasolini, Pier Paolo                                                              1922-1975

                                Penn, Arthur                                                                         1922-

                                Petit, Pierre                                                                            1922-                       Musician

                                Raid, Kaljo                                                                             1922-                       Musician

                                Resnais, Alain                                                                      1922-

                                Saramago, Jose                                                                     1922-

                                Sutton, Ralph                                                                        1922-2001

                                Vonnegut Jr., Kurt                                                               1922-                       Writer

                                Xenakis, Yannis                                                                   1922-2001               Composer

                                Yang, Chen Ning                                                                  1922-

                                Abbot, Lyman                                                                      1835-1922

                                Bajer, Fredrik                                                                         1837-1922

                                Bell, Alexander Graham                                                       1847-1922

                                Blunt, Wilfrid Scawen                                                         1840-1922

                                Hallwachs, Wilhelm                                                             1859-1922

                                Proust, Marcel                                                                      1871-1922

                                Sokolov, Nikolai                                                                   1859-1922               Composer

                                Sorel, Georges                                                                      1847-1922

                                Ziehrer, Ludwig August                                                     1843-1922               Composer

1923                        At the Mountain of the Bull (Paul Klee)

                                Edith Sitwell (Percy Wyndham Lewis) (-1933)

                                The Betrothed (Canstant Permeke)

                                Woman, Old Man and Flower (Max Ernst) (-1924)

                                Opus 47 (Victor Servranckx)

                                The Ego and the Id (Freud)

                                Our Hospitality (Buster Keaton)

                                French and Belgian troops occupy Ruhr district, west Germany, after Germany fails to pay reparations

                                Hitler-Ludendorff Beer Hall Putsch in Munich (11/8-9)

                                Adolf Hitler, founder of the National Socialist Party, attempts to overthrow Bavarian government - imprisoned

                                Virtual Spanish dictatorship in Spain under General Primo de Rivera (-1930)

                                Mussolini creates a fascist state in Italy

                                Treaty of Lausanne -  between Greece and Turkey

                                Turkey proclaimed a republic - deposition of Ottoman sultan - Mustafa Kemal is first president

                                Karol Rathaus' 2nd Symphony premieres

                                Cotton Club opens in New York

                                First Recordings of: King Oliver, Freddie Keppard, Louis Armstrong, Jelly Roll Morton, Sidney Bechet, Bennie Moten, Bessie Smith (2/16)

                                Sixth Symphony                                                   Sibelius

                                Valse for piano                                                     Schoenberg

                                Fugal Concerto                                                     Holst

                                Les Noces                                                             Stravinsky

                                Pacific 231                                                             Honegger

                                La Creation du Monde                                        Milhaud

                                Das Marienleben                                                  Hindemith

                                Anderson, Lindsay                                                              1923-1994

                                Behan, Brendan                                                                    1923-1964

                                Anderson, Phillip Warren                                                   1923-

                                Calvino, Italo                                                                        1923-1985

                                de Los Angeles, Victoria                                                    1923-                       Opera Singer

                                Fitch, Val Logsoon                                                              1923-

                                Garland, Red                                                                         1923-1984               Pianist

                                Gordimer, Nadine                                                                 1923-                       Writer/Policital Activist

                                Gordon, Dexter                                                                     1923-1990               Musician

                                Jackson, Milt                                                                        1923-1999               Saxophonist

                                Kaempfert, Bert                                                                    1923-1980               Composer

                                Kilby, Jack S.                                                                        1923-

                                Levertov, Denise                                                                  1923-

                                Lichtenstein, Roy                                                                 1923-1997               Artist

                                Ligeti, Gyorgy                                                                       1923-

                                Mailer, Norman                                                                     1923-                       Writer

                                Mennin, Peter                                                                       1923-1983               Composer

                                Navarro, Fats                                                                        1923-1950               Musician

                                Puente, Tito                                                                          1923-2000               Musician

                                Rivers, Larry                                                                         1923-2002

                                Rorem, Ned                                                                           1923-                       Composer

                                Szymborska, Wislawa                                                         1923-

                                Taylor, Eddie                                                                        1923-1985               Musician

                                Whalen, Philip                                                                      1923-

                                Williams, James Clifton                                                       1923-1976               Musician

                                Barnard, Edward Emerson                                                  1857-1923

                                Bernhardt, Sarah                                                                  1844-1923

                                Bosanquet, Bernard                                                             1848-1923

                                Hamerik, Asger                                                                     1843-1923               Composer

                                Harding, Warren Gamaliel                                                   1865-1923

                                Hasek, Jaroslav                                                                    1883-1923

                                Loti, Pierre                                                                             1850-1923               Novelist (France)

                                Morley, Edward William                                                     1838-1923

                                Morley, John                                                                        1838-1923

                                Pareto, Vilfredo                                                                     1848-1923

                                Roentgen, Wilhelm Conrad                                                1845-1923

                                Sorolla y Bastida, Joaquin                                                  1863-1923

                                Steinmetz, Charles Proteus                                                 1865-1923

                                Troeltsch, Ernst                                                                    1865-1923

                                Van der Waals, J. D.                                                            1837-1923

1924                        Yellow Accompaniment (Wassily Kandinsky)

                                Element Mecanique (Fernand Leger)

                                Rain in the North Country (Arthur Lismer)

                                The Harlequin's Carnival (Joan Miro) (-1925)

                                Joseph Conrad (Jacob Epstein)

                                Mother and Child (Henry Moore) (-1925)

                                Heimdal's Wanderings (Jeppe Aakjaer) poem

                                Saint Joan (Shaw)

                                The Magic Mountain (Mann)

                                The Trial (Kafka)

                                Sherlock, Jr. (Buster Keaton)

                                First Labour government in Great Britain

                                Dawes Plan settles reparation payments to be made by Germany

                                Stabilization of the Weimar economy in Germany

                                Italian socialist, Giocomo Matteotti is murdered by Fascists

                                Death of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin succeeds him

                                Greece forms a republic (-1935)

                                New Republic of Turkey forms - Ataturk expels all sultanate sympathizers

                                Ibn Saud conquers Hijaz and establishes rule over most of Arabian Peninsula

                                Reorganization of the Kuomintang in China

                                Chinese government set up at Canton under Sun Yat-sen - it includes Communist members

                                Full citizenship granted to Native Americans

                                First airplane flight around the world by US army planes

                                British pass law prohibiting travel north or south of the 10th parallel in Sudan

                                Alexandre Millerand -          (France)

                                Gaston Doumergue +          (France)                                                 (-1931)    President

                                Vladimir Lenin -                    (Russia)

                                Joseph Stalin +                     (Russia)                                                 (-1953)    Premier

                                George II -                             (Greece)                                                 Son of Constantine I

                                Ataturk +                               (Republic of Turkey)

                                Ernst Bloch becomes an American citizen

                                Louis Armstrong joins Fletcher Henderson in NY

                                Papa Charlie Jackson records first blues

                                Turandot                                                               Puccini

                                Mercure                                                                 Satie

                                Suite for Piano (1st wholly atonal work)         Schoenberg

                                Serenade                                                               Schoenberg

                                Woodwind Quintet                                              Schoenberg

                                Concertino for Piano and Orchestra H 55     Honegger

                                Rhapsody in Blue                                                Gershwin

                                "Fascinatin’ Rhythm "                                        Gershwin

                                Lady Be Good                                                       Gershwin

                                Atkins, Chet                                                                          1924-                       Musician

                                Bacall, Lauren                                                                       1924-

                                Baldwin, James                                                                     1924-                       Musician

                                Braun, Gunter                                                                       1924-                       Musician

                                Brown, Clarence Gatemouth                                               1924-

                                Carter, James                                                                         1924-

                                Charpak, Georges                                                                 1924-

                                Desmond, Paul                                                                     1924-1977               Musician

                                Hewish, Antony                                                                   1924-

                                Landes, David S.                                                                  1924-                                                      

                                Lyotard, Jean Francois                                                        1924-1998

                                Mancini, Henry                                                                    1924-                  Composer (Taurus)

                                Nono, Luigi                                                                           1924-                       Musician

                                Pearlstein, Philip                                                                   1924-

                                Powell, Bud                                                                           1924-1966               Musician

                                Presti, Ida                                                                              1924-1967               Musician

                                Tomlinson, Ernest                                                                1924-                       Musician

                                Vaughan, Sarah                                                                    1924-1990               Singer

                                Vollmer, Joan                                                                        1924-1951

                                Washington, Dinah                                                             1924-1963               Singer

                                Bradley, Francis Herbert                                                     1846-1924

                                Busoni, Ferruccio Dante Michel. Benvenuto                  1866-1924               Composer

                                Chardonett, Louis                                                                1839-1924

                                Conrad, Joseph                                                                    1857-1924               Novelist

                                Duse, Eleanor                                                                       1859-1924

                                Faure, Gabriel Urbain                                                           1845-1924               Composer

                                Gompers, Samuel                                                                  1850-1924

                                Goodhue, Bertram Grosvenor                                            1869-1924

                                Herbert, Victor                                                                      1859-1924               Composer

                                Kafka, Franz                                                                          1883-1924

                                Lenin, Vladimir                                                                      1870-1924

                                Liapunov, Sergei Mikhailovich                                          1859-1924               Composer

                                Marshall, Alfred                                                                   1842-1924

                                Natorp, Paul                                                                          1854-1924

                                Nesbit, Edith                                                                         1858-1924

                                Pasculli, Antonino                                                               1842-1924               Composer

                                Stanford, Charles Villiers                                                    1852-1924               Composer

                                Puccini, Giacomo Antonio Domenico                               1858-1924               Composer

                                Scharwenka, Franz Xaver                                                   1850-1924               Composer

                                Spitteler, Carl Friedrich Georg                                            1845-1924

                                Sullivan, Louis                                                                      1856-1924

                                Thibault, Jacques Anatole (France)                                  1844-1924

                                Wilson, Woodrow                                                               1856-1924               President

1925                        The Window (Pierre Bonnard)

                                Still-life with a Jug (Louis Marcoussis)

                                The Golden Fish (Paul Klee)

                                Countercomposition and Dissonances No. 16 (Theo van Doesburg)

                                Russian Wedding (Marc Chagall)

                                Concentric Group (Oskar Schlemmer)

                                Poster for the film Battleship Potemkin (Alexander Rodchenko)

                                The Resurrection, Cookham (Sir Stanley Spencer)

                                Mackerel (Seiho) (Japan)

                                An American Tragedy (Dreiser)

                                The Great Gatsby (Fitzgerald)

                                The Big Parade (King Vidor)

                                The Freshman (Sam Taylor / Fred Newmeyer)

                                The General (Buster Keaton)

                                The Gold Rush (Charlie Chaplin)

                                Greed (Erich von Stroheim)

                                Potemkin (Sergei Eisenstein)

                                Yves Tanguy joins the original Surrealists

                                Locarno Conference - the great powers agree to put disputes to arbitration-Briand chief architect (Locarno Pact)

                                Arab uprising in Morocco led by abd-el-Krim (-1926)

                                John T. Scopes found guilt teaching evolution in Dayton, Tennessee (7/24)

                                Keilin's discovery of cytochromes and the beginning of molecular biology

                                Louis Armstrong back in Chicago

                                Bessie Smith & Louis Armstrong record together (1/24)

                                Concerto Grosso                                                  Bloch

                                Wozzeck                                                                Berg

                                Music for the Theater                                         Copland

                                Berio, Luciano                                                                      1925-2003               Composer

                                Boulez, Pierre                                                                        1925-                       Composer

                                Delerue, Georges                                                                  1925-1992

                                Deleuze, Gilles                                                                      1925-1995

                                Dieskau, Dietrich Fischer                                                    1925-

                                Esaki, Leo                                                                              1925-

                                Kaufman, Bob                                                                       1925-1986

                                King, B.B.                                                                              1925-                       Musician

                                Lamb, Peter                                                                           1925-                       Musician

                                Mishima, Yukio                                                                    1925-1970

                                Mitchell, Joan                                                                       1925-1992

                                O’Connor, Flannery                                                             1925-1964

                                Peterson, Oscar                                                                    1925-                       Musician

                                Rauschenberg, Robert                                                        1925-                       Painter

                                Schuller, Gunther                                                                 1925-                       Composer

                                Smith, Jimmy                                                                         1925-2005               Musician

                                Tinguely, Jean                                                                      1925-                       Sculptor (Fribourg, Switzerland)

                                Van der Meer, Simon                                                           1925-

                                Wetherell, Eric                                                                      1925-                       Musician

                                Bellows, George                                                                   1882-1925

                                Bryan, William Jennings                                                     1860-1925

                                Frege, Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob                                        1848-1925

                                Haggard, Henry Rider                                                         1856-1925               Writer (England)

                                Heaviside, Oliver                                                                  1850-1925

                                Hugel, Friedrich von                                                            1852-1925

                                McTaggart, J. M. E.                                                             1866-1925

                                Moszkowski, Moritz                                                            1854-1925               Composer

                                Posse, Wilhelm                                                                     1852-1925               Composer

                                Reymont, Wladyslaw Stanislaw (Rejment)                      1867-1925

                                Sargent, John Singer                                                           1856-1925               Painter

                                Satie, Erik                                                                               1866-1925               Composer (France)

                                Sun Yat Sen                                                                          1866-1925               Chinese Revolutionary (Canton)

1926                        Visit to a Children's Hospital (Kathe Kollwitz)

                                View of the Thames (Oskar Kokoschka)

                                Black Iris (Georgia O'Keefe)

                                Dr. Mayer Herman (Otto Dix)

                                The Man of the Sea (Rene Magritte)

                                The Menaced Assassin (Rene Magritte)

                                Winnie the Pooh (Milne)

                                The Sun Also Rises (Hemingway)

                                For Heaven's Sake (Sam Taylor)

                                Metropolis (Fritz Lang)

                                First all-sound films

                                General strike in Great Britain

                                Imperial Conference defines nature of British Commonwealth of Nations

                                Germany is admitted to the League of Nations

                                Army in Portugal overthrows government

                                Stalin establishes control in USSR

                                Zinoviev, Trotsky, and Kamenev removed from Soviet Politburo

                                Arab uprising in Morocco led by abd-el-Krim crushed by France and Spain

                                Northern Expedition - reunification of China under the Kuomintang (-1928)

                                Canberra becomes the federal capital of Australia

                                NOBEL PEACE PRIZE : Aristide Briand (France) & Gustav Stresemann

                                First liquid rocket launched- Dr. Robert H. Goddard (3/16)

                                Savoy Ballroom opens in Harlem

                                Okeh switches to electric microphone recording method

                                Melody Maker magazine first published

                                Thomas “Fats” Waller records

                                Ellington’s first electric recordings for Gennett (4)

                                Madagascan Songs                                             Ravel

                                Hary Janos                                                            Kodaly

                                The Girl Friend                                                      Rodgers & Hart

                                Cardillac                                                                 Hindemith

                                Piano Concerto                                                     Copland

                                First Symphony                                                    Shostakovich

                                Abernathy, Ralph David                                                     1926-

                                Berry, Chuck                                                                         1926-                       Musician                              

                                Blamont, Jacques                                                                 1926-

                                Burnside, R.L.                                                                       1926-2005               Musician

                                Coltrane, John                                                                      1926-1967               Musician

                                Creeley, Robert                                                                     1926-

                                Davis, Miles                                                                          1926-1991               Musician

                                Donaldson, Lou                                                                   1926-                       Musician

                                Feldman, Morton                                                                 1926-1987               Musician

                                Fo, Dario                                                                                1926-

                                Foucalt, Michel                                                                    1926-1984

                                Fowles, John                                                                         1926-

                                Ginsberg, Allen                                                                    1926-1997               Poet

                                Glaser, D. A.                                                                          1926-

                                Henze, Hans Werner                                                           1926-                       Musician

                                Holmes, John Clellon                                                           1926-1988

                                Kendall, Henry Way                                                            1926-

                                Koshiba, Masatoshi                                                            1926-

                                Lee, Tsung Dao                                                                    1926-

                                Mottleson, Ben R.                                                                1926-

                                O’Hara, Frank                                                                       1926-1966               Novelist/Writer

                                Queen Elizabeth                                                                   1926-

                                Reed, Jimmy                                                                          1925-1976               Musician

                                Tjader, Cal                                                                             1925-1982               Musician

                                Reisz, Karel                                                                           1926-2002

                                Salaam, Abdus                                                                     1926-1996

                                Smith, Jimmy                                                                         1925-2005               Musician

                                Thornton, Big Mama                                                           1926-1984               Singer

                                Tudor, David Eugene                                                          1926-1996

                                Welch, Lew                                                                           1926-1971

                                Wertmuller, Lina                                                                   1926-

                                Abbott, Edwin Abbott                                                        1838-1926               Clergyman/Author

                                Cassatt, Mary                                                                       1844-1926

                                Debs, Eugene V.                                                                   1855-1926               Socialist Leader (Terre Haute, IN

                                Euken, Rudolf  Christolf                                                      1846-1926

                                Monet, Claude                                                                      1840-1926

                                Moran, Thomas                                                                    1837-1926

                                Onnes, Heike Kamerlingh                                                   1853-1926

                                Pennell, Joseph                                                                    1857-1926

                                Rilke, Rainier Maria                                                              1875-1926

                                Sun Yat Sen                                                                          1866-1925               Chinese Revolutionary (Canton)

                                Tilden, William Augustus                                                  1842-1926

                                Turro y Darder, Ramon                                                       1854-1926

1927                        Madonna and Child (Epstein)

                                My Egypt (Charles Demuth)

                                Monteure (Baumeister)

                                Page Boy at Maxims (Soutine)

                                The Great Forest (Ernst)

                                The New Lazarus (Evergood)

                                Mother and Child at Play (Chaim Gross)

                                Giants in the Earth (Rolvaag)

                                To the Lighthouse (Woolf)

                                Strange Interlude (O'Neill)

                                The Future of an Illusion (Freud)

                                It (Josef von Sternberg)

                                The Jazz Singer (Alan Crosland)

                                The Kid Brother (Ted Wilde)

                                The King of Kings (Cecil B. DeMille)

                                Napoleon (Abel Gance)

                                The Student Prince of Old Heidelberg (Ernst Lubitsch)

                                Sunrise (F. W. Murnau)

                                Wings (William A. Wellman)

                                Simon Commission in India

                                Chiang Kai-shek, successor to Sun-Yat-sen, purges Communists, sets up government at Nanking

                                Communists and Kuomintang split into separate political factions - each claiming legacy of Sun Yat Sen

                                Chinese Civil War between Communists and Nationalists

                                American Charles Lindbergh makes first solo trans-Atlantic flight

                                Ferdinand I -                         (Romania)                                              King

                                Michael +                              (Romania)                                              King

                                First television transmission

                                W. Heisenberg and others propound "uncertainty principle" in quantum physics

                                International Musicological Society founded at Basle

                                Bristol TN Sessions with Jimmy Rodgers & Carter Family (Aug. 1st) Ralph Peer Victor

                                Ellington moves to Cotton Club

                                Schwanda, the Bagpiper                                     Weinberger

                                Steichquartett Nr. 3                                              Bartok

                                Oedipus Rex                                                          Stravinsky

                                Second Symphony (“1917”)                               Shostakovich

                                Show Boat                                                             Kern & Hammerstein

                                A Connecticut Yankee                                        Rodgers & Hart

                                Jonny spielt auf                                                    Krenek

                                Aufstieg und Fall der stadt Mahagonny         Weill

                                Argento, Dominic                                                                1927-                       Musician

                                Gielen, Michael                                                                     1927-                       Musician

                                Grass, Gunter                                                                        1927-

                                Henry, Pierre                                                                         1927-

                                Jones, Elvin                                                                           1927-2004               Musician