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2.9 MA                   GREAT AMERICAN INTERCHANGE - newly risen Isthmus of Panama allows migration of all types of animals

2.8

2.7

2.6                           OLDOWAN TOOL INDUSTRY + oldest stone tool industry (2.6-1.7 Ma)

2.588                       QUATERNARY PERIOD (2 M)          (2.58 MA-p)

                                PLEISTOCENE EPOCH (1.99 M)                    (2.58 MA -12000 A)

                                GELASIAN2.588  STAGE  (.78 M)                                     (2.588-1.806 MA)

                                Lower Pleistocene - Villafranchian (-600000)

                                "Great Ice Age" (- aka Quaternary Glaciation) - continues to today - although it is year 12000 of an interglacial

                                Growth of major deserts

                                Australopithecines - ultimately there are two branches of this group living along side Homo - only the latter survives

2.5 MA                   Sabretooth cats "arrive"

2.4

2.3

2.2 MA                   Homo habilis appears - perhaps the oldest Homo that we know of - descended from Australopithecines (-1.6 MA

2.1

2 MA                      Phorusrhacidae family (aka Terror Birds) appear (-2 MA)

1.9 MA                   Homo ergaster appears - use of complex tools (e.g. hand axes and cleavers)

1.806 MA               CALABRIAN1.806 STAGE (1.025 M)                               (1.806-.781 MA)       

1.8 MA                   Homo erectus (aka Pithecanthropus erectus)    (1.8-1.3 Ma)

1.75 MA                 Definite stone tools - Paleolithic starts here instead of 500,000?

1.65 MA                 ACHEULEAN INDUSTRY (-100,000)       (possibly 1.8 MA)

                        Earliest accepted example of Acheulean industry from West Turkana, Kenya

1.6 MA                   KNM-WT 15000 ("Turkana Boy") - Homo ergaster skeleton from Lake Turkana, Kenya

                                Homo Habilis extinction event

1.5 MA                   KNM ER 992 - lower jaw of Homo ergaster - type specimen for species   (Koobi Fora, Kenya)

1.4 MA                   Homo ergaster extinction event       

1.3

1.2

1.1

1 MA                      Acheulean stone tool industry reaches Europe

                                1st unambiguous homonid use of fire  (as evidenced in Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa)

900000

850000

800000

781000                    IONIAN.781  STAGE  (.655 M)                                            (.781-.126  MA)        

750000

700000

650000

600000                    Early Middle Pleistocene

                                Gunz and Mindel Glaciations

                                First Interglacial

550000

500000                    Kaguerian-Kamasian Interpluvial Levels

                                Neanderthal and human lineages diverge

                                Stone-tipped spears used by Homo hiedelbergensis hunters - Earliest estimate

450000

400000

350000

300000                    Mousterian Culture +   (-30,000)  BP

275000                    Late Middle Pleistocene

                                Second Interglacial

                                Riss Glaciation

250000                    Rise of Homo species         

200000                    Homo sapiens sapiens emerge in Africa savannah

150000                     Mitochondrial Eve

126000                    UPPER PLEISTOCENE.126  STAGE  (.1143 M)            (.126-.0117 MA)

120000

95000                      Late Pleistocene

                                Third Interglacial

                                Wurm Glaciation

                                Homo sapiens definitely evolved - burial of dead

75000                      Mount Toba erupts in - largest eruption in last 25 million years

74000

60000                      Homo sapiens sapiens (the surviving y adam ancestors) first journey out of Africa around this time - through Sinai or Gulf of Aden

50000                      Barrington Crater Impact Event in Arizona - 50m meteeorite crashes at at least 28,000 mph

                                Homo sapiens reach Australia (50000-45000)

45000                      Arignacian  Culture + Upper Limit

40000                      UPPER PALEOLITHIC

                                Last Ice Age (-9000)

                                Glaciation connects Japan to the Asian mainland

                                Homo sapiens sapiens reach Eurasia and Oceana- modern man appears

                                Cro-Magnon Man moves westward to Europe

                                Venus of Hohle Fels  figurine made   in Germany   (-35000 BP)

32000                      Aurignacian Culture -   declines in Europe and Southwest Asia (34000 BP)

                                Gravettian  Culture +   supercedes Aurignacian

30000                      Neanderthal Man becomes extinct

29000

28000                      Man crosses landbridge between Asia and North America

27000

26000

25000

24000

23000

22000

21000                      Decline of Aurignacian Culture in Europe and Southwest Asia (23000 BP)

20000                      Cave Painting (Lascaux, altimira, et al) (-12000)

19000

18000                      Maximum extent of last glaciation

                                Magdalenian Culture + in Western Europe (18000-10000BP)

17000

16000

15000

14500                      Homo sapiens sapiens inhabit Americas

14400

13000

12000BP/10000BCE

 

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