HOME                                                      Paleogene Period  (65.53MA-23.03MA)           Neogene Period (2.03MA-3MA)        Pleistocene Epoch                      History Timeline Index

23.03 MA               NEOGENE PERIOD                                 (23.03-2.588 MA)

                                MIOCENE EPOCH23.03 (18 M)                       (23.03-5.332 MA)

                                Evolution of grasses

                                "Modern" type mammals and birds appear

                                Catarrhini Split - Superfamily Cercopithecoidea diverges from Superfamily Hominoidea

                                AQUITANIAN23.03  STAGE  (2.6 M)                                 (23.03-20.43 MA)

20.43 MA           BURDIGALIAN20.43  STAGE  (4.46 M)                            (20.43-15.97 MA)

19 MA                    Africa collides with Eurasia in Turkish/Arabian region (-12 ma)

18 MA                    Megalodon, largest carnivorous fish ever,  appears around this time (-1.5 MA)

                                Hylobatidae (gibbons) separate from Hominidae (great apes and humans)

17 MA                    Early anscestors of hominids migrate from Eurasia to Africa

15.97 MA               LANGHIAN15.97  STAGE  (2.15 M)                                  (15.97-13.82 MA)

13.82 MA           SERRAVALLIAN13.82  STAGE  (2.21 M)                        (13.82-11.608 MA)

12 MA                    Dryopithecus +                    12-9 MA                spread out over eastern Africa and Eurasia

11.608 MA             TORTONIAN11.608  STAGE  (4.36 M)                              (11.608-7.246 MA

9 MA                      Dryopithecus -

7.246 MA               MESSINIAN7.246  STAGE  (1.914 M)                               (7.246-5.332 MA)

5.59 MA                 Messinian Salinity Crisis begins - Strait of Gibraltar closes and Mediterranean dries up partly or completely  (-5.33 MA)

5.332 MA               PLIOCENE EPOCH (2.74 M)                            (5.332-2.588 MA)

                                Increasing mountain glaciation

                                Flowering plants abundant

                                Mammals abundant

                                ZANCLEAN5.332  STAGE  (1.732 M)                               (5.332-3.6 MA)

5.33                         Messinian Salinity Crisis  ends

4.6 Ma                     Hipparion zandaense - three-toed horse from Tibetan Plateau

4.4 MA                    Ardipithicus ramidus

4 MA                      Australopithecines - earliest known hominids  (-1.7 MA)

3.7 MA                   Laetoli Footprints (Tanzania)- hominid leave footprints - very similar to modern humans  (Australopithecines?)

3.6 MA                   PIACENZIAN3.6  STAGE (1.01 M)                                    (3.6-.588 MA)

3.4 MA                   "Lucy" Skeleton - Australopithecus afarensis

                                 Burtele foot - homonid with opposable big toe also in Eastern Africa with A. afarensis

3 MA                      GREAT AMERICAN INTERCHANGE - newly risen Isthmus of Panama allows migration of all types of animals

HOME                                                      Paleogene Period  (65.53MA-23.03MA)           Neogene Period (2.03MA-3MA)        Pleistocene Epoch                      History Timeline Index