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600                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Serbia established by emigrants from Carpathian Mountains

                                Huari and Tiahuanaco empires (-800)

                                Ostionoid expansion from western Puerto Rico toward Cuba and Jamaica (-1200)

                                Ali                                                                                           600-661                   Fourth Caliph

                                Gregorian Chant

601                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Recared -                               (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (586-)

                                Sisebut +                               (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (-612)

602                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                The emperor Maurice is overthrown by the army - Phocas installed

                                Fall of the Lakhmids (Arab vassals of Sassanid Persia)

                                Aedan Mac Gabran             (Dal Riata)                                             (???-???)

                                Aethilfrith ...                          (Bernicia)                                               (593-616)                King

                                Ceowulf ...                             (Wessex)                                               (597-611)                King

                                Clotaire II ...                           (Neustria)                                              (584-613)                King

                                Brunhilda ...                           (Austrasia/Burgundy)                         (               )               Queen

                                Theudebert II ...                    (Austrasia)                                            (595-612)                King

                                Theuderic II ...                      (Burgundy)                                           (587-613)                King

                                Liuva II ...                              (Visigothic Kingdom)                          (601-603)                King

                                Agilulf ...                                (Lombard Kingdom)                            (590-616)                King      

                                Maurice -                               (Byzantine Empire)                               (581-602)

                                Phocas +                                (Byzantine Empire)                               (602-610)

                                Khosrau II ...                         (Sassanian Empire)                              (590-610)                King

                                Pulakesi ...                             (Chalukya Empire)                                (597-642)                Child King

                                Mangalesa ...                        (Chalukya Empire)                                (596-610)                Regent

                                Wen ...                                   (Sui Dynasty China)                            (581-604)

                                Yeongyang ...                       (Koguryo Kingdom)                            (590-618)                King

                                Jinpyeong  ...                        (Silla Kingdom)                                     (579-632)                King

                                Mu-Wang ...                         (Baekje Kingdom)                                (600-641)                King

                                Suiko ...                                  (Asuka Japan)                                      (593-628)                Emperor

                                Ly Nam De II                         (Van Xuan)                                            (571-602)                King Posterior Hau Ly Nam De

603                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Battle of Degsastan - King of Bernicia defeats king of Dal Riada

604                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Gregory I The Great  -          (Patriarchate of Rome)                       (590-604)

                                Sabinian +                               (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (604-606)

                                Gregory the Great                                                 540-604

605                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Grand Canal construction begins in China (-610) (-628)

                                Sassanids annex Levant and Egypt and push into Anatolia (-629)

606                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Harsha of Kanauj +              (Gupta Empire)                                      (-647)(-648) northern India

                                Sabinian -                              (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (604-)

                                Fatima                                                                                    606-632                   Daughter of Mohammed

607                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Boniface III +-                       (Patriarchate of Rome)                         ****

608                          Kaaba construction in Mecca - main shrine in pagan Arabia

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Boniface IV +                        (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-615)

609                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

610                          Grand Canal completed in China ?

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Phocas is overthrown by Heraclius

                                The Avars at the gates of Constantinople (-626)

                                Byzantine empire is reorganized as a set of military administrative districts (-626)

                                Vision of Muhammad

                                Persians overrun Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt (-626)

                                Phocas -                                 (Byzantine Empire)                               (602-)     

                                Heraclius +                            (Byzantine Empire)                               (-641)

611                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Cynegils +                             (Wessex)                                               (-643)      King

612                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Irish monastery Bobbio founded in northern Italy

                                Korean campaigns  (-614)

                                Sisebut -                                 (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (601-)

                                Recared II +                           (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (-621)

                                Theodebert II -                     (Austrasia)                                            (596-)      (s. Childebert II)

                                Dagobert I                                                                             612-639                   King of the Franks

613                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Clotaire II unites all Frankish lands as king of Neustria and Austrasia at the death of his cousin Theodoric II

                                Clotaire II puts Brunhilda to a horrible death - rack for three days then drawn and quartered

                                Visigothic persecutions if the Jews in Spain

                                Clotaire II +                           (United Frankish Kingdom)                (-528)

                                Theodoric II -                        (Burgundy)                                           (596-)      (s. Childebert II)

                                Brunhilda                                                                               534-613                   Queen (Frankish Kingdom)

614                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

615                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Edict of Paris - Clotaire II grants charter grants a charter giving far-reaching privileges to nobles and clergy

                                Agilulf -                                 (Lombard Kingdom)                            (591-)

                                Adaloald +                            (Lombard Kingdom)                            (-625)

                                Boniface IV -                         (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (608-)

                                Deusdedit (Adeodatus) +   (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-618)

                                Columbanus                                                                          585-615                   Irish Missionary

616                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Battle of the River Idle - Raedwald, King of the East Angles defeats and kills King Aethelfrith of Bernicia

617                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                SUI +

618                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                TANG +                 (-907)

                                Sui Dynasty ends with murder of Yang Ti "The Shady"

                                Tang Dynasty begins with T'ai Tsu

                                Omar converted to Islam by this time

                                Yang Ti -                                (China)                                                   Sui          "The Shady" (murdered)

                                T'ai Tsu (Li Yuan) +             (Tang China)                                         (-625)      1st Tang Emperor

                                Deusdedit (Adeodatus) -    (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (615-)

619                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Boniface V +                         (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-625)

620                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Vikings begin invading Ireland

621                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Recared II -                            (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (612-)

                                Swintilla +                              (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (-631)

622                          Treatise on the Arts                                            Isidore of Seville

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                The Hegira - Muhammed flees from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina) - Beginning of the Islamic Era (7/16)

                                1 Muharram - Mohammedan Era Begins (7/16)

                                Maximus the Confessor                                                      580-622

623                          Shaka Triad (Asuka Period - Japan) (Tori)   斑鳩寺

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Clotaire II sends his son Dagobert I to be king of Austrasia

                                Ingiald Illrada -                     (Sweden)                                               (565-)      Yngling

                                Olaf Traetelia +                     (Sweden)                                               (-630)      Yngling

                                Dagobert I +                          (Austrasia)                                            (-639)

624                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Battle of Badr - Muslims defeat the Meccans (3/17)  17 ramadan (2 ah)

                                Muhammed marries Aisha

                                Buddhism becomes established religion of Japan

625                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Muhammad begins dictating the Koran

                                Persian attack on Constantinople fails

                                Adaloald -                             (Lombard Kingdom)                            (615-)

                                Arioald +                               (Lombard Kingdom)                            (-636)

                                T'ai Tsu (Li Yuan) -              (Tang China)                                         (618-)      1st Tang Emperor

                                Boniface V -                          (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (619-)

                                Honorius I +                          (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-638)

                                Hasan                                                                                     625-669                   5th Caliph (s. Ali)

626                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                The Avars are destroyed outside Constantinople

                                Serbs and Croats settle in the Balkans

                                Heraclius I of Byzantine Empire expels Persians from Egypt

                                Husein                                                                                   626-680                   Moslem Saint (s. Ali)

627                          ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS -   (92B-627)

                                Second Battle of Nineveh - Heraclius decisively defeats Persians - ends Roman-Persian Wars (12/12)

                                ---------------------------------------------------------------

                                Persians forced to withdraw from the Byzantine empire

                                Period of military conquest and patronage of arts and letters in Tang China

                                Tai Tsung the Great +        (Tang China)                                         (-649)      2nd Tang Emperor (Li Shih Min)

628                          Brahmasphuta Siddhanta (Brahmagupta)

                                Principality of Samo in Moravia (-658)

                                Clotaire II -                            (Nuestria)                                              (584-)     

                                Dagobert I +                          (Austrasia)(Aquitaine)(Neustria)      (-639)

                                Pepin of Landen +                (France)                                                 (-639)      (Mayor of Palace)

                                Khosrau II Parvez -              (Sassanian Empire)                              (591-)      second reign

                                Kavadh II Shiruya +-           (Sassanian Empire)                              *****    Siroes

                                Ardashir III +                        (Sassanian Empire)                              (-630)

629                          Hsuan-tsang begins pilgrimage to scholarly centers in India (-645)

                                Khosro II (Parviz) -              (Sassanian Empire)                              assassinated

                                Clotaire II                                                                                     -629                   King of the Franks

630                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR +   (630-717)

                                Muhammad captures Mecca and sets out the principles of Islam - Mecca becomes spiritual center of Islam

                                Chinese defeat Eastern Turks

                                Ardashir III -                         (Sassanian Empire)                              (628-)

                                Shahrvaras +-                       (Sassanian Empire)                              *****

                                Borandukht +                        (Sassanian Empire)                              (-631)

                                Olaf Traetelia -                      (Sweden)                                               (623-)      Yngling  (exiled)

                                Ivar Vidfadme +                    (Denmark)(Sweden)                             (588-)(-647)            Skioldung

631                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Swintilla -                               (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (621-)

                                Sisenando +                          (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (-640)

                                Borandukht -                         (Sassanian Empire)                              (630-)

                                Ormizd V +                             (Sassanian Empire)                              (-632)

632                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                RIDDA WARS +   (632-633)

                                Muhammad dies - small group of senior Companions nominate Abu Bakr to succeed  (6/8)

                                Kubrat defeats the Avars and creats the confederation of Old Great Bulgaria

                                Abu Bakr +                            (1st Caliph)                                            (-634)      Muhammad's father-in-law

                                Ormizd V -                              (Sassanian Empire)                              (631-)

                                Yazdegerd III +                     (Sassanian Empire)                              (-651)

                                Fatima                                                                                    606-632                   Daughter of Mohammed

                                Muhammed                                                                           570-632                   Prophet

633                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                RIDDA WARS -   (632-633)

                                Mercians under Penda defeat Northumbrians

                                Council of Toledo

                                Arabs conquer Syria and Iraq (-637)

                                Penda +                                  (Mercia Kingdom)                                (633-655)                King

634                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Beginning of Islamic Holy War against Persians

                                Muslim Arabs conquer Syria, Iraq, the southern provinces of Persia and the Byzantine empire

                                Abu Bakr appoints Umar to succees him

                                Abu Bakr dies

                                Abu Bakr -                             (1st Caliph)                                            (632-)

                                Omar +                                   (2nd Caliph)                                          (-644)

                                Cuthbert                                                                                634-687             Monk/Bishop/Hermit  Northumbria

635                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Muslims begin conquest of Syria (-641) and Persia (-642)

                                Arabs enter Damscus

636                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Battle of Yarmuk - first defeat of Byzantium - Heraclius abandons Syria to Arabs

                                Yazdegerd III Sassanian king yields Ctesiphon to Arabs

                                Arioald -                                (Lombard Kingdom)                            (625-)

                                Rotharis +                              (Lombard Kingdom)                            (-652)

637                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Battle of Qadisiya - Arabs conquer whole of Iraq

                                Arabs take Ctesiphon

638                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Muslims capture Jerusalem (637)

                                Honorius I -                           (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (625-)

639                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Dagobert I's premature death leads to a series of underage kings (les Rois Faineants)- Mayor's power increases

                                Muslim conquest of Egypt under Amr ibn al-Ass (-642)

                                Dagobert I -                           (France)                                                 (628-)

                                Pepin of Landen -                 (France)                                                 (628-)      (Mayor of Palace)

                                Sigebert II +                          (France)                                                 (-656)

                                Clovis II +                              (France)                                                 (-657)

                                Dagobert I                                                                             612-639                   King of the Franks

640                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Arabs conquer Persia (-643)

                                Cynegils of Wessex is baptized by Birinus - "first certain event in Wessex history"

                                Sisenando +                          (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (631-)

                                Tulga +                                  (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (-642)

                                Olaf Traetelia -                      (Norway)

                                Halfdan Huitben +               (Norway)

                                Severinus +-                          (Patriarchate of Rome)                         *****

                                John IV +                               (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-642)

641                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Battle of Nihawand - Arabs versus Persians

                                Sassanians defeated at Nineveh?

                                Arabs conquer Byzantine Egypt

                                Christian Gospels have been translated into ten languages

                                Christian missionaries are working in China

                                Heraclius -                             (Byzantine Empire)                               (610-)

                                Constantine III +-                 (Byzantine Empire)                               *****

                                Heracleon +-                         (Byzantine Empire)                               *****

                                Constans II +                        (Byzantine Empire)                               (-668)

642                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Battle of Maserfield - Penda king of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald king of Bernicia (8/5)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                All of Egypt under Arab domination

                                Oswy +                                  (Bernicia)                                               (642-670)

                                Tulga -                                   (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (640-)

                                Chindaswind +                     (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (-653)

                                John IV -                                (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (640-)

                                Theodore I +                         (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-649)      (11/24)

643                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Battle of Isfahan - Arabs under Umar finally break Persian power

                                Gupta king Harsha convenes Buddhist convocation at Kanauj attended by 20 kings and thousands of pilgrims

                                Cynegils -                              (Wessex)                                               (611-)      King

644                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Umar murdered by a foreign slave - Uthman succeeds him

                                Omar (Umar) -                       (Islamic Caliphate)                               (634-)      2nd Caliph (murdered)

                                Othman (Uthman) +             (3rd Caliph)                                           (-656)      Omayyad

645                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Byzantine forces recapture Alexandria whose people rise against the Arabs

                                The Taikwa Edict of Japan - nationalizes land and reorganizes the government

                                Period of imitation of Chinese way of life in Japan

646                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Arabs recapture Alexandria                                               (645)

647                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Ivar Vidfadme -                     (Denmark)(Sweden)                             (588-)(630-)            Skioldung

                                Harold Hildetand +              (Denmark)(Sweden)                             (-735)      Skioldung

                                Harsha of Kanauj -               (Gupta Empire)                                      (606-)      northern India

648                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Pope Theodore excommunicates Paul II, Patriarch of Constantinople

649                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Lateran Synod

                                Arabs conquer Cyprus

                                Tai Tsung the Great -         (Tang China)                                         (627-)      2nd Tang Emperor (Li Shih Min)

                                Theodore I -                          (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (642-)

                                Martin I +                              (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-655)

650                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Rise of monasteries (-700)

                                Beginning of Babylonian Gaonate

                                Arab conquests in Asia and North Africa

                                Official version of the Koran established in the reign of Uthman

651                          Forty-eight Buddhist Images - The Bodhisattva Canon (Japan)

                                FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Yazdegerd III - last of the Sassanian kings - dies as a fugitive

                                Yazdegerd III -                      (Sassanian Empire)                              (632-)

652                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Rotharis -                               (Lombard Kingdom)                            (636-)

                                Aribert I +                              (Lombard Kingdom)                            (-661)

653                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Chindaswind -                      (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (642-)

                                Recceswinth +                      (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (-672)

654                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Recceswinth imposes a common law on all his subjects

                                Eugene I +                             (Patriarchate of Rome)

655                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Battle of the Masts - Arabs defeat Byzantines off coast of Alexandria - First major Arab naval victory

                                Oswy, king of Northumbria defeats and kille Penda of Mercia

                                Penda -                                   (Mercia Kingdom)                                (633-655)                King

                                Martin I -                               (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (649-)

656                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Grimoald (Pepin of Landen's son) attempts to usurp the Frankish crown - he and his son perish as a result

                                Othman murdered in Medina by mob of malcontents - Ali succeeds him - first civil war in Islam

                                Chinese defeat Western Turks

                                Sigebert II -                           (France)                                 (639-)

                                Othman -                                (3rd Caliph)                                           (644-)      Omayyad               murdered

                                Ali +                                       (4th Caliph)(1st Shiite Imam)              (-661)      (s.i.l. & c. of Mohammed)  

657                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Battle of Siffin - arbitration between Ali and Mu'awiya; the Kharijites

                                Clovis II -                               (France)                                                 (639-)

                                Jayavarman I +                     (Khmer)                                                  (-681)

                                Eugene I -                              (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (654-657)

                                Vitalian +                               (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (657-672)

658                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Muawiya, governor of Syria,  spreads his power to Egypt

                                Clotaire III +                          (France)                                                 (-670)

                                Willibrord                                                                              658-739   Anglo-Saxon Missionary / "Apostle of Frisia"

659                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

660                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Childeric II +                         (France)                                                 (-673)

                                Brahmagupta                                                                        598-660  

661                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Ali murdered at Kufa by Kharijites - beginning of Shiite - Sunni split

                                Hasan succeeds his father Ali but abdicates in favor of Muawiya

                                Omayyad Dynasty in Islam founded by Muawiya with Damascus as the capital (-750)

                                Aribert I -                               (Lombard Kingdom)                            (652-)

                                Ali -                                        (4th Caliph)(1st Shiite Imam)              (656-)      (s.i.l. & c. of Mohammed)  

                                Hasan +-                                (5th Caliph)(2nd Shiite Imam)             *****    abdicated

                                Muawiya +                            (Omayyid Caliphate)                            (-680)      1st Umayyad Caliph           

                                Ali                                                                                           600-661                   Fourth Caliph (1st Shiite Imam)

662                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Grimoald +                             (Lombard Kingdom)                            (-671)

663                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Japanese finally withdraw from Korea

664                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Synod of Whitby - Oswy abandons the Celtic Christan Church and accepts faith of Rome

                                Decline of the Celtic Church

665                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

666                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

667                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

668                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Pope Vitalian consecrates Greek monk Theodore of Tarsus as Archbishop of Cantebury

                                Korea reunites under the kingdom of Silla - Silla Period (-935)

                                Constans II -                         (Byzantine Empire)                               (641-)

                                Constantine IV +                  (Byzantine Empire)                               (-685)      (Pogonatus)

                                Theodore of Tarsus +         (Archbishopric of Cantebury)          

669                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Theodore of Tarsus sent to England as Archbishop of Cantebury to reorganize the Church in England

                                Hasan                                                                                     625-669                   5th Caliph

670                          Building of the Great Mosque of Qayrawan in Tunisia

                                FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Hashemite sect (future Abbasid)  expelled from Iraq

                                England Oswy -                     (Bernicia)                                                (642-670)

                                Clotaire III -                           (France)                                                 (658-)

                                Thierry III +                           (France)                                                 (-691)

671                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                I-tsing (pilgrim) visits Srivijaya

                                Grimoald -                              (Lombard Kingdom)                            (661-)

                                Garibald +                              (Lombard Kingdom)                            (-674)

672                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Recceswinth -                       (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (653-)

                                Wamba +                               (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (-680)

                                Vitalian -                               (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (657-)

                                Adeodatus II +                     (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-676)

673                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Arabs besiege Constantinople without success (-678)

                                Childeric II -                          (France)                                                 (660-)

                                Dagobert II +                          (France)                                                 (-679)

                                Bede                                                                                       673-735                   Monk/Historian (Jarrow Monastery)

674                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Arab conquest reaches Indus

                                Garibald -                               (Lombard Kingdom)                            (671-)

                                Bertharit +                             (Lombard Kingdom)                            (-688)

675                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Bulgars begin settling south of the the Danube

                                John of Damascus                                                               675-749                   Syrian Doctor & Father of the Church

676                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Adeodatus II -                      (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (672-)

                                Donus +                                 (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-678)

677                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Muslims withdraw from Constantinople

678                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Ebroin - mayor in Neustria - unites the mayoralties under one house

                                Ebroin +                                 (Mayor of the Franks)                         (-681)

                                Donus -                                  (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (676-)

                                Agatho +                               (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-681)

                                Ayesha                                                                                       -678                    Wife of Mohammed (d. of Abu Bakr)

679                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                Bulgars cross the Danube

                                Constanstine IVs army defeated by Bulgars; cedes territory s. of Danube

                                First Bulgarian Kingdom (680-1018)

                                Dagobert II -                         (France)                                                 (673-)     

680                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS +   (680-1355)

                                Battle of Karbala - massacre of Husayn and Alids (Ashoura - Shiite High Holiday) (10/10) (10 Muharram 61)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Arab civil war

                                Death of Mu'awiya - his son Yazid succeeds him

                                Third Council of Constantinople - monotheletism condemned

                                Wamba -                                (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (672-)

                                Euric +                                    (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (-687)

                                Pepin II of Herstal +             (France)                                                 (-714)      (Mayor of the Palace)         

                                Muawiya -                             (Omayyid Caliphate)                            (661-)      1st Umayyad Caliph (s. Abu Sufyan)

                                Yazid I +                                (Omayyid Caliphate)                            (-683)      2nd Umayyad Caliph (s.Mu'awiya)

                                Husein                                                                                   626-680                   Moslem Saint (s. Ali)

                                Muawiya                                                                                     -680                   First Omayyad Caliph (Mecca)

681                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

                                Ebroin - mayor of the Franks - is murdered

                                First Bulgarian Empire founded (-1018)

                                Ebroin +                                 (Mayor of the Franks)                         (-681)

                                Jayavarman I -                      (Khmer) 

                                Agatho -                                (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (678-)

                                Leo II +                                  (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-683)

682                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

683                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

                                Yazid I -                                  (Omayyid Caliphate)                            (680-)      2nd Umayyad Caliph (s.Mu'awiya)

                                Muawiya II +                        (Omayyid Caliphate)                            (-684)      3rd Umayyad Caliph

                                Leo II -                                   (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (681-)

684                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

                                Muawiya II -                         (Omayyid Caliphate)                            (683-)      3rd Umayyad Caliph

                                Marwan I +                            (Omayyid Caliphate)                            (-685)      4th Umayyad Caliph  ibn al-Hakam

                                Benedict II +                         (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-685)                     

685                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

                                Abdalmalik sets up new administration in the Arab empire

                                Shi'ite revolt in Iraq - beginning of Shi'ite extremism (-687)

                                Constantine IV  -                  (Byzantine Empire)                               (668-)      (Pogonatus)

                                Justinian II +                         (Byzantine Empire)                               (-695)      (Rhinometus)

                                Marwan I -                             (Omayyid Caliphate)                            (684-)      4th Umayyad Caliph  ibn al-Hakam

                                'Abd al-Malik +                     (Omayyid Caliphate)                            (-705)      5th Umayyad Caliph 

                                Benedict II -                          (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (684-)

                                John V +                                (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-686)

686                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

                                John V -                                 (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (685-)

                                Conon +                                 (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-687)

687                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

                                Battle of Tertry - Pepin II Heristal defeats Neustrian king and unites Frankish Kingdom (Austrasia / Neustria)

                                Euric -                                     (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (680-)

                                Ergica +                                  (Visigoth Kingdom)                             (-702)

                                Conon -                                  (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (686-)

                                Theodore (antipope) +-                                                                       *****

                                Paschal (antipope) +-                                                                          *****

                                Sergius I +                             (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-701)

                                Cuthbert                                                                                634-687             Monk/Bishop/Hermit  Northumbria     3/20

688                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

                                Bertharit -                              (Lombard Kingdom)                            (674-)

                                Cunibert +                             (Lombard Kingdom)                            (-700)

                                Charles Martel                                                                      688-741                   Carolingian King

690                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

                                Empress Wu +                      (China)                                                   (-705)

691                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

                                Dome of the Rock construction in Jerusalem by Abd al-Malik

                                Thierry III -                            (France)                                                 (670-)

                                Clovis III +                            (France)                                                 (-695)

692                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

                                Ummayads capture Mecca

693                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

694                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

695                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

                                Justinian II  -                         (Byzantine Empire)                               (685-)      (Rhinometus)

                                Leontius +                             (Byzantine Empire)                               (-698)                                     

                                Clovis III -                             (France)                                                 (691-)

                                Childebert III +                     (France)                                                 (-711)

696                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

                                Arab coinage is introduced by Abd al-Malik

                                Arabic becomes the official administrative language in the empire

697                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

                                Arabs destroy Carthage (687)

698                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

                                Leontius -                              (Byzantine Empire)                               (695-)

                                Tiberius III +                         (Byzantine Empire)                               (-705)      Apsimar

699                          FIRST BYZANTINE-ARAB WAR ...   (630-717)

                                BYZANTINE-BULGARIAN WARS ...   (680-1355)

 



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