2000s BCE
Khasekhemwy, 5th and last pharaoh of 2nd Dynasty, Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo
Khasekhemwy, 5th and last pharaoh of 2nd Dynasty, Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo

Khasekhemwy, 5th and last pharaoh of 2nd Dynasty, Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford, UK,  Hierakonpolis, temple enclosure
Khasekhemwy, 5th and last pharaoh of 2nd Dynasty, Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford, UK, Hierakonpolis, temple enclosure

Djoser,  1st Pharaoh 3rd Dynasty, reigned ca. 2667-2648,      Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo    (Photo: Jon Bodsworth, 2007)
Djoser, 1st Pharaoh 3rd Dynasty, reigned ca. 2667-2648, Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo (Photo: Jon Bodsworth, 2007)

A Seated Scribe, possibly 4th Dynasty, 2620-2500 B.C.E.,    Musée du Louvre, Paris      (Photo: soloegipto)
A Seated Scribe, possibly 4th Dynasty, 2620-2500 B.C.E., Musée du Louvre, Paris (Photo: soloegipto)

Sneferu, 1st Pharaoh of 4th Dynasty, reigned ca. 2613-2589 B.C.E.,   Location TBD     (Photo: Snofru, 2002)
Sneferu, 1st Pharaoh of 4th Dynasty, reigned ca. 2613-2589 B.C.E., Location TBD (Photo: Snofru, 2002)

Khufu, 2nd Pharoah of the 4th Dynasty,  reigned ca. 2589-2566 BCE,  Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo
Khufu, 2nd Pharoah of the 4th Dynasty, reigned ca. 2589-2566 BCE, Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo

Djedefre, 3rd Pharaoh of 4th Dynasty, Old Kingdom,  ca. 2520-2500              Musée du Louvre, Paris    (Photo: Sebi, 2007
Djedefre, 3rd Pharaoh of 4th Dynasty, Old Kingdom, ca. 2520-2500 Musée du Louvre, Paris (Photo: Sebi, 2007

 Khafra, 4th Pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty, Old Kingdom, reigned ca. 2500-2475,     Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo   (Photo: Jon Bodsworth)
Khafra, 4th Pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty, Old Kingdom, reigned ca. 2500-2475, Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo (Photo: Jon Bodsworth)

 Khafra, 4th Pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty, Old Kingdom, reigned ca. 2500-2475,     Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo   (Photo: Jon Bodsworth)
Khafra, 4th Pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty, Old Kingdom, reigned ca. 2500-2475, Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo (Photo: Jon Bodsworth)

Menkaura, 5th or 6th Pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty, reigned ca. ca. 2475-2450, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA   (Photo:Keith Schengili-Roberts)
Menkaura, 5th or 6th Pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty, reigned ca. ca. 2475-2450, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA (Photo:Keith Schengili-Roberts)

Demedji  and Hennutsen , from the early 5th Dynasty ,   The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, 51.37  (Photo: Museum Website)
Demedji and Hennutsen , from the early 5th Dynasty , The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, 51.37 (Photo: Museum Website)

Sargon of Akkad, reigned ca. 2334-2215, Middle to Short Chronology,  Baghdad Museum
Sargon of Akkad, reigned ca. 2334-2215, Middle to Short Chronology, Baghdad Museum

Pepi I Meryre, 3rd Pharaoh of the 6th Dynasty,   ca. 2332-2283,  Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo
Pepi I Meryre, 3rd Pharaoh of the 6th Dynasty, ca. 2332-2283, Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo

A Ruler, possibly Akkadian, ca. 2300-2000 BCE,   The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY  47.100.80   (Photo: Met Database)
A Ruler, possibly Akkadian, ca. 2300-2000 BCE, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY 47.100.80 (Photo: Met Database)

Ankhnesmeryre II and Son Pepi II, 6th Dynasty ca. 2284-2184, Location TBD   (Photo: Keith Schengili-Roberts)
Ankhnesmeryre II and Son Pepi II, 6th Dynasty ca. 2284-2184, Location TBD (Photo: Keith Schengili-Roberts)

 Ur-Nammu, founder of 3rd Dynasty of Ur, reigned ca. 2112-1195 (Middle Chronology),   detail from Stela of Ur-Nammu   Location TBD
Ur-Nammu, founder of 3rd Dynasty of Ur, reigned ca. 2112-1195 (Middle Chronology), detail from Stela of Ur-Nammu Location TBD

Ur-Nammu, founder of 3rd Dynasty of Ur, reigned ca. 2112-1195 (Middle Chronology),     The British Museum, London,  ME 113896
Ur-Nammu, founder of 3rd Dynasty of Ur, reigned ca. 2112-1195 (Middle Chronology), The British Museum, London, ME 113896

 Ur-Ningirsu, 2nd Dynasty of Lagash, son of Gudea, ca. 2110 B.C.E.,    Musée du Louvre, Paris,    AO 9504      (Photo: Louvre Atlas Database)
Ur-Ningirsu, 2nd Dynasty of Lagash, son of Gudea, ca. 2110 B.C.E., Musée du Louvre, Paris, AO 9504 (Photo: Louvre Atlas Database)

Mentuhotep II, 11th Dynasty, 1st Intermediate,  reigned ca. 2046-2010 B.C.E.,  Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo (Photo: Jon Bodswworth, 2007)
Mentuhotep II, 11th Dynasty, 1st Intermediate, reigned ca. 2046-2010 B.C.E., Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo (Photo: Jon Bodswworth, 2007)

Mentuhotep III  11th Dynasty, 1st Intermediate,  reigned ca. 2010-1998 B.C.E.,     Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA
Mentuhotep III 11th Dynasty, 1st Intermediate, reigned ca. 2010-1998 B.C.E., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA

Mentuhotep III  11th Dynasty, 1st Intermediate,  reigned ca. 2010-1998 B.C.E.,     Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA
Mentuhotep III 11th Dynasty, 1st Intermediate, reigned ca. 2010-1998 B.C.E., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA